This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
Physostigma. - Synonyms. - Calabar bean. Ordeal bean. The seed of Physostigma venenosutn Balfour (nat. ord. Leguminosae).
Tropical Western Africa, near the mouth of the Niger and old Calabar.
About 25 to 30 mm. long, 15 to 20 mm. broad, and 10 to 15 mm. thick; oblong, and somewhat reniform; testa granular, chocolate-brown, with a broad, black groove extending over the entire length of the convex edge; embryo with a short, curved radicle, and two large, white, concavo-convex cotyledons; inodorous; taste, bean-like.
The chief constituents are: (1) Physostigmine or Eserine (see below); (2) Calabarine, a derivative of Physostigmine; (3) Eseridine; and (4) Physosterin a neutral principle closely related to cholesterine.
Dose, 1/2 to 2 gr.; .03 to .12 gm. of the powdered seeds.
Dose, 1/10 to 1/2 gr. .006 to .03 gm., internally, or rather less dissolved in 10 m.; .60 c.c. of water and given subcutaneously.
2. Tinctura Physostigmatis. - Tincture of Physostigma. Physostigma, 150. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol to 1000.
Dose, 10 to 30 m.; .60 to 2.00 c.c.
C15H21N3O2C7H6O3=412.17. Synonym. - Eserine Salicylate. The Salicylate of an Alkaloid obtained from Physostigma.
Colorless or faintly yellowish, shining, acicular, or short, columnar crystals, odorless, and having a bitter taste. It acquires a reddish tint when long exposed to light and air.
In 150 parts of water, and in 12 parts of Alcohol.
Dose, 1/100 to 1/30 gr.; .0006 to .002 gm.
C15H21 N3O2)2H2So4=646.82. Synonym. - Eserine Sulphate. The Sulphate of an Alkaloid obtained from Physostigma.
A white or yellowish-white, micro-crystalline powder; odorless, and having a bitter taste. It is very deliquescent when exposed tc moist air, and gradually turns reddish by exposure to air and light.
Very soluble in water and in Alcohol. Dose, 1/100 to 1/30 gr.; .0006 to .002 gm.