Oil of Turpentine. C20H16 Sometimes called Spirit or Essence of Turpentine. Is obtained by distillation from the Turpentine of Pinus Palustris, Pinus TAeda, and sometimes Pinus Pinaster. When re-distilled, it is called Purified or Rectified Oil of Turpentine. Comp. Carbon 88.23, Hydrogen 11.76, in 100 parts; or 20 Eq. Carbon = 120, + 16 Hydrogen = 16 = 136, Eq. Wt.
Med. Prop. and Action. Diuretic, astringent, and styptic, in doses of viij. - xxx.; anthelmintic purgative, or as a revulsive, fl. drs ij. - fl. oz. j. It is best given in emulsion with gum, or with the yolk of an egg, and Dr. Copland* advises the addition of T. Capsici, which corrects the nausea which the oil occasionally produces. When swallowed, it causes a sensation of warmth in the stomach, at first acting as a stimulant, and afterwards as a depressant of the arterial system: it becomes absorbed into the circulation, and displays its presence in the urine, in the cutaneous secretion, and in the breath. In whatever manner it is introduced into the system, it communicates a violet odour to the urine. When the vapour is inspired, it is perceptible in the urine in fifteen minutes; and when rubbed on the skin, in about twenty-five minutes. In large doses it produces nausea, vertigo, &c., and in some instances, a cathartic operation: this, however, is very uncertain; but when it does occur, it interferes with its action as a diuretic, its only effect then upon the urine being to convey to it the peculiar violet odour. It is chiefly in small or moderate doses that it seems to affect the urinary organs. In some persons, Turpentine, in any form, or in any dose, produces very unpleasant effects: coma, intoxication, violent strangury, eruptions of the skin, &c. M. Bou-chardt found the following symptoms induced by his exposure for five or six hours to the vapour of Turpentine: - Sleeplessness, constant restlessness, heat of skin, pulse increased from 65 to 86 beats in the minute, some difficulty in passing the urine, which smelt strongly of Turpentine. On the following day, there was great lassitude, with weight and pain in the region of the kidneys; these symptoms did not pass off for two or three days. Dr. T. Smith cautions against giving it alone in cold weather, as under such circumstances it tends, like other hydro-carbons, to supply fuel for the evolution of animal heat, rather than to exhibit any therapeutic property. To insure its purgative effect, therefore, it should be conjoined with Castor Oil. Externally applied, it is a valuable counter-irritant, acting speedily and effectually. For ordinary purposes, the Linimentum TerebinthinAe is a good formula. Dr. Copland places much confidence in Turpentine fomentations, which are made by steeping flannel in hot water, wringing it out dry, and sprinkling the surface with Spirit of Turpentine. It is a most valuable mode of application. For the purpose of inhalation, Dr. Smith advises the vapour to be diffused through an apartment by aid of a spirit-lamp. As a bath, he advises Soda lb. ij., Camphine Oss., Oil of Rosemary ss., Water q. s. He states that it. calms the pulse, softens the skin, and renders the respiration easy. When its internal use causes strangury, diluents and demulcents should be drunk plentifully, and opiate enemas employed.
Offic. Prep. 1. Confectio TerebinthinAe (Oil of Turpentine fl. oz j.; Powdered Liquorice Root oz. j.; Clarified Honey oz. ij.). Given to children as an anthelmintic. Dose, oz. 1/4 - oz 1/2.