Common Juniper. Nat. Ord. Pinaceae. Linn, Syst. Dicecia Monadelphia. Hab. Northern Europe.

Med. Prop. and Action. The tops and berries are stimulant diuretica

* Obs. on various Arts, of Mat. Med. Bull. Gen. de Therap., May 1841. Archiv. Gen. de Med, Feb. 1844.

§ Ibid., April 1850. || Abs. of Med. Sciences, vol. xi. p. 210.

Active principle, a volatile oil, which is one of the most powerful diuretics in the Materia Medica. If long continued, Juniper communicates a violet odour to the urine, and produces great irritation of the urinary organs, strangury, bloody urine, &c. It was formerly deemed emmenagogue. It is extensively used in flavouring Hollands.

Offic. Prep. 1. Oleum Juniperi (the Oil distilled in England from the unripe fruit). Dose, eij. - eiij-

2. Spiritus Juniperi (English Oil Of Juniper Fl

oz. j.; Rectified Spirit fl. oz. ix.). Dose, exx. - fl. drm. iss. This Spirit contains about ninety-five times as much Oil of Juniper as the Spiritus Juniperi Compositus of the Lond. Pharm. The latter contains a small quantity of Oil of Caraway and Oil of Fennel.

Dose of the tops and berries of Juniper, gr. lx. - gr. cxx. They may be given in infusion (oz. j. ad Aq. Ferv. Oj.). Dose, fl. oz. iij. - fl. oz. iv. thrice daily.

It is contra-indicated - 1. in all inflammatory states of the system; 2, in irritated states of the kidneys and urinary organs; and 3, in congestion and active disease of the pelvic viscera.

1674. Therapeutic Uses

In Ascites, Anasarca, and Dropsical Affections generally, it is favourably spoken of by Van Swieten. It is chiefly used in leucophlegmatic subjects, -when the disease is unaccompanied by inflammation, or much irritation of the urinary organs. The Spirit or Oil are the best form in these cases. Percival advises its combination with Camphor.

1675. In Asthenic Fluxes, particularly in Leucorrha and Gleet, Juniper appears to exercise a beneficial influence.

1676. In Flatulence, Flatulent Colic, and Spasmodic Affections of the Bowels, the Oil or Spirit of Juniper is useful as a carminative.

1677. In Scabies, Rosenstein states that a strong decoction of Juniper is a speedy and effectual cure.