Quinia, Quinine, Quina. C10H21N2O4, with six equivalents of Water when crystallized (Garrod). An alkaloid obtained from Yellow Cinchona Bark (Cinchona flava), from Fibrous Carthagena Bark (Cinchona lancifolia, Mutis), and other species of Cinchona. See Cinchona QuiniAe Sulphas. Sulphate of Quinia. QuinAe Disulphas seu Sulphas. The Disulphate or Sulphate of Quina, commonly called Sulphate of Quinine. C10H14N2O4, HO, SO, + 7 HO.

Med. Prop. and Action. The Sulphate of Quinia is the salt prepared from the Cinchona bark which is principally employed in medicine, and may bo taken as a type of the other preparations of the alkaloids obtained from the same source. It is a powerful anti-periodic, febrifuge, and tonic, and is applicable to all those diseases in which Cinchona has, for so long a period, been celebrated. It possesses all the medicinal properties of Cinchona except its astringency. From the small space it occupies, it is preferable, in the majority of cases, to the crude bark, which, from the quantity required to be taken, is apt to overload the stomach, occasion dyspepsia, and other derangements of the alimentary canal. In small doses it does not produce any well-marked sensible effect on the system, with the exception of a small amount of arterial excitement; occasionally it causes a great flow of animal spirits, and in one or two rare cases I have found gr. v. - vj., taken immediately before going to bed, induce sleeplessness throughout the night. In large or long-continued doses, it causes headache, deafness, noises in the ears, flashings of light across the eyes, vertigo, nausea, delirium, or coma. The supervention of any of these symptoms, termed Cinchonism, indicates that the full physiological effects of the drug have been produced, and that no further benefit can be obtained by persevering in its administration. Drs. Melier and Majendie* instituted a series of experiments upon animals with large doses of Quinine. Most of the animals died, and their lungs were found congested, and infiltrated with blood, which was generally found fluid; in those in which it had coagulated, the clot was softened, separating easily from the serum, which remained of a reddish hue, and thick, holding the colouring matter in solution. In some cases the brain and gaatro-enteric mucous membranes were injected with blood. The action of the Quinine was much more energetic when given after a long abstinence from food, and when combined with Sulphuric Acid, than when given immediately after a meal, or in a semi-soluble state. It appears evident from these experiments, that Quinine is absorbed into the blood, the constitution of which it changes, by depriving it of its coagulability, acting upon it, when in a sufficiently large dose, in the same manner as any other poisonous agent. These results correspond closely with those obtained by Dr. Giaccomini, whose experiments on this subject were extensive and interesting. Dr. Ranke found in Rome experiments, made by administering Quinine to three healthy individuals, that m each case there was a diminution in the amount of Uric Acid in the urine, and he suggests that this may afford an explanation of the modus operandi of Quinine in Ague, where there is, according to all observers, a considerable increase of uric acid in the urine. Mr. R. Walker§; has published some interesting remarks to show that Quinine does not act as a tonic, as is generally supposed, but as a sedative to the efferent nerves of the sympathetic.

Offic. Prep. of QuiniAe Sulphas: - Tinctura QuiniAe Composite (Sulphate of Quinia grs. clx.: Tincture of Orange Peel Oj. Digest for seven days, and strain). Dose, fl. drm. j. - fl. drs. ij. 1 fl. drm. contains 1 gr. of Quinine.

* Mem. de l'Acad. Roy. de Med, x. 1843.

Ana Univ. di Med., March 1841.

Med. Times and Gaz, May 30, 1857.

§ Ibid., Feb. 21, 1863.

Dote of Sulphate of Quinia: as a tonic, gr. j. - gr. lij.: as an anti-periodic, gr. iij. - gr. x., or evengr. xx. It maybe administered in the form of solution with an acid, or simply suspended in water, or in pill, syrup, or confection, or dissolved in Glycerine.

Other Preparations of Quinine. Quinoidine is a supposed uncrystallizable form of Quinia contained in the mother liquors from which Sulphate of Quinia has been crystallized. According to Van Heijuingen, it may be re-1 into ordinary Quinia, Ciuchonia, Quiuidina, and a resinous substance.* From it Liebig obtained his Amorphous Quinine, which he considers bean the same relation to crystallizable Quinia that barley-sugar does to sugar-candy. Dr. Garrod thinks Amorphous Quinine is closely allied to Quinicine, a substance isomeric with Quinine, into which Pasteur found that the latter in changed when carefully heated in the form of a salt, as the tartrate, The dose of Amorphous Quinine is gr. j. - gr. x.

Qiim.i: Arsenias. Arseniate of Quinia. A salt supposed to combine the anti periodic properties of Arsenic and Quinine. Garrod considers its special value somewhat doubtful. Dose, gr. 3/4 - gr. iss. in twenty-four hours, in divided doses.

quinAe et Ferri citras (offic.) See Ferri et QuiniAe Citras.

aquiniAe Valerianas. Valerianate of Quinine (Ph. D.). Anti-periodic and anti-spasmodic. Especially useful in intermittent neuralgia. Said to produce less disorder of the nervous system than the Sulphate. Dose, gr. j. - gr. iv., in pill or mucilaginous mixture It is readily decomposed by acids.

Syrup or Dikinate of Quinia (Donovan). 1 drin. contains 2 grs. of Dikinate of Quinia, which is equal to 3 3/4 oz. of Decoction of Dark, or 96 grs. of Powdered Bark (Squire J). Dose, exxx. - fl. drm. j.

Tartrate, Phosphate, Citrate, Tannate, Acetate, Ferrocyanate, Nitrate, and Hydrochlorate of Quinine have also been proposed at various times as medicinal agents, but they do not appear to po-sess much advantage over the Sulphate.