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A Text Book Of Materia Medica, Being An Account Of The More Important Crude Drugs Of Vegetable And Animal Origin | by Henry G. Greenish



The present volume, constitutes a second edition of the author's "Introduction to the Study of Materia Medica" which appeared in 1899. This change in title has been rendered desirable by the numerous additions that have been made to the work with the view of broadening its scope. To this end a chapter on the history and commerce of drugs has been added. Each section has been prefaced by a short introduction, including, in the section dealing with 'Animals and Animal Glands and Secretions,' a brief outline of modern zoological classification. For the convenience of advanced students the microscopical characters of, and assay processes for, a number of important drugs have been added. The commercial varieties have been more fully dealt with, and considerably more attention has been paid to the chemistry of a number of the more important constituents. Several drugs not previously dealt with have also been included.

TitleA Text Book Of Materia Medica, Being An Account Of The More Important Crude Drugs Of Vegetable And Animal Origin
AuthorHenry G. Greenish
PublisherJ. & A. Churchill
Year1920
Copyright1920, J. & A. Churchill
AmazonA Text Book of Materia Medica : Being an Account of the More Important Crude Drugs of Vegetable and Animal Origin

Designed For Students Of Pharmacy And Medicine

By Henry G. Greenish, F.I.C., F.L.S. Professor Of Pharmaceutics To The Pharmaceutical Society Of Great Rritain And In The University Of London Director Of The Pharmacy Research Laboratory Docteur (H.C.) De L'universite De Paris Hanbury Gold Medallist, 1917 Joint Editor Of The British Pharmacopoeia, 1914 Member Of The Board Of Examiners Of The Pharmaceutical Society Of Great Britain Late External Examiner In Materia Medica And Pharmacy To The University Of Birmingham

With 250 Illustrations Third Edition

A Text Book Of Materia Medica Being An Account Of  1

By The Same Author

The Microscopical Examination Of Foods And Drugs, In The Entire, Crushed And Powdered States. With Numerous Illustrations. Third Edition. Ready, 1921.

By The Same Author And Eugene Collin

An Anatomical Atlas Of Vegetable Powders, Designed As An Aid To The Microscopic Analysis Op Powdered Foods And Drugs. With 138 Illustrations. 288 pp. 4to, 12s. 6d . net.

-Preface To The Third Edition
The conditions under which this, the third edition, has been prepared, have been somewhat adverse. While it was considered desirable to add brief accounts of a number of drugs in less frequent use, du...
-Preface To The Second Edition
The present volume, published under the title of a ' Text-Book of Materia Medica,' constitutes a second edition of the author's ' Introduction to the Study of Materia Medica ' which appeared in 1899. ...
-Materia Medica
Definition Materia Medica or Pharmacognosy, for the terms as used by pharmacists are synonymous, may be defined as that science which aims at a complete and systematic knowledge of crude drugs of ani...
-Materia Medica. Part 2
With the subsequent decline of the Roman Empire, a long period of scientific inactivity, or perhaps rather retrogression, took place. The Arabian Empire then rose, and seats of learning were establish...
-Materia Medica. Part 3
Towards the end of this period the Phoenicians developed their maritime commerce in the Mediterranean. Established at Tylos and Arados on the Bahrein Islands (near the western shore of the Persian Gul...
-Materia Medica. Part 4
They thus became rivals of the Portuguese and of one another. The Dutch were at first the more successful. They established themselves in India, in the East Indian Islands, the Moluccas and the Sunda ...
-Materia Medica. Part 5
Fig. 1. - Original packages of drugs (Weigel). a, gourd aloes; b, cassia fistula; c, China root. Fig. 2. - Original packages of drugs (Weigel). a and f, seron of Calisaya bark; b, Honduras sars...
-Materia Medica. Part 6
Fig. 6. - Vase of otto of rose. Fig. 7. - Leaden canisters of star-anise oil. Fig. 8. - Sampling a few bales of bark. (Heap). Fig. 9. - Sale room of Messrs. Hale & Son. On the centre an...
-Section I. Leaves
Leaves may be defined as appendages borne upon an axis but differing from it in structure and organisation. They usually exhibit three regions, viz. a leaf-base, a stalk or petiole, and a lamina or bl...
-Tea (Folia Theae)
Source, Etc The tea shrub, Camellia Thea,1 Link (N.O. Tern-slramiiaceai), has been cultivated from time immemorial in China and Japan, and more recently in Assam, Ceylon, Java, etc. In the manufactu...
-Coca Leaves. (Folia Cocae)
Source, Etc The coca shrub, Erythroxylum Coca, Lamarck, and E. truxillense, Rusby (N.O. Line) has been cultivated in Peru and Bolivia for so long that the plant is not known in the wild state. ...
-Buchu Leaves (Folia Buchu)
Source, Etc The official buchu leaves are obtained from Barosma betulina, Bartling & Wendland (N.O. Butace), a small shrubby plant indigenous to Cape Colony. The drug, the use of which appears ...
-Jaborandi Leaves (Folia Jaborandi)
Source, Etc The name jaborandi is applied in South America, especially in Brazil, to a number of plants (belonging chiefly to the natural orders Rutace and Piperace) possessing salivant a...
-Alexandrian Senna Leaves (Senna Alexandrina)
Source, Etc Alexandrian senna consists of the leaflets of Cassia acutifolia, Delile (N.O. Leguminosae), a small shrub from 1 to 1.5 metres in height, indigenous to and cultivated in the middle and up...
-Indian Senna Leaves (Tinnevelly Senna, Senna Indica)
Source, Etc Indian or Tinnevelly senna consists of the leaflets of Cassia angustifolia, Vahl, which is indigenous to southern Arabia, but is cultivated largely in southern India, especially in the di...
-Cherry-Laurel Leaves (Folia Laurocerasi)
Source, Etc The cherry-laurel, Prunus Laurocerasus, Linne (N.O. Rosace), is an evergreen shrub indigenous to Persia and Asia Minor but cultivated in most temperate regions. It was introduced in...
-Witch-Hazel Leaves (Folia Hamamelidis)
Source Etc The witch-hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, Linne (N.O. Hamamelide), is a common shrub in the United States and Canada. It attains a height of about 3 metres, and resembles the common haz...
-Eucalyptus Leaves (Folia Eucalypti)
Source, Etc Eucalyptus leaves are obtained from Eucalyptus Globulus, Labillardier (N.O. Myrtace), the ordinary 'blue gum' tree of Victoria and Tasmania. This tree, which is one of the largest k...
-Bearberry Leaves (Folia Uvae Ursi)
Source Etc The common bearberry, Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Sprengel (N.O. Ericace), is a small procumbent ever-green shrub distributed throughout central and northern Europe and North America. I...
-Belladonna Leaves (Folia Belladonnae)
Source, Etc The deadly nightshade, or belladonna, Atropa Belladonna, Linne (N.O. Solanace), is a tall branching herb with a perennial root widely distributed over central and southern Europe; i...
-Stramonium Leaves (Folia Stramonii)
Source, Etc The thornapple, Datura Stramonium, Linne (N.O. Solanaceoe), is a large bushy annual attaining about 1 metre in height, a native probably of the shores of the Caspian Sea, but found common...
-Datura Leaves (Folia Daturae)
Source, Etc The official Datura leaves are the dried leaves of D. fastuosa, Linne, var. alba, Nees, and also of D. Metel, Linne, annual plants indigenous to India where the leaves are used as an equi...
-Henbane Leaves (Folia Hyoscyami)
Source, Etc The common henbane, Hyoscyamus niger, Linne (N.O. Solanace), is an erect herb attaining a height of about 1 metre, distributed over the whole of Europe and extending to Persia and I...
