This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
(B. P., not official). - C6H4Coso2nh=168.65. Synonyms. - Glusidum, B. P. Benzoyl-sulphonic-imide. Glucusimide. Gluside.
It is derived from Toluene, C6H6Ch3, a derivative of coal tar, by a complicated process.
A light, white, crystalline powder. In solution it has an intensely sweet taste; I of Saccharin is equal to 300 of cane sugar. Solubility. - In 400 parts of cold water; in 24 parts of boiling water; in 500 parts of Chloroform; in 25 parts of Alcohol; in 48 parts of Glycerin. It unites with alkaline hydrates and carbonates, evolving from the latter Carbon dioxide, and yields soluble Saccharin, which has lost none of its sweetness, and is very soluble in water.
Commercial Saccharin is not a pure or uniform product; it often contains less than 50 per cent. of actual Saccharin.
Dose, 1/2 to 2 gr.; .03 to .12 gm.
Saccharin is an antiseptic, but it is not used as such, excepting in the surgery of the bladder. It is employed as a sweetening agent, when from any cause, as in diabetes mel-litus, sugar cannot be taken. It may be given in tablets, or with sodium carbonate to form soluble solutions. An elixir is prepared, containing saccharin, 2; sodium bicarbonate (90 per cent.), 1; alcohol, 5; and water, 35 parts. This is excellent for covering the taste of nauseous medicines. Usually 20 m. 1.20 c.c. are required for a four-ounce 125. c.c. mixture.