3053. In Hysterical Headaches, Dr

Graves speaks highly of dry-cupping at the nape of the neck, between the shoulders, and below the clavicles. Six cups should be applied, and should be allowed to remain on for ten or fifteen minutes. During a paroxysm of Hysteria, he also found their application attended with the best effects. In Epilepsy, particularly where previous headache or other premonitory symptoms advertise an approaching fit, dry-cupping, according to the experience of Dr. Graves, is most useful in averting the paroxysm. He also mentions cases of Sciatica, Lumbago, and Neuralgia, which were greatly benefited by its use.

* See Ranking, Abstract, vol. ix. p. 15.

Researches on the Influence of Atmospheric Pressure on the Blood,

&c., 8vo, Lond. 1826; and Cooper's Surg. Dict., p. 1483, 7th Ed. Clin. Lect., vol. ii. pp. 315, 548.

3054. In the Dyspnoea and Cough of Phthisis, dry-cupping on the chest, particularly under the clavicles, often affords sensible relief.

3055. In many forms of Atonic Inflammation and Passive Congestion, the application of the dry cupping-glasses at a distance from the affected organ will be found a valuable adjuvant to other treatment, directly relieving the congested or inflamed organ without diminishing the strength of the patient.

3056. Junod's Exhausting Apparatus, or Boot, may be described as a large cupping-glass fitting over the leg and thigh. The apparatus is exhausted by means of a syringe, and consequently a large proportion of the blood in the body is drawn to the lower extremity, and the circulation through the rest of the system is proportionately relieved. It has been found that, under its application, the force and frequency of the circulation are reduced, and in certain cases of inflammation of internal organs this effect has continued after the use of the apparatus has been discontinued. It appears to be especially valuable in acute inflammation where the type of the affection renders abstraction of blood inadmissible.* The average time during which it should be applied is from fifteen to forty minutes.

3057.Diaphoretics are medicines which increase the cutaneous exhalation; those which produce profuse sweating are designated Sudorifics. They may both be considered under one head. They act either by stimulating the sudoriparous glands of the skin, or by augmenting the force of the circulation generally, or by both these ways at once. Of the first, we have examples in the influence of saline diaphoretics, and in that of the large ingesta of aqueous fluids. Of the second, in the effects of stimulant diaphoretics, alcoholic liquors, and violent exercise. Tepid diluents and external warmth seem at once to augment the vigour of the circulation, and to stimulate the cutaneous exhalents. Emetics and nauseants have also a great tendency to relax the cutaneous surface. (Dr. Joy.)

* Army Medical Report, Med. Times and Gazette, Sept. 10, 1S53, and Oct. 15, 1853.

The objects for which they are employed are thus summed up by Dr. Pereira: - 1. To restore the cutaneous secretion when it has been checked by cold, and thereby to relieve the consequences of its suppression. 2. To promote the subsidence of diseases which naturally terminate in augmented cutaneous secretion, as in simple continued fever, the exanthemata, and intermittents. 3. To produce determination to the surface in various maladies attended by coldness of the skin and congestion of the internal organs. 4. To antagonize other secretions; thus, diaphoretics are sometimes employed to check excessive secretion of urine, or to relieve diarrhoea. 5. To establish a substitute for some other secretion; thus, when the renal secretion is diminished or suppressed, we endeavour to relieve the system by diaphoretics.

Their action is promoted: - 1. By previous blood-letting, if the skin be hot, and the febrile symptoms urgent. 2. By the free use of diluents, excepting where antimonials have been taken, when vomiting will probably supervene. When the temperature of the surface is high, cold diluents should be used; when it is moderate, they should be tepid. 3. By the use of flannel next to the skin. 4. By keeping the body in an equal and warm temperature. 5. By avoiding the use of cold drinks after the perspiration has once begun to flow. 6. By bathing the feet in hot water.

Their action is retarded - 1, by diuretics and purgatives; 2, by exposure of the body to the cold air.