This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
1. Soda. - NaOH=39.86. Synonyms. - Caustic Soda. Sodium Hydrate. Sodium Hydroxide.
Dissolve Sodium Carbonate in boiling distilled water. Slake Lime and dissolve in distilled water, adding this in small portions at a time to the solution of Sodium Carbonate, boil, strain when cold, set aside until clear and remove the clear solution. Evaporate this solution to an oily consistence and pour into moulds. Na2C03+Ca(OH)2=2NaOH-(-CaCOj.
Dry, white, translucent pencils, or fused masses, showing a crystalline fracture, odorless, and having an acrid and caustic taste.
Lime, sulphates, chlorides and carbonates.
Solution of Soda. Synonym. - Solution of Sodium Hydrate.
An aqueous solution of Sodium Carbonate is boiled with slaked Lime. The supernatant liquid is then siphoned off. Na2Co3+ Ca(OH )2=2NaOH-f CaCo3. Or it may be prepared by dissolving Soda, 56; in distilled water, 944. The Soda must be of the full strength, as directed by the U. S. P. (90 per cent.).
A clear, colorless liquid, odorless, having a very acrid and caustic taste, and a strong alkaline reaction. Sp. gr., 1.059. Strength, about 5 per cent. of the Hydrate.
As of Soda.
The same as of Potassa. (See p. 122.)
Dose, 5 to 20 m.; .30 to 1.20 c.c., freely diluted.
It is in all respects, save one, similar in its action to potash. The difference is, that sodium salts are all much less depressant to the cardiac, muscular, and nervous systems, and therefore far less poisonous than potassium salts.
It is very little used. Potash is almost always preferred.
Poisoning by caustic alkalies is very rare; usually it takes place either by Potash, Soda, Pearlash (Potassium Carbonate), or soap lees (Sodium Carbonate). (Both the last are impure. They contain caustic Soda or Potash.)
A caustic taste is experienced, and is quickly followed by symptoms of gastro-intestinal irritation, viz., burning heat in the throat, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain, together with those of depression, viz., a feeble, quick pulse, and a cold clammy skin. Soon the lips, tongue, and throat become swollen, soft and red. Post-mortem appearances. - The mucous membrane of the mouth, tongue, stomach and oesophagus, and occasionally that of the larynx, is excoriated, dark, softened and inflamed.
Wash out the stomach or give emetics, as Zinc Sulphate, 20 gr. 1.20 gm.; or powdered Ipecacuanha, 30 gr. 2.00 gm.; or Copper Sulphate, 5 gr. .30 gm., in half a pint 240. c.c. of tepid water; or Vinum Ipecacuanhae, fl.
30. c.c.; or mustard, a tablespoonful 16. gm. in half a pint 240. c.c. of tepid water; or common salt, 2 tablespoonfuls 30. gm. in half a pint 240. c.c. of tepid water; or 1/10 gr. .006 gm. of apomorphine hydrochlorate hypodermatically. If none of these are handy, give plenty of warm water and tickle the back of the throat. Then give feeble acids, as diluted Lemon juice, diluted solution of Citric Acid, Vinegar, or diluted Acetic Acid. Then demulcents, as oil, flaxseed tea, or water and white of egg.
2. Sodii Carbonas. - Sodium Carbonate, Na2Co3 +10H2O = 285.45. Synonyms. - Sal Soda. Washing Soda.
Made thus: - First stage, Sodium Chloride and Sulphuric Acid are heated together. 2NaCl + H2So4 = Na2So4 + 2Hc1. Second stage, the Sodium Sulphate is heated with Carbon. Na2So4 + 4C = Na2S + 4CO. Third stage, the Sodium Sulphide is heated with chalk. Na2S + CaCo3 = Na2Co3 + CaS.
It is also made from Cryolite, a mineral found in Greenland. Cryolite and chalk are heated to redness, producing Calcium Fluoride and Sodium Albuminate; the latter is soluble in water, and is decomposed by Carbon Dioxide, which precipitates Aluminum Hydroxide, retaining a little Sodium Carbonate, while the pure Sodium Carbonate remains in solution.
Colorless, monoclinic crystals, odorless, and having a strong alkaline taste. In dry air the salt effloresces, and if left exposed soon loses about one-half of its water of crystallization and becomes a white powder. Solubility. - In 1.6 parts of water; insoluble in Alcohol and in Ether.
Sulphates, chlorides and metals.
Sodium Carbonate is used to prepare Liquor Sodae Chloratae, Massa Ferri Carbonatis, and Suppositoria Glycerini.
Dose, 5 to 15 gr.; .30 to 1.00 gm.
Dried Sodium Carbonate.
200 parts of Sodium Carbonate are broken into small fragments, allowed to effloresce, then gently heated until it becomes a white powder, weighing 100 parts.
A loose, white powder, conforming to the tests and reactions given under Sodii Carbonas.
Dose, 5 to 15 gr.; .30 to 1.00 gm.
The same as those of soda, except that the carbonate is less caustic. A one per cent. solution of sodium carbonate is used for boiling surgical instruments in the process of sterilization in order to prevent their rusting.