This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
Synonyms. - Poison Nut. Dog Button. Quaker Button. The seed of Strychnos Nux-vomica Linne (nat. ord. Loganiaceae).
India and East Indian Islands.
About 25 mm. in diameter, orbicular, grayish or greenish-gray; soft hairy, of a silky lustre, with a slight ridge extending from the centre of one side to the edge; internally horny, somewhat translucent, very tough, with a large, circular cavity, into which the heart-shaped, nerved cotyledons project. It is inodorous and persistently bitter.
The chief constituents are - (1) Strychnine (see below), 0.9 to 1.9 per cent.; (2) Brucine, which is dimethyl oxylstrychnine, C23H26 N2O4, 0.9 to 1.5 per cent. in colorless prismatic crystals or pearly flakes. Very bitter, but less so than Strychnine. Brucine is found in Hoang-Nan.
Freely in Alcohol, and in 7 parts of Chloroform. It has the same action as Strychnine, but is considerably less powerful and slower in its effects. Strong Sulphuric or Nitric Acid gives a blood-red color. (3) Igasuric Acid, with which the Strychnine and Brucine are united. (4) Loganin, C25H34O14, in colorless prisms, an inert glucoside.
Dose, 1 to 4 gr.; .06 to .24 gm.
1. Extractum Nucis Vomicae. - Extract of Nux Vomica. By maceration with Acetic Acid, Alcohol and Water, percolation with Alcohol and Water, and distillation; treat with Ether, filter, evaporate and add Sugar of Milk.
Extract of Nux Vomica is used to make Tinctura Nucis Vomicae. Dose, 1/8 to 1 gr.; .008 to .06 gm.
2. Extractum Nucis Vomicae Fluidum. - Fluid Extract of Nux Vomica. By digestion with Acetic Acid, Alcohol and Water, and percolation with Alcohol and Water. Distil off the Alcohol and evaporate.
Dose, 1 to 4 m.; .06 to .25 c.c.
3. Tinctura Nucis Vomicae. - Tincture of Nux Vomica. Extract of Nux Vomica, 20; Alcohol and Water to 1000. By solution.
Dose, 5 to 20 m.; .30 to 1.20 c.c.