Refined or "White Sugar. C12H11O11. The crystallized refined juice of the Stem of Saccharum Officinarum. Nat. Ord. Graminaceae. Linn. Syst. Trian-dria Digynia. Cultivated in the "West Indies and other tropical countries.

Saccharum Commune. Brown Sugar.

* Pereira's Mat Med., vol. ii. pt. i. p. 175. Journ. de Petersbourg, vol. v.

Dub. Quart Journ., May 1850. § On the Med. Prop. of Ranuncu laceae, p. 7.

Thfriaca. Treacle or Molasses. The uncrystallized Residue of the refining of Sugar.

Med. Prop. and Action. These three articles, the products or Saccharum Officinarum, are of great importance in medicine, pharmacy, and domestic life. The following are some of their medicinal uses: - In poisoning by the Salts of Copper, Mercury, Silver, Gold, Lead, and Arsenic, Sugar proves useful, partly, according to Orfila,* by acting chemically, and partly by increasing the peristaltic motions of the bowels. Dr. Pereira regards it solely as a mechanical antidote. 2. In Burnt, Dr. Payne, of Nottingham, states, that be has 'employed Treacle for above twenty years, and with great success. It is applied pure to the injured surface, and at the natural temperature, folds of well-aired linen being laid over it, and the dressing allowed to remain on for three or four hours at first; the dressings subsequently require to be removed once or twice daily. Dr. Payne considers it the best application we possess; and adds, that it acts by effectually excluding the air, and by abstracting the morbid heat of the part, thus proving at once sedative, refrigerant, and healing. 3. In the stings of wasps, it is a common practice with the labourers at sugar manufactories in the East, to apply immediately a little Brown Sugar to the spot. It is stated to afford almost immediate relief. 4. To exuberant granulations and indolent ulceri, a little finely powdered White Sugar, sprinkled over the surface, is occasionally used with advantage, but it causes much irritation. In pharmacy it is used in the preparation of syrups, confections, and as a medium for administering the volatile oils, and of disguising the taste of nauseous medicines. 5. At an article of diet in Diabetes Mellitus, Sugar has been advised by Or. W. Budd,| who furnishes a case illustrative of the benefit to be derived from it; but it signally failed in the hands of Drs. Williams, Burd, and Bence Jones.|| 6. Urs. Behrend and Sieber¶ recommend Sugar as of great value in Diarrhoea and other affections of children. and they relate two cases of diarrhoea in which ss. of powdered White Sugar given every hour soon gave a favourable turn to the symptoms, which had long resisted all the ordinary means of cure. In some cases when there is evident a putrefactive tendency in the alvine secretions, it promises to be a remedy of great value.

Qfflc. Prep. Syrupus (Refined Sugar lbs. v.; Distilled Water Oij. The-sp. gr. should be 1.330). Dose, ad lib.