-Foxglove
H. muticus, Linne, Egyptian henbane (Egypt, India); leaves entire or toothed, petiolate; calyx striated, pubescent; corolla yellow or nearly white; pyxis cylindrical not urn-shaped. The commercial dru...
-Foxglove Leaves (Folia Digitalis)
Source, Etc The purple foxglove, Digitalis purpurea, Linne (N.O. Scrophularine), is a handsome biennial herb, widely distributed throughout Europe and common in England, where it occurs wild an...
-Laurel Leaves (Folia Lauri)
Source, Etc The true laurel, bay or bay laurel, Laurus nobilis, Linne (N.O. Laurine), is a small evergreen tree commonly cultivated in this country. Description Laurel leaves are of a shining...
-Matico Leaves (Folia Maticae)
Source Etc Matico leaves were defined in the British Pharmacopoeia of 1885, as the leaves of Piper angustifolium, Ruiz and Pavon (N.O. Piperace), a climbing plant distributed over the north of ...
-Betel
Source, Etc Betel leaves are obtained from Piper Betle, Linne (N.O. Piperace), a shrub indigenous to and cultivated in India and the Malay Archipelago. The leaves are collected, put into basket...
-Leaves In Less Frequent Use
Aconite Leaves The leaves of Aconitum Napellus, Linne, (N.O. Ranun-culacece). Leaves stalked, roundish in general outline, divided down to the stalk into three main segments, which are again subdivid...
-Section II. Flowers
Under this heading are grouped together a number of drugs that consist either of entire flowers or inflorescences, or of parts only of flowers, collected at varying stages of their development. In so...
-Red Poppy Petals (Petala Rhoeados, Flores Rhoeados)
Source, Etc The red or field poppy, Palaver Rhoeas, Linne (N.O. Papaveraceoe), is a common herb, doubtfully indigenous to England, but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe and lo...
-Kousso (Cusso; Cousso)
Source, Etc The tree yielding this drug, Brayera an-thelmintica, Kunth (N.O. Rosaceoe), is a native of northeastern Africa. It is cultivated in Abyssinia, being commonly planted by the natives near t...
-Red-Rose Petals (Petala Rosae Gallicae)
Source, Etc The red or Provins rose, Rosa gallica, Linne (N.O. Rosaceoe), is probably indigenous to southern Europe, but has been cultivated as a garden plant in numerous varieties everywhere. For me...
-Cloves (Caryophylla)
Source, Etc The clove tree, Eugenia caryophyllata, Thunberg (N.O. Myrtace), is a handsome evergreen tree and a native of the Molucca Islands, where, as well as on the neighbouring islands, it w...
-Elder (Flores Sambuci)
Source, Etc The common elder, Sambucus nigra, Linne (N.O. Caprifoliaceoe), is indigenous and common in England, and is distributed throughout the whole of central and southern Europe. It flowers in t...
-Chamomile Flowers (Flores Anthemidis)
Source, Etc The common or Roman chamomile, Anthemis nobilis, Linne (N.O. Compositoe), is a small creeping perennial plant with shortly ascending, leafy, flowering branches, bearing terminal white-ray...
-Arnica Flowers (Flores Arnicae)
Source, Etc Arnica flowers are the flowerheads of Arnica montana, Linne (N.O. Compositoe), a small plant with creeping perennial rhizome, indigenous to central Europe. In the warmer districts it is c...
-Wormseed (Santonica, Semen Cinae, Semen Contra)
Source, Etc Wormseed consists of the small, unexpanded flower-heads of Artemisia maritima, var. a-Stechmanniana, Besser (N.O. Compositoe). The species has, in numerous varieties, an extremely wide di...
-Calendula (Flores Calendulas, Marigold Florets)
Source, Etc The marigold, Calendula officinalis, Linne (N.O. Compositoe), is commonly cultivated in numerous varieties as a garden plant. The flower head is about 5 cm. in diameter, yellow to deep re...
-Insect Flowers (Dalmatian) (Flores Pyrethri, Pyrethrum Flowers)
Source, Etc Dalmatian insect flowers are the unexpanded flower-heads of Chrysanthemum cinerarioefolium, Visiani (N.O. Compositae), a native of Dalmatia, Herzegovina, and Montenegro, and cultivated th...
-Lavender Flowers (Flores Lavandulae)
Source Etc The common lavender, Lavandula vera, de Candolle (N.O. Labiatoe), is a small under-shrub indigenous to southern France, Italy, and Spain, but cultivated in this country as a garden plant, ...
-Saffron (Crocus)
Source, Etc The saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, Linne (N.O. Irideoe), has been cultivated for so many centuries that its native country is no longer known. It was well known to the Greeks and Romans,...
-Lily Of The Valley Flowers (Flores Convallariae)
Source, Etc The lily of the valley, Convallaria majdlis, Linne (N.O. Liliaceoe), is a small herbaceous plant, with perennial creeping rhizome, widely distributed over Europe and indigenous in England...
-Section III. Fruits
Fruits are generally classified into true, spurious, and collective fruits. A true fruit may be defined as the mature ovary of a single flower. A spurious fruit is one in the formation of which other ...
-A. True Fruits
1. Indehiscent Monocarpellary Fruits {a) The Achene, a superior one-celled, one-seeded fruit with a dry, indehiscent, closely applied but separable pericarp (true fruits of the fig). (b) The Caryops...
-B. Spurious Fruits
The Pome, an inferior, indehiscent, two or more celled, few-seeded, fleshy fruit, the flesh being generally considered to be the enlarged calyx-tube (quince). ...
-C. Collective Fruits
(a) The Cone, an elongated fruit composed of a number of indurated scales, each of which bears one or more seeds on its inner surface. (b) The Galbulus differs from the cone in being more or less rou...
-Star Anise Fruit (Fructus Anisi Stellati)
Source, Etc Star anise fruit is the ripe fruit of Illicium verum, Hooker filius (N.O. Magnoliaceoe), a small tree indigenous to the southern and south-western provinces of China. Only a small proport...
-Cocculus Indicus (Levant Berries, Fishberries, Fructus Cocculi)
Source, Etc The fruits commonly known as Cocculus indicus are produced by Anamirta paniculata, Colebrooke (N.O. Menispermaceoe), a tall, woody, climbing shrub indigenous to Eastern India and the Mala...
-Poppy Capsules (Poppy Heads, Fructus Papaveris)
Source, Etc The opium poppy, Palaver somniferum, Linne (N.O. Papaveraceoe), is probably a native of Asia Minor, but is now cultivated in many warm or temperate countries both as a garden plant and fo...
-Bael Fruit (Indian Bael, Fructus Belae)
Source, Etc Indian bael is the fruit of Ęgle Marmelos, Correa (N.O. Rutaceoe), a tree attaining a height of 12 metres and growing both wild and cultivated throughout the entire Indian peninsula. Bein...
-Bitter Orange (Seville Orange, Fructus Aurantii)
Source, Etc The bitter or Seville orange is the fruit of Citrus Aurantium, var. Bigaradia, Hooker filius (G. Aurantium, Linne; C. vulgaris, Risso, N.O. Rutaceoe), a small tree, probably a native of n...
-Lemon (Fructus Limonis)
Source, Etc The lemon is the fruit of Citrus Medica, Linne, var. -Limonum, Hooker filius (N.O. Butaceoe), a small tree which, like the orange, is probably a native of northern India. It is cult...
-Raisins (Uvae Passae)
Source, Etc The grape vine, Vitis vinifera, Linne (N.O. Ampelideoe) is cultivated in numerous varieties in most of the warmer temperate regions, particularly in central and southern Europe, Californi...
-Cassia Pods (Purging Cassia, Fructus Cassiae Fistulae)
Source, Etc Cassia pods are the ripe fruits of Cassia Fistula, Linne (N.O. Leguminosoe), a tree of moderate size, indigenous to India, and often cultivated as an ornamental plant (Indian laburnum). T...
-Tamarinds (Tamarindus, Fructus Tamarindi)
Source, Etc The tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica, Linne (N.O. Leguminosoe), a large and handsome tree indigenous to tropical Africa is, cultivated throughout India and the West Indies, where it forms...
-Senna Pods (Senna Legumes, Sennae Fructus)
Source, Etc Senna pods are the dried ripe fruits of Cassia acutifolia, Delile (Alexandrian senna pods), and of C. angustifolia, Vahl (Indian senna pods) (see Senna ). Description The pods are br...
-Prunes (Prunum)
Source, Etc The prune, or French plum, is the dried fruit of Prunus domestica, Linne, var. Juliana, de Candolle (N.O. Rosaceoe), a variety of the plum tree cultivated in France, especially in the val...
-Hips (Fructus Rosae Caninae; Fructus Cynosbati)
Source, Etc Hips are the fresh, ripe fruits of the dog rose, Rosa canina, Linne (N.O. Rosaceoe), and other indigenous allied species. Description The fruit of the dog rose consists of the hollowed ...
-Myrobalans (Myrobalanum; Black Chebulic Myrobalans)
Source, Etc The official myrobalans, which are properly termed black chebulic myrobalans, are the dried immature fruits of Terminalia Chebula, Retzius (N.O. Gombretaceoe), a large tree abundant in no...
-Pimento (Allspice, Jamaica Pepper, Fructus Pimentae)
Source, Etc The pimento tree, Pimenta officinalis, Lindley (N.O. Myrtaceoe), is a handsome tree indigenous to and common in the West Indies, and found also in Central America and Venezuela. It is cul...
-Pomegranate Rind (Cortex Fructus Granati)
Source, Etc The pomegranate tree, Punica Grandtum, Linne (N.O. Lythrarieoe), is a shrub or small tree indigenous to north-western India, but cultivated in the warmer parts of the temperate regions, e...
-Bitter Apple (Colocynth, Fructus Colocynthidis)
Source, Etc The colocynth plant, Citrullus Colocynthis, Schrader (N.O. Cucurbitaceoe), is, like many other members of the same natural order, a scabrous, prostrate plant with a perennial root. It enj...
-Caraway Fruits (Fructus Carui)
Source, Etc Caraways are the ripe fruits of Carum Carvi, Linne (N.O. Umbelliferoe), an erect biennial herb distributed over central and northern Europe. The plant is found in Britain, apparently wild...
-Hemlock Fruits (Fructus Conii)
Source, Etc The common or spotted hemlock, Conium1 macu-latum, Linne (N.O. Umbelliferoe), is a biennial plant widely spread throughout temperate Europe and generally distributed over Great Britain. I...
-Coriander Fruits (Fructus Coriandri)
Source, Etc The coriander, Coriandrum sativum, Linne (N.O. Umbelliferae), is an erect herbaceous annual that has become naturalised throughout temperate Europe. It is cultivated principally in Russia...
-Cummin Fruit (Fructus Cumini)
Source, Etc The cummin, Cuminum Cymlnum, Linne (N.O. Um-belliferce), is a small annual plant indigenous to the upper Nile territory, and cultivated in Morocco, Sicily, Malta, Syria, and India. The fr...
-Fennel Fruits (Fructus Foeniculi)
Source, Etc Fennel, Foeniculum capillaceum, Gilibert (F. vulgare, Miller; N.O. Umbelliferoe), is apparently indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean, extending eastwards, but is cultivated for m...
-Dill Fruits (Fructus Anethi)
Source, Etc The dill, Peucedanum graveolens, Bentham and Hooker filius (N.O. Umbelliferoe) is a short erect annual herb indigenous to the Mediterranean districts and southern Russia, but cultivated i...
-Anise Fruits (Aniseed, Fructus Anisi)
Source, Etc The anise, Pimpinella Anisum, Linne (N.O. Umbelli-ferce), is an annual plant indigenous to Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor, but cultivated largely in southern Russia, and also in Spain and ...
-Embelia (Embelia)
Source, Etc Embelia is the dried fruit of Embelia Ribes, Burmann Alius, and also of Embelia robusta, Roxburgh (N.O. Myrsineoe). The former is a large climbing shrub abundant in the hilly parts of Ind...
-Capsicum Fruits (Cayenne Pepper, Chillies, Fructus Capsici)
Source, Etc The capsicum fruit official in the British Pharmacopoeia is derived from Capsicum minimum, Roxburgh (N.O. Solanaceoe), a small erect shrub with spreading branches, producing oblong-conica...
-Laurel Berries (Bay Berries, Fructus Lauri)
Source, Etc Laurel berries are the ripe fruits of Laurus nobilis, Linne (N.O. Laurineoe) (see p. 56). Description The laurel produces one-celled, one-seeded, drupaceous fruits, which are collected ...
-Figs (Ficus)
Source, Etc The fig tree,Ficus Carica,Linne (N.O. Urticaceoe), is a native of Persia and the surrounding countries. Figs have long constituted an important article of food in Eastern countries; they ...
-Hops (Lupulus, Humulus, Strobili Lupuli)
Source, Etc The hop, Humulus Lupulus, Linne (N.O. Urticaceoe), is a scabrous climbing plant with perennial root, widely diffused over the whole of Europe and common in England, growing in hedges and ...
-Cubebs (Fructus Cubebae)
Source, Etc Cubebs are the fruits of Piper Cubeba, Linne filius (N.O. Piperaceoe), a dioecious woody climber indigenous to Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, and apparently cultivated also in those islands, ...
-Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum)
Source, Etc The pepper vine, Piper nigrum, Linne (N.O. Piperaceoe), is a perennial climbing plant indigenous to southern India, but spread by cultivation over the islands of the Malay Archipelago and...
-Juniper Berries (Fructus Juniperi)
Source, Etc The juniper, Juniperus communis, Linne (N.O. Coni-ferce), is a small dioecious evergreen shrub with linear spreading prickly leaves, indigenous to Great Britain, and widely distributed ov...
-Vanilla (Fructus Vanillae)
Source, Etc The vanilla plant, Vanilla plantfolia, Andrews (N.O. Orchideoe), is a climbing plant growing wild in the moist woods on the eastern coast of Mexico. It is now largely cultivated in the is...
-Cardamoms (Fructus Cardamomi)
Source, Etc Cardamoms are the dried, nearly ripe fruits of Elet-taria Cardamomum, Maton (N.O. Scitamineoe), a tall perennial, reedlike plant that grows wild in the forests of southern India, especial...
-Fruits In Less Frequent Use
Annatto. A colouring matter obtained from the seeds of Bixa Orellana, Linne (N.O. Bixineoe), a small tree indigenous to South America (Venezuela, Brazil) and cultivated in most tropical countries. The...
-Section IV. Seeds
The seed is the body produced from the ovule as the result of fertilisation. It consists ordinarily of two seed-coats, an outer or testa and an inner or tegmen, enclosing a kernel composed of the embr...
-Stavesacre Seeds (Semina Staphisagriae)
Source, Etc Stavesacre, Delphinium Staphisagria, Linne (N.O. Ranunculaceoe), a stout erect herb attaining 4 feet in height, is indigenous to Asia Minor and southern Europe. The plant is cultivated in...
-Black Mustard Seeds (Semina Sinapis Nigrae)
Source, Etc The black mustard plant, Brassica sinapioides, Roth (B. nigra, Koch, N.O. Cruciferoe), an erect annual plant attaining a height of 1 metre or more, is largely cultivated in Holland, Engla...
-White Mustard Seeds (Semina Sinapis Albae)
Source, Etc Brassica alba, Boissier (N.O. Cruciferoe), the white mustard, is cultivated like the black mustard, which it closely resembles, but not to so large an extent. It differs from the black mu...
-Linseed (Flax Seed, Semina Lini)
Source, Etc The flax plant, Linum usitatissimum, Linne (N.O. Linece), is a tall, erect annual, spread by cultivation over all temperate and tropical regions. Not only has the plant been known and cul...
-Cola Seeds (Semina Colae)
Source, Etc Cola seeds, sometimes called Cola or Kola nuts, Gooroo nuts, or Bissy nuts, are obtained from Cola vera, Schumann (N.O. Sterculiacece), a large and handsome tree resembling in habit the S...
-Cocoa Seeds (Semina Theobromatis)
Source, Etc The cocoa tree, Theobroma Cacao, Linne (N.O. Sterculiaceoe), is a native of tropical America, and is cultivated there as well as in other tropical countries, such as Java, Ceylon, the Wes...
-Guarana (Pasta Guarana)
Source, Etc Guarana is prepared from the seeds of Paullinia Cupdna, Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth (N.O. Sapindaceoe), an elegant climbing shrub indigenous to and common in Brazil, especially in the b...
-Tonco Beans (Semina Tonco)
Source, Etc Tonco (tonka or tonquin) beans are the seeds of two species of Dipteryx (N.O. Leguminosoe), viz. D. odorata, Willdenow, and D. oppositifolia, Willdenow, both trees of considerable size, t...
-Calabar Beans (Semina Physostigmatis)
Source, Etc Calabar beans are the ripe seeds of Physostigma vene-nosum, Balfour (N.O. Leguminosoe), a woody climbing plant indigenous to the west coast of Africa, especially near the mouths of the Ol...
-Butea Seeds (Buteae Semina)
Source, Etc Butea seeds are the seeds of Butea frondosa, Roxburgh (N.O. Leguminosce), a tree indigenous to India. Description The seeds are reniform in shape and very flat, from 25 to 38 mm. long, ...
-Fenugreek Seeds (Semina Foeni-Graeci)
Source, Etc Fenugreek, Trigonella Foenum-groecum, Linne (N.O. Leguminosoe), is an annual herb indigenous to the countries bordering on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean and largely cultivated i...
-Sweet Almonds (Amygdala Dulcis)
Source, Etc The sweet almond is the seed of Prunus Amygdalus, Stokes, var. dulcis, Baillon (N.O. Bosaceoe). The tree is a native probably of Persia and Asia Minor, but is cultivated in all the countr...
-Bitter Almonds (Amygdala Amara)
Source, Etc The bitter almond tree (Prunus Amygdalus, Stokes, var. amara, Baillon) is indistinguishable from the sweet by any permanent botanical character, and enjoys the same geographical distribut...
-Melon Pumpkin Seeds (Cucurbitae Semina Praeparata)
Source, Etc Melon pumpkin seeds are obtained from Gucurbita maxima, Duch. (N.O. Cucurbilaceoe), a native of the Levant but cultivated on the shores of the Mediterranean. For use in medicine they shou...
-Quince Seeds (Semina Cydoniae)
Source, Etc The quince is the fruit of Pyrus Cydonia, Linne (N.O. Rosaceoe), a small tree indigenous to Persia, but distributed by cultivation throughout central Europe and other warm countries; the ...
-Strophanthus Seeds (Semina Strophanthi)
Source, Etc The official strophanthus seeds are obtained from Strophanthus Kombe, Oliver (N.O. Apocynaceoe), a climbing plant of considerable size, indigenous to eastern tropical Africa, near the Nya...
-Nux Vomica (Semina Strychni, Nux Vomica)
Source, Etc The nux vomica tree, Strychnos Nux-vomica, Linne (N.O. Loganiacoe). is a small tree widely distributed in India, and occurring also in Ceylon, Siam, and northern Australia. Notwithstandin...
-Ignatius Beans (Semina Ignatii)
Source, Etc Ignatius beans are the seeds of Strychnos Ignatii, Bergius (N.O. Loganiacece), a stout climbing plant with woody stem, indigenous to the southern Philippine Islands. It became known to Eu...
-Stramonium Seeds (Thornapple Seeds, Semina Stramonii)
Source, Etc The leaves of the thornapple, Datura Stramonium, Linne (N.O. Solanaceoe), have already been described (p. 46), and the attention of the student has been directed to the white flower and s...
-Henbane Seeds (Semina Hyoscyami)
Source, Etc The henbane plant, Hyoscyamus niger; Linne (N.O. Sola-nacece), has been already alluded to (p. 49). The fruit of the plant is a small two-celled capsule, which dehisces transversely, the ...
-Datura Seeds (Daturae Semina)
Source, Etc Datura seeds are the dried seeds of Datura fastuosa, Linne, var. alba, Nees (N.O. Solanaceoe), an annual plant indigenous to India. Description The seeds are yellowish brown in colour, ...
-Kaladana (.Kaladana; Pharbitis Seeds)
Source, Etc Kaladana consists of the dried seeds of Ipomoea hederacea, Jacquin (N.O. Convolvulaceoe), a twining plant with a large, blue corolla resembling the major convolvulus of English gardens, c...
-Ispaghula (Ispaghula, Ispaghul, Spogel Seeds)
Source, Etc Ispaghul consists of the dried seeds of Plantago ovata, Forskal (N.O. Plantagineor), a herb widely distributed in the Punjab, Sind and Persia. Description The seeds are about 2 to 3 mm....
-Nutmegs (Myristicae Semina, Myristicae, Nux Moschata)
Source, Etc The nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans, Van Houtte (N.O. Myristicaceoe), is indigenous to the Molucca Islands and a few neighbouring islands, as well as north-western New Guinea, but has bee...
-Mace
Mace is the dried arillus of the nutmeg. It has its origin in a thickening of the funiculus extending to the outer integument of the seed near the exostome; it is therefore intermediate in nature betw...
-Castor Seeds (Castor-Oil Seeds, Semina Ricini)
Source, Etc The castor-oil plant, Ricinus communis, Linne (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe), is a native of India, but is diffused now over all tropical and subtropical countries. In India it may attain a height ...
-Croton Seeds (Semina Crotonis)
Source, Etc Croton seeds are the seeds of Croton Tiglium, Linne (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe), a small tree indigenous to and cultivated in India. They were used medicinally in the seventeenth century, but fe...
-Grains Of Paradise (Guinea Grains, Grana Paradisi)
Source, Etc Grains of paradise are the seeds of Amomum Melegueta, Roscoe (N.O. Scitamineoe), a herb attaining about 1.5 metres in height, indigenous to the west coast of Africa. These seeds were much...
-Colchicum Seeds (Semina Colchici)
Source, Etc The meadow saffron, Golchicum autumnale, Linne (N.O. Liliaceoe), is widely distributed over Europe, and abundant in some parts of England in moist meadows and pastures. It produces in the...
-Cevadilla Seeds (Sabadilla Seeds, Semina Cevadillae)
Source, Etc Cevadilla seeds are the ripe seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale, Asa Gray (N.O. Liliaceoe), a tall herbaceous plant growing on the lower mountain slopes near the eastern coast of Mexico, i...
-Areca Nuts (Betel Nuts, Semina Arecae)
Source, Etc Areca nuts are the seeds of Areca Catechu, Linne (N.O. Palmoe), a handsome palm with a tall slender stem crowned by a number of large elegant leaves. The tree is widely cultivated through...
-Seeds In Less Frequent Use
Jequirity Seeds. (Prayer beads) - The seeds of Abrus precatorius, Linne (N.O. Leguminiosoe), a common Indian and Brazilian shrub. The seeds are sharply characterised by their smooth, glossy surface an...
-Section V. Herbs And Entire Plants
The drugs that have been grouped together under this term comprise some consisting of the entire plant (chiretta, carrageen, ergot), others of the plant from which a small portion only has been remove...
-Aconite Herb (Herba Aconiti)
Source, Etc The aconite, monkshood, or wolfsbane, Aconitum Napellus, Linne (N.O. Banunculaceoe), is a perennial herb growing abundantly on the lower mountain slopes of Central Europe. It is cultivate...
-Broom Tops (Cacumina Scoparii)
Source, Etc The broom, Cytisus Scoparius, Link (N.O. Leguminosoe), is a woody shrub, attaining a height of 2 metres, indigenous to England, and distributed over temperate Europe. It was employed medi...
-Hemlock Herb (Herba Conii, Folia Conii)
Source, Etc The common or spotted hemlock, Conium maculatum, Linne (N.O. Umbelliferoe), is a biennial plant widely spread throughout temperate Europe, and generally distributed over Great Britain. It...
-Coltsfoot (Herba Farfarae)
Source, Etc The coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara, Linne (N.O. Compositoe), is a small herb with perennial creeping rhizome, abundant in Great Britain. The leaves appear much later than the flowering stem...
-Grindelia (Herba Grindeliae)
Source, Etc The drug consists of the dried leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia camporum, Greene (N.O. Compositae), the common 'gum plant' of California, and is collected in quantity near San Franc...
-Lobelia (Herba Lobeliae)
Source, Etc Lobelia or Indian tobacco, Lobelia inflata, Linne (N.O. Campanulaceoe), an erect annual herb with acrid milky juice (latex), is distributed over the eastern States of North America, and c...
-Indian Pink (Herba Spigeliae)
Source, Etc Spigella marilandica, Linne (N.O. Loganiaceoe), is an erect herb, widely distributed over the United States, especially in the south and west. The entire plant is collected in the autumn,...
-Chiretta (Chirata, Herba Chirettae)
Source, Etc Chiretta, Swertia Chirata, Hamilton (N.O. Gentianeoe), is an erect annual herb growing to a height of about a metre, and indigenous to the mountainous districts of Northern India. It has ...
-Bitter-Sweet (Stipites Dulcamarae)
Source, Etc The bitter-sweet or woody nightshade, Solanum Dulcamara, Linne (N.O. Solanaceoe), is a perennial shrubby plant with long climbing or straggling stems, common in England in hedges and thic...
-White Horehound (Herba Marrubii)
Source, Etc White horehound, Marrubium vulgare, Linne (N.O. Labiatoe), is an erect herbaceous plant with perennial root, widely distributed over Europe, but not very common in England. It is, however...
-Indian Hemp (Cannabis Indica)
Source, Etc The drug known as Indian hemp, or Cannabis indica, is derived from Cannabis sativa, Linne (N.O. Urticaceoe), cultivated in tropical districts of India. The plant is an annual dioecious h...
-Euphorbia Pilulifera (Herba Euphorbiae)
Source, Etc Euphorbia pilulifera, Linne (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe), is an annual herb indigenous to the hotter parts of India and occurring in all tropical countries. It has been used in India as a domesti...
-Savin Tops (Cacumina Sabinae)
Source, Etc The savin, Juniperus Sabina, Linne (N.O. Coniferoe), is a small evergreen shrub indigenous to the mountains of southern Europe, especially the southern Austrian and Swiss Alps, and freque...
-Carrageen (Chondrus; Irish Moss)
Source, Etc Irish moss, Chondrus crispus, Stackhouse (Class, Algoe; Subclass, Rhodophyceoe; Order, Gigartinaceoe), is not a moss, but a seaweed widely distributed on the northern shores of the Atlant...
-Bladderwrack (Fucus Vesiculosus)
Source, Etc Bladderwrack, Fucus vesiculosus, Linne (Class, Algoe,; Subclass, Phoeophyceoe; Order, Fucacea3), is a seaweed widely distributed on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and one of the common...
-Agar-Agar (Japanese Isinglass)
Source, Etc The name agar-agar is now usually applied to a gelatinous substance prepared in Japan from various species of Gelidium viz. G. elegans, Kutz., G. Amansii, Kutz. (N.O. Rhodophyceoe). The n...
-Cetraria (Iceland Moss)
Source, Etc Iceland moss, Cetraria islandica, Acharius (Class, Fungi; Subclass, Ascomycetes; Order, Discomycetes), is a foliaceous lichen indigenous to Great Britain and widely distributed over the n...
-Ergot
Source, Etc Ergot is the sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea, Tulasne, (N.O. Pyreno-mycetes) originating in the ovary of the rye, Secale cereale, Linne (N.O. Gramineoe). In the spring or early summer t...
-Herbs In Less Frequent Use
Pulsatilla (Pasque Flower) The leaves, stems and flowers of Anemone Pulsatilla, Linne (N.O. Ranunculaceoe). The plant produces a rosette of stalked leaves and an erect scape bearing a whorl of three ...
-Section VI. Woods
Under this heading are grouped together a number of drugs consisting of the wood of the trunk, branch, or root of trees. Medicinal woods are derived from dicotyledonous plants, and the following struc...
-Berberis (Berberis)
Source, Etc Berberis is the dried stem of Berberis aristata, de Candolle (N.O. Berberideoe) a shrub indigenous to India and Ceylon. Description The drug occurs in slightly undulating pieces, from 2...
-Guaiacum Wood (Lignum Guaiaci, Lignum Vitae)
Source, Etc The lignum vitae or guaiacum wood of commerce is derived from Guaiacum officinale, Linne, and G. sanctum, Linne (N.O. Zygophylleoe), both evergreen trees, the former a native of the West ...
-Guaiacum
The wood splits very irregularly, owing to the oblique and varying course taken by the wood fibres. Both these and the vessels - in fact, all the elements of the heartwood - are filled with a dark res...
-Quassia Wood (Lignum Quassiae)
Source, Etc The official quassiawood is derived from Picroena excelsa, Lindley (N.O. Simarubeoe), a tree of moderate size, common on the plains and lower mountains of Jamaica. Quassia wood was intro...
-Logwood (Lignum Haematoxyli)
Source, Etc The logwood tree, Hoematoxylon campechianum, Linne (N.O. Leguminosae), is a tree of moderate size, indigenous to Central America, but naturalised in the West Indian Islands. The use of th...
-Sappan (Sappan)
Source, Etc Sappan is the heartwood of Caesalpinia Sappan, Linne (N.O. Leguminosoe), a tree indigenous to India and the Malay Archipelago. Description The wood occurs in hard, heavy billets of vary...
-Red Sanders Wood (Red Sandal Wood, Lignum Pterocarpi)
Source, Etc Red sanders wood is the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus, Linne filius (N.O. Leguminosoe), a small tree indigenous to Southern India and the Philippine Islands. During the Middle Ages ...
-Sandal Wood (Yellow Sandal Wood, Lignum Santali)
Source, Etc The yellow sandal wood tree, Santalum album, Linne (N.O. Santalaceae), is a small tree distributed over India and the Malay Archipelago. It is found especially in Southern India, from Mys...
-Stems In Less Frequent Use
Tinospora (Gulancha). The dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia, Miers. (N.O. Menispermaceoe), a climbing shrub indigenous to tropical India. Straight or twisted, light, cylindrical pieces, or in slices,...
-Section VII. Barks
The term 'bark' is commonly employed by pharmacognosists to denote all the tissues of the stem and root of trees and shrubs exterior to the cambium. It comprises, therefore, botanically, such tegumen-...
-Barberry Bark (Cortex Berberidis)
Source, Etc The common barberry, Berberis vulgaris, Linne (N.O. Berberideae), is a shrub about 2 metres high, with three-lobed thorns at the bases of the tufts of leaves. It occurs scattered over Gre...
-Canella Bark (Wild Cinnamon Bark, Cortex Canellae)
Source, Etc Canella bark is obtained from Canella alba, Murray (N.O. Canellaceoe), a small tree distributed over the West Indian Islands and found also in Florida. With this tree the Spaniards became...
-Winter's Bark (True Winter's Bark, Cortex Winteranus)
Source, Etc True Winter's bark is derived from Drimys Winteri, Forster (N.O. Magnoliaceoe), a tree distributed throughout the whole of South America. It was first brought to Europe in 1579 by Captain...
-Cotton Root Bark (Gossypii Radicis Cortex)
Source, Etc Many species and varieties of Gossypium are cultivated in the United States, India, Egypt, etc. for the sake of the hairs that cover the seeds (see 'Cotton'); the most important are G. he...
-Cusparia Bark (Angostura Bark, Cortex Cuspariae)
Source, Etc Cusparia bark is obtained from Galipea officinalis, Hancock (N.O. Rutaceoe), a tree indigenous to the mountains of Venezuela. It was introduced into European medicine about the end of the...
-Simaruba Bark (Cortex Simarubae)
Source, Etc Simaruba bark is obtained from various species of Simaruba (S. officinalis, de Candolle, S. amara, Aublet, S. glauca, de Candolle), (N.O. Simarubeae), tall trees with long horizontal root...
-Euonymus Bark (Cortex Euonymi)
Source, Etc Euonymus bark is the dried root-bark of the wahoo tree, Euonymus atropurpureus, Jacquin (N.O. Celastrineoe), a tall erect shrub with small dark purple flowers succeeded by crimson fruits;...
-Alder Buckthorn Bark (Cortex Rhamni Frangulae)
Source, Etc The alder buckthorn, Rhamnus Frangula, Linne (N.O. Rhamneoe), is distributed generally over Europe. It is distinguished from the common buckthorn (R. catharticus, Linne), the only other i...
-Cascara Sagrada (Cortex Rhamni Purshiani, Sacred Bark, Chittem Bark)
Source, Etc Cascara sagrada is the bark of Rhamnus Purshianus, de Candolle (N.O. Rhamneoe), a shrub or small tree abundant in North California and in the States of Washington and Oregon, the bark bei...
-Acacia Bark (Acacia Bark)
Source, Etc The dried bark of Acacia arabica, Willdenow, or of A. decurrens, Willdenow (N.O. Leguminosoe). Both of these species are large trees, the former indigenous to India, Arabia, and Africa, t...
-Sassy Bark (Red Water Bark, Cortex Erythrophlei)
Source, Etc Sassy bark is derived from Eryihrophleum guineense, G. Don (N.O. Leguminosoe), a large tree widely distributed on the west coast of Africa (Upper Guinea and Senegambia). Possibly other sp...
-Wild Cherry Bark (Virginian Prune Bark, Cortex Pruni Virginianae)
Source, Etc The bark that is commonly known as ' wild cherry bark,' is obtained from Prunus serotina, Ehrhart (N.O. Rosaceoe), the black cherry, a tree widely distributed over North America, especial...
-Quillaja Bark (Panama Wood, Soap Bark, Cortex Quillaiae)
Source, Etc Quillaja bark, or, as it is often called, soap bark, is obtained from Quillaja saponaria, Molina (N.O. Bosaceoe), a large tree indigenous to Chili and Peru. The bark, which is called 'cul...
-Witch-Hazel Bark (Cortex Hamamelidis)
Source, Etc The witch hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, Linne (N.O. Hamamelideoe), is a common shrub in the United States and Canada. It attains a height of about 3 metres and resembles the common hazel b...
-Pomegranate Bark (Cortex Granati)
Source, Etc The pomegranate tree, Punica Granatum, Linne (N.O. Lythrarieoe), is a shrub or small tree indigenous to Northwestern India, but cultivated generally in the warmer parts of the temperate r...
-Black Haw Bark (Cortex Viburni Prunifolii)
Source, Etc Black haw bark is the root-bark of Viburnum pruni-folium, Linne (N.O. Caprifoliaceoe), a shrub indigenous to the eastern and central United States. Description The drug occurs in short,...
-Cinchona Bark (Cortex Cinchonae)
Source, Etc The genus Cinchona embraces, according to Baillon, about twenty species, all of which are indigenous to South America and restricted in that country to the chain of the Andes extending fr...
-Cinchona Bark (Cortex Cinchonae). Part 2
3. Shaving Shaving. By this modification of renewing, only a portion of the bark is removed by shaving; the remainder is left on as a protection to the tree, which therefore does not require any cove...
-Cinchona Bark (Cortex Cinchonae). Part 3
The colour of the inner surface is usually yellowish brown, and the taste resembles that of calisaya bark in being bitter as well as astringent. 4. G. succirubra. - This species yields a drug that is ...
-Alstonia (Alstonia, Dita Bark)
Source, Etc The official alstonia bark may be obtained either from Alstonia scholaris, Robert Brown (N.O. Apocynaceoe), a tree indigenous to India and the Philippine Islands or from A. constricta, P....
-Quebracho (White Quebracho, Quebracha, Aspidosperma)
Source, Etc The dried bark of Aspidosperma quebracho-bianco, Schlechtendal (N.O. Apocynaceoe), a large tree indigenous to the Argentine. Description Nearly flat pieces, 1 to 3 cm. thick; outer surf...
-Cinnamon Bark (Cortex Cinnamomi)
Source, Etc The cinnamon tree, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Breyn (N.O. Laurineoe), is a small evergreen tree indigenous to and cultivated in Ceylon. Cinnamon bark appears to have been collected from wild...
-Cassia Bark (Cassia Lignea, Chinese Cassia)
Source, Etc Cassia bark is obtained from Cinnamomum Cassia, Blume (N.O. Laurineoe), a medium-sized tree, probably a native of Cochin China, but cultivated now in the south-eastern provinces of the Ch...
-Oliveri Cortex (Oliver Bark, Black Sassafras)
Source, Etc Oliver bark is the dried bark of Cinnamomum Oliveri, Bailey (N.O. Laurineoe), a tree indigenous to New South Wales and Queensland. Description Flat strips about 20 cm. long, 4 cm. wide ...
-Bebeeru Bark (Bibiru Bark, Greenheart Bark, Cortex Nectandrae)
Source, Etc The greenheart tree, Nectandra Rodioei, Hooker (N.O. Laurineoe), is a large forest tree growing abundantly on the hills in British Guiana. Its tall, straight stem yields a hard and resist...
-Coto (True Coto And Paracoto Bark)
Source, Etc Coto bark was first sent to Europe about 1873 from Bolivia under the name of coto-cinchona. Its botanical source is unknown, but it appears to be derived from a tree belonging to the natu...
-Mezereon Bark (Cortex Mezerei)
Source, Etc Mezereon bark may, according to the British Pharmacopoeia 1898, be obtained from either of the following species of Daphne (N.O. Thymeloeacoe): 1. Daphne Mezereum, Linne, Mezereon, a sma...
-Cascarilla Bark (Cascarilla, Cortex Cascarillae)
Source, Etc Cascarilla bark is obtained from Croton Eleuteria, J. J. Bennett (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe), a shrub or small tree indigenous to the Bahama Islands, the name cascarilla having its origin probab...
-Slippery Elm Bark (Cortex Ulmi Fulvae)
Source, Etc The slippery elm, Ulmus fulva, Michaux (N.O. Urticaceoe), is a small tree indigenous to the central and northern United States. The bark is collected in the spring from the trunk and larg...
-Oak Bark (Cortex Quercus)
Source, Etc The British oak, Quercus robur, Linne (N.O. Cupu-liferce), is widely diffused over Europe and largely cultivated for its wood and especially for its bark, which, from the large proportion...
-Willow Bark (Cortex Salicis)
Source, Etc The willow bark of commerce is generally referred to the white or common willow, Salix alba, Linne (N.O. Salicineoe), a common tree on river-banks and marshy ground in England and through...
-Barks In Less Frequent Use
Indian Azadirach (Neem Bark; Margosa Bark) The dried stem-bark of Melia Azadirachta, Linne (N.O. Meliaceoe), a tree indigenous to India and Malay Archipelago. Channelled, tough, fibrous pieces up to ...
-Section VIII. Subterranean Organs
(Rhizomes, Corms, Bulbs, and Roots) The subterranean organs of perennial plants serve as storage-rooms for the reserve material destined for the subsequent use of the plant. These organs often contai...
-Hydrastis Rhizome (Golden Seal Rhizome, Rhizoma Hydrastis)
Source, Etc Golden seal, Hydrastis canadensis, Linne (N.O. Ranun-culacece), is a small herbaceous plant with perennial rhizome, widely distributed in woods in Canada and the eastern United States, be...
-Black Hellebore Rhizome (Rhizoma (Radix) Hellebori Nigri)
Source, Etc Black hellebore rhizome, or, as it is often, but less correctly, termed, root, is obtained from the Christmas rose, Hetteborus niger, Linne (N.O. Ranunculaceoe), a low herb with a perenni...
-Aconite Root (Radix Aconiti)
Source, Etc The aconite, monkshood, or wolfsbane, Aconltum Napellus, Linne (N.O. Ranunculaceoe), is a perennial herb growing abundantly on the lower mountain slopes of central Europe. It is cultivate...
-Cimicifuga (Rhizoma Cimicifugae, Radix Actaeae Racemosae, Black Snakeroot)
Source, Etc Cimicifuga racemosa, Elliot (Aetoea racemosa, Linne), is a tall herbaceous plant belonging to the natural order Ranunculaceoe. It grows freely in shaded woods in Canada and the United St...
-Pareira Brava (Pareira Root, Radix Pareirae)
Source, Etc The drug formerly official in the British Pharmacopoeia under the name Pareira Root is derived from Chondrodendron tomentosum, Ruiz and Pavon (N.O. Menispermaceoe), a climbing plant with ...
-Calumba Root (Colombo Root, Radix Calumbae)
Source, Etc Calumba root is obtained from Jateorhiza Columba, Miers (N.O. Menispermaceoe), a lofty climbing plant with annual herbaceous stems and swollen fleshy roots. It is indigenous to Portuguese...
-Podophyllum Rhizome (May-Apple Root, Rhizoma Podophylli)
Source, Etc The May-apple, Podophyllum peltatum, Linne (N.O. Berberidece), is a small herb with a long perennial creeping rhizome. It is a native of and common in the eastern United States and Canada...
-Indian Podophyllum Rhizome (Rhizoma Podophylli Indici)
Source, Etc Indian podophyllum rhizome is obtained from Podophyllum Emodi, Wallich (N.O. Berberideoe), a plant growing freely on the lower slopes of the Himalayas. Description The drug consists of ...
-Bloodroot (Rhizoma Sanguinariae)
Source, Etc Bloodroot is the rhizome of Sanguinaria canadensis, Linne (N.O. Papa-veraceoe), a herb with a perennial rhizome, widely distributed throughout Canada and the United States, growing freely...
-Senega Root (Radix Senegas)
Source, Etc Senega root is obtained from Polygala Senega, Linne (N.O. Polygaleoe), a small plant producing a perennial knotty rootstock, from which numerous slender stems 15 to 30 cm. high arise. It ...
-Rhatany Root (Radix Krameriae)
Source, Etc Two varieties of rhatany root, commercially distinguished as Para rhatany and Peruvian rhatany, are official; they are derived from two distinct species of Krameria belonging to the natur...
-Marshmallow Root (Radix Althaeas)
Source, Etc The marshmallow, Alihoea officinalis, Linne (N.O. Malvaceae), is not uncommon in moist or marshy places in southern England, and is widely distributed in similar situations in central and...
-Liquorice Root (Radix Glycyrrhizae)
Source, Etc The chief plants that yield the liquorice root of commerce are Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linne, G. glandulifera, Waldstein and Kitaibel, and G. glabra, var. -violacea. The British Pharmac...
-Subterranean Organs
Unpeeled Russian liquorice shows a close resemblance to the Spanish. It consists, however, chiefly of roots (instead of runners) which are destitute of pith and exhibit no traces of buds; their colour...
-Bryony Root (Radix Bryoniae)
Source, Etc The common bryony, Bryonia dioica, Jaequin (N.O. Cucurbitaceoe) is a climbing and trailing plant, with rough, hairy leaves, common in hedges and thickets in southern England. It must not ...
-Sumbul Rhizome (Sumbul Root, Musk Root, Radix Sumbul)
Source, Etc The botanical origin of the drug at present known in commerce and official in the British Pharmacopoeia under the name of Sumbul Root is not definitely known. It is generally referred to ...
-Ipecacuanha Root (Radix Ipecacuanhae)
Source, Etc Ipecacuanha root is obtained from Psychotria (Cephaleis) Ipecacuanha, Stokes (N.O. Eubiaceoe), a small plant about 30 cm. in height with a stem that is at first prostrate or ascending and...
-Ipecacuanha Root (Radix Ipecacuanhae). Continued
Other constituents are a glucosidal acid, ipecacuanhic acid, allied to quillajic acid, calcium oxalate and an abundance of starch. Emetine, C15H12N02, is a while amorphous alkaloid which darkens on e...
-Valerian Rhizome (Rhizoma Valerianae)
Source, Etc The common valerian, Valeriana officinalis, Linne (N.O. Valerianeoe), is an herbaceous plant widely diffused over Europe and Northern Asia. It is common in England in moist situations, at...
-Indian Valerian (Rhizoma Valerianae Indicae)
Source, Etc Indian valerian is the rhizome and roots of Valeriana Wallichii, de Candolle (N.O. Valerianeoe), which is widely distributed in the temperate Himalayas. Description The rhizome is nearl...
-Elecampane Root (Radix Inulae)
Source, Etc Elecampane, Inula Helenium, Linne (N.O. Compositoe), is a tall, herbaceous plant, with perennial rhizome, distributed over temperate Europe and Asia. For medicinal use the plant is cultiv...
-Pellitory Root (Radix Pyrethri)
Source, Etc Pellitory root is obtained from Anacyclus Pyrethrum, de Candolle (N.O. Compositoe), a small plant with perennial root, indigenous to Algeria. In habit and general appearance the plant res...
-Arnica Rhizome (Arnica Root, Rhizoma Arnicae)
Source, Etc Arnica rhizome, or arnica root as the drug is commonly termed, consists of the rhizome and roots of Arnica montana, Linne (N.O. Compositoe), a small plant with a creeping perennial rhizom...
-Dandelion Root (Radix Taraxaci)
Source, Etc The common dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, Wiggers (N.O. Compositoe), is widely distributed over Europe, Asia, and North America, and is in many cultivated districts a troublesome weed. ...
-Hemidesmus Root (Indian Sarsaparilla, Radix Hemidesmi)
Source, Etc Indian sarsaparilla or hemidesmus root is obtained from Hemidesmus indicus, Robert Brown (N.O. Asclepiadeoe), a climbing shrub indigenous to India and Ceylon. Description Hemidesmus roo...
-Gelsemium Rhizome (Yellow Jasmine Root, Radix Gelsemii)
Source, Etc The yellow jasmine, Gelsemium nitidum, Michaux (G. sempervirens, Aiton) (N.O. Loganiaceoe), is an elegant climbing plant indigenous to the southern United States; it ascends lofty trees a...
-Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza)
Source, Etc Picrorhiza is the dried rhizome of Picrorhiza Kurroa, Royle (N.O. Scrophularineoe), a small plant indigenous to the Alpine Himalayas. Description The rhizomes are greyish brown, more or...
-Gentian Root (Radix Gentianae)
Source, Etc Gentian root is the dried root and rhizome of the yellow gentian, Gentiana lutea, Linne (N.O. Gentianeoe), a stately herb with large, opposite, broadly ovate leaves and yellow flowers. It...
-Alkanet Root (Alkanna Root, Radix Anchusae)
Source, Etc Alkanet root is obtained from Alkanna tinctoria, Tauscher (N.O. Boragineoe), a small herbaceous plant with perennial root growing in sandy soil in southern Europe, Hungary, and Asiatic Tu...
-Comfrey Root (Symphyti Radix; Consolidae Radix)
Source, Etc Comfrey root is the dried rhizome and root of Symphytum officinale, Linne (N.O. Boragineoe), an indigenous and widely distributed perennial herb. The plant produces a large erect, branchi...
-Scammony Root (Radix Scammoniae)
Source, Etc Scammony root is obtained from Convolvulus Scammonia Linne (N.O. Convolvulaceoe), a twining plant indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean countries, and resembling the common bindweed but...
-Jalap (Radix Jalapae)
Source, Etc Jalap is obtained from Ipomoea Purga, Hayne (N.O. Convolvulacoe), a plant with climbing, twining stems indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Mexican Andes. It sends out slender runners ...
-Orizaba Jalap Root (Mexican Scammony, Ipomoeae Radix)
Source, Etc Orizaba jalap root is obtained from Ipomoea orizabensis, Ledanois, a Convolvulaceous plant growing near Orizaba in the Mexican Andes (about 65 miles south-west of Vera Cruz). It produces ...
-Turpeth (Turpethum, Radix Turpethi)
Source, Etc The dried root and stem of Ipomoea Turpethum, Robert Brown (N.O. Convolvulaceae), a native of India, Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago and N. Australia. Description Turpeth occurs in pieces...
-Belladonna Root (Radix Belladonnas)
Source, Etc The deadly nightshade, or belladonna, Atropa Belladonna, Linne (N.O. Solanaceoe), is a tall branching herb, attaining a height of 2 metres. It is widely distributed over central and south...
-Rhubarb Rhizome (Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Rhei)
Source, Etc The structure of commercial rhubarb indicates that the drug is derived from two species of Rheum. One of these is certainly R. officinale, Baillon; the other is probably R. palmatum, Linn...
-Rhubarb Rhizome (Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Rhei). Continued
Fig. 189. - Chinese Rhubarb (Shensi flat). Transverse section, showing the remains of the bark (as a narrow exterior layer), the cambium (as a dark line), the wood (with a more or less distinctly r...
-Kava Rhizome (Kava-Kava: Kavae Rhizoma)
Source, Etc Kava rhizome is the rhizome of Piper methysticum Forster (N.O. Piperacece), a shrub indigenous to the Sandwich Islands. The plant produces a large rhizome which should be freed from roots...
-Serpentary Rhizome (Serpentary Root, Virginian Snakeroot, Rhizoma
Serpentariae) Source, Etc Two varieties of serpentary, or, as it is sometimes termed, snakeroot, are official in the British Pharmacopoeia, viz. Virginian snakeroot and Texan or Red River snakeroot....
-Sassafras Root (Radix Sassafras)
Source, Etc The sassafras, Sassafras officinale, T. Nees and Ebermayer (N.O. Laurineoe), is a tree of medium size, widely distributed over the eastern United States, extending from Canada southwards ...
-Turmeric (Rhizoma Curcumas)
Source, Etc The plant yielding turmeric, Curcuma longa, Linne (N.O. Scitamineoe), is apparently a native of southern Asia, though no longer known in the wild state. It is largely cultivated in India,...
-Ginger (Zingiber, Rhizoma Zingiberis)
Source, Etc Ginger is the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Roscoe (N.O. Scitamineoe), a reed-like plant producing leafy stems a metre high, springing from branching rhizomes. It is a native of A...
-Galangal Rhizome (Lesser Galangal, Rhizoma Galangae)
Source, Etc Galangal root is the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum, Hance (N.O. Scitamineae), a reedlike plant, attaining about a metre in height, a native of and cultivated on the island of Hainan and ...
-Orris Rhizome (Orris Root, Rhizoma Iridis)
Source, Etc Orris rhizome, or root as the drug is commonly termed, is derived from three species of Iris (N.O. Irideoe), all of which are cultivated for that purpose, viz.: - Iris germanica, Linne, ...
-Sarsaparilla (Radix Sarsae, Radix Sarsaparillae)
Source, Etc Several varieties of sarsaparilla are imported but the one known as Jamaica sarsaparilla is the most esteemed in this country. This variety is obtained from Smilax ornata, Hooker filius (...
-Squill (Scilla, Bulbus Scillae, Radix Scillae)
Source, Etc The squill, Urginea Scilla, Steinheil (N.O. Liliaceoe), is a bulbous plant indigenous to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, and frequently appearing in great abundance. It is ...
-Urginea (Indian Squill, Urginea)
Source, Etc Indian squill is obtained from Urginea indica, Kunth, a plant resembling European squill but producing a smaller, tunicated bulb; it is found in sandy soil near the sea throughout India. ...
-Colchicum Corm (Colchicum Root, Radix Colchici)
Source, Etc Colchicum corm is the contracted subterranean stem of the meadow saffron, Colchicum autumnale, Linne (N.O. Liliaceae), a plant widely distributed over Europe and abundant in some parts of...
-White Hellebore Rhizome (Rhizoma Veratri Albi)
Source, Etc White hellebore, Veratrum album, Linne (N.O. Liliaceae), is an herbaceous plant with erect perennial rhizome, common in the mountains of central and southern Europe. It produces large, ov...
-American Veratrum (Green Hellebore, Rhizoma Veratri Viridis)
Source, Etc Veratrum viride, Aiton (N.O. Liliaceoe), is a plant so closely resembling V. album that its claim to be considered a distinct species is very doubtful. It is common in the eastern United ...
-Sweet Flag Rhizome (Rhizoma Acori Calami)
Source, Etc The sweet flag or sweet sedge, Acorus Calamus, Linne (N.O. Aroideae), is a native of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, but has become widely diffused by cultivation. It has established it...
-Couch Grass Rhizome (Rhizoma Tritici, Radiz Graminis)
Source, Etc The couch grass, Agropyron repens, Beauvais (Tri-ticum repens, Linne, N.O. Gramineoe), is abundant in this country, being often a troublesome weed. It produces a slender rhizome, running ...
-Male Fern Rhizome (Rhizoma Filicis Maris, Filix Mas)
Source, Etc The male fern, Dryopteris Filix-mas, Schott (N.O. Filicineoe), is abundant in Great Britain, and one of the commonest of our indigenous ferns. It produces a circular tuft of fronds attain...
-Subterranean Organs In Less Frequent Use
Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum). The rhizome and roots of Caulophyllum thalictroides (Linne), Michaux (N.O. Berberideoe), an herbaceous plant of the United States. Horizontal, about 10 cm. long and 6 to 12...
-Starch (Amylum)
