Vegetable or Liquid Tar. A Bituminous Liquid obtained from the wood of Pinus Sylvestris and other pines by destructive distillation. Source, Bussia and N. America. By distillation, it yields Pyroligneous Acid and Oil of Tar; the residuum is Pitch Numerous hydrocarbons and oxy-hydrocarbons are obtained from Tar. Amongst them are Paraffine, Creosote, Eupion, Kapnomor, Pittacal, Picamar, and Cedriret.

Med. Prop. and Action. Slightly stimulant and diuretic. Its effects are very similar to those of Turpentine, but it is milder in its operation, and communicates the odour of Tar, instead of that of violets, to the urine. The vapour, when inhaled, acts as a stimulant and irritant of the lining membrane of the air-passages. Tar Water is prepared by shaking together one part of Tar with four of Water. The Water takes up the soluble portions of the Tar. Applied externally to ulcers, Tar acts as a mild stimulant, and often induces a healthy action. The usual strength employed is Tar, and suet, in equal parts, melted together and strained. The Glycerole of Tar is proposed by Mr. Brady* as superior to the ordinary ointment. It is formed by warming Glycerine (fl. oz. vj.), stirring in powdered Starch (gr. cxx.), adding Tar (fl. oz. vj.), and raising the temperature of the mixture rapidly to boiling point. Strain through a cloth, if necessary, and stir whilst cooling.

Dose of Tar, exxx. - fl. drm. j., or more, made into pills with flour. The dose of Tar Water is fl. oz. j. - fl. oz. iv.

2092. Therapeutic Uses

In Phthisis, the vapour of Tar was first advised by Sir A. Crichton in 1823. He directs the vapour to be obtained by heating Tar over a spirit-lamp, a small quantity of the sub-carbonate of potash being previously added, to neutralize any pyroligneous acid which the Tar may contain. The heat should be moderate, and the vapour equally diffused over the chamber. Hufeland* also bears testimony to its value; and Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, states, that no remedy which he used was so successful as Tar. In other hands, however, it has proved of little, if any value. Thus, Dr. J. Forbes gave it a fair trial, and reported unfavourably of it; and Sir C. Scuda-more§; states, that he has tried it without any satisfactory results.

* Pharm. Journ., Sept. 1862.

Obs. on Pulmonary Consumption, 1823.

2093. In Chronic Bronchitis, Dr

Dunglison|| found great benefit from the internal use of the following formula: -2093 In Chronic Bronchitis Dr 170 Picis Liq. fj. digere in Aq. Dest. Oij. per dies viij., et cola. Dose, fviij. - fxij. daily, mixed with milk. This was one of the many affections in which Bishop Berkeley 11 found Tar-water so effectual. The vapour of Tar may also prove serviceable.

2094. Habitual Constipation May Be Often Effectually Removed By Tar, In Doses Of Gr

v. - x. every night. It requires to be persevered in for some time. Prof. Simpson speaks favourably of it, and Bishop Berkeley relates several surprising cures by the use of Tar-water.

2095. In Typhoid Fever, Dr

Chapelle** regards Tar-water as incontestably the most efficacious of remedies. To ij. of Tar he adds Oij. of boiling water; after standing a few hours, the patient commences to drink it, as much at a draught as he can, and filling up with ordinary water, so that the same quantity of Tar will last during the whole treatment. He likewise employs injections, prepared by rubbing up the yolk of one or two eggs with a tablespoonful of liquid Tar, and adding Oj. of warm water. This serves for two injections, of which six, eight, or even ten should be administered daily.