This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
The fruit of Pimpinella Anisum Linne (nat. ord. Umbelli-ferce).
Western Asia, Egypt, Southeastern Europe; cultivated.
About 4 or 5 mm. long, ovate, compressed at the sides, grayish, finely hairy, and consisting of two mericarps, each with a flat face, and five light, brownish, filiform ridges, and about 15 thin oil tubes, which can be seen in a transverse section by the microscope. It has an agreeable aromatic odor, and a sweet, spicy taste. - Resembling Anise. - Conium, which has single mericarps, smooth, grooved upon the face, and having crenate ridges with wrinkles between them, and no oil-tubes.
The chief constituent is the official volatile oil (see below).
Anise is contained in Tinctura Rhei Dulcis.
Dose, 10 to 30 gr.; .60 to 2.00 gm.
Illicium. - Synonym. - Star Anise. The fruit of Illicium verum Hooker filius (nat. ord. Magnoliaceae).
The fruit is pedunculate and consists of eight stellately arranged carpels, which are boat-shaped, about 10 mm. long, rather woody, wrinkled, straight-beaked, brown, dehiscent on the upper suture, internally reddish-brown, glossy, and containing a single, flattish, oval, glossy, brownish-yellow seed; odor anise-like; taste of the carpels sweet and aromatic, and of the seeds oily. Resembling Star Anise. - Illicium anisatum Linne (Illicium religiosum Siebold), the carpels of which are more woody, shrivelled, and have a thin, mostly curved beak, a faint, clove-like odor, and an unpleasant taste.
The chief constituent is the volatile oil.
Oleum Anisi may be distilled from this as well as from Pimpinella Anisum.
Dose, 5 to 30 gr.; .30 to 2.00 gm.
A volatile oil distilled from Anise.
A colorless or pale yellow, thin, and strongly refractive liquid, having the characteristic odor of Anise, and a sweetish, mildly aromatic taste. That from the Pimpinella Anisum solidifies at 590 F. 150 C. ; that from Illicium verum (Star-anise) at about 500 F. 100 C.. Sp. gr., about 0.980 to 0.990.
In an equal volume of Alcohol.
The chief constituents are - (1) A Terpene, C10H16, in small quantity. (2) A Stearopten, anethol, C10H12O, 80 per cent.
Dose, 1 to 5 m.; .06 to .30 c.c.
Dose, 1/4 to 1 fl. oz.; 8. to 30. c.c.
2. Spiritus Anisi. - Spirit of Anise. Oil of Anise, 100; Alcohol, 900.
Dose, 1 to 2 fl. dr.; 4. to 8. c.c.
The action of oil of anise is the same as that of aromatic oils generally. It is specially used to get rid of flatulence in children, and, on account of its slightly expectorant action, as a basis of cough mixtures.