Bela. Bael. Bilva, or Bengal Quince. Nat. Ord. Aurantiaceae. Linn. Syst. Decandria Monogynia.' Hab. East Indies, Malabar and Coromandel, and Ceylon.

* Op. cit.

Diseases of the Skin, p. 14".

Monthly Journ. of Med. Sciences, Jan. 1850. § Lancet, Feb. 13, 1851 (B).

Med. Prop. and Action. Although all parts of this tree are employed medicinally by the natives of India, the fruit alone calls for notice in this place, and it merits particular attention from the valuable property it apparently possesses of establishing a healthy tone in the intestinal canal, arresting diarrhoea when present, and acting as a mild aperient when constipation exists. A liquid Extract of the hall-dried fruit is the preparation ordered in the British Pharmacopoeia. According to the analysis of Mr. Pollock* the pulp of the fruit contains Tannic acid, a concrete essential oil, a bitter principle, a vegetable acid and sugar. Prof. Macnamara examined the fruit both in its mature and immature state, and found the ripe to contain more tannin than the unripe fruit, in the proportion of 5 to 3; it likewise contained mora sugar and more of the bitter principle and vegetable acid. After extracting from the fruits the matters soluble in water, there was obtained by means of ether, a balsam having a strong odour like that of Balsam of Peru; this was found to exist in much larger quantities in the ripe than in the unripe fruit. The comparative deficiencies in these substances were compensated for by the gummy extractive and fibrous matters. The astringent action of Bael is doubtless due in a measure to the tannin; but Dr. Macnamara suggests that to the balsam is due the tone which the fruit gives to the intestines rendering the secretions of the mucous membranes more healthy. It may be advantageously given in the form of sherbet, thus - Take of the soft gummy substance from the interior of the fruit oz. ij. mix this with fi. oz iij - fl. oz. iv. of water, sweeten to the taste, and add, if procurable, a lump of ice. This agreeable drink possesses the aroma of the fruit, and may be repeated twice or thrice daily. When prepared from the ripe fruit, it is not only astringent, but possesses the singular property of being aperient if the bowels are irregular or costive. When the patient is debilitated and the stomach weak, it sometimes disagrees; it ought then to be given in small repeated doses, and if these also are rejected, the dry Extract in doses of gr. xxx. - gr. lx. twice or thrice daily, may be tried. Another good form of administration is that of Marmaladt prepared in the same manner as Orange Marmalade; it is usually taken like it, spread on bread, and it possesses the great advantage of keeping well for a long period.

Offlc. Prep. Extractum BelAe Liquidum. (Bael. lb. j.; Distilled Water Oxij. Prepared by maceration and evaporation to fl. oz. xiv. Two fl. oz. of Rectified Spirit to be added to the fluid when cold.) Dose, fl. drs. ii. - fl. oz. j. Each ounce of liquid Extract is intended to represent oz. j. of Bael.

61. Therapeutic Uses

In various forms of Intestinal Derangement, Bael exercises a marked and valuable influence. Though noticed by Kheede, Burman,§ and other old writers, it attracted little notice till 1853, when Sir Ranald Martin|| called attention to its use. In 1854, Dr. A. Grant ¶ published a paper on it, bringing together all that had hitherto been known on the subject, and recording his own experience as to its employment. He states that he has been in the habit of recommending the sherbet (ante) as an aperient to persons subject to habitual constipation, a small tumblerful, taken early in the morning, producing generally one evacuation daily. In cases of Dyspepsia with obscure symptoms of Land Scurry, it seemed also to act very beneficially, and to possess alterative as well as anti-scorbutic qualities. Many persons in Bengal, observes Dr. Grant, suffer, especially during the rainy season, from attacks of irregularity of the bowels, periods of looseness, alternating with others of constipation; in such states of the system, the sherbet acts admirably, in the first instance as an astringent, and in the second as an aperient. It serves in both these opposite conditions to stimulate the mucous membrane to a more natural action, combining with the ingesta and aiding healthy assimilation. It has been also given with good result to persons of delicate habits, subject to Mucous Diarrha, and likewise in Chronic Dysentery and Diarrhoea, especially in the forms of these affections which occur amongst the native prisoners in the Bengal jails. Dr. Grant also quotes the experience of Drs. Stewart and Jackson, of Calcutta. The former states that for several years he has employed the Bael, and that in the form of sherbet he has always found it act not only as an astringent but as a preventive of Diarrhoea in persons subject to that complaint. According to Dr. Jackson it proves most successful in the chronic forms of Dysentery when the stools are frequent and bloody and mixed with mucus. When there is heat of skin, it does not agree so well, and here it is often necessary to discontinue its use from the flatulence and indigestion which it causes. In the Diarrha of Cholera it has also been used with advantage. Dr. Cleghorn * adduces the evidence of Dr. J. Sanderson and others in favour of this remedy, and my own experience with it warrants the high encomiums which have been passed on it by others.

* Lancet, July, 1853. Indian Ann. of Med. Sci. ii. p. 233. Hort. Malab. iii. p. 37.

§ Flor. Ind. Ed. 1768, p. 109. || Lancet, 1853, vol. ii p 53. ¶ Ind. Ann. of Med. Sci. ii. p. 225.