A valuable therapeutic agent, extensively employed of late years, both internally and externally. When given internally, it proves sedative, refrigerant, and astringent; and, as such, is very serviceable in fevers, inflammations, and acute hAemorrhage. Externally applied, Dr. Arnott regards Ice in the threefold character of a remedy, a prophylactic, and an anaesthetic. 1. As a remedy, it is effectual in many diseases of the nervous and vascular system. In external inflammations, it is speedy, certain, safe, and agreeable. 2. The prophylactic virtue of congelation is the power it possesses of preventing inflammation of those surfaces which have been subjected to its influence. Wounds, he states, have invariably appeared to heal more speedily after the application of congelation than under the usual circumstances; probably on account of the absence of any injurious degree of inflammation. 3. As an anaesthetic, its excellence consists in its power of producing local anAesthesia, while the consciousness of the patient remains undisturbed, and also especially in its perfect safety. Dr. Arnott quotes several cases in support of those opinions (see infra). Caution, however, is necessary in its use. If applied for a short period, the congelation or frozen condition of the parts which it induces may not only be not injurious, but beneficial; but if this agent be applied too suddenly, or be too long continued, it may induce gangrene. It may conveniently be employed, pounded, mixed with an equal quantity of common salt, and inclosed in a bag of gauze or some other thin material. This constitutes an ice poultice, and it should be applied for one, two, or three minutes, or until congelation of the subjacent tissues is effected; it should then be discontinued. It is an application which requires discrimination and caution.

3147. For the purpose of controlling the circulation through the nervous centres, the external application of heat and cold to the spine has been advocated by Dr. John Chapman. He claims to have discovered that a controlling power over the circulation of blood in the brain, in the spinal cord, in the ganglia of the sympathetic system, and through their agency in all the organs of the body, can be exerted by means of applying ice and hot water to different parts of the back. In order to lessen the excito-motor power of the cord, he applies ice in an india-rubber bag over the particular portion of the cord on which he wishes to act. The vitality of the cord may be measured by applying ice and hot water alternately. In order to obtain fuller and more equable circulation through the brain, he applies ice to the neck and between the scapulae. To affect the thoracic and abdominal viscera, the applications are made to the dorsal and lumbar regions. The diseases in which Dr. Chapman has found this plan of treatment successful are Affections of the Nervous System, particularly various forms of Epilepsy and Paralysis; Uterine affections, especially Disordered Menstruation, Leucorrha, and Procidentia Uteri; Constipation and Diarrhoea; coldness of the surface, particularly coldness of the feet. Dr. Chapman's ingenious papers on the subject will well repay perusal, but his method of treatment requires to be confirmed by further experiment and observation before it can be generally received.

* Dict. Pract. Med., vol. ii. p. 163. Med. Gaz., March 1849.

Med.Times and Gaz., July l8,1863; and Year-Book of Sydenham Soc.

846 ice.

Contra-indications to the use of Ice. 1. Old age. 2. Debility, whether constitutional, or induced by disease. 3. Coma, with a feeble pulse. 4. Advanced stages of disease. Its powerfully-sedative influence might, in these cases, overwhelm the powers of life. (Dr. Bennett.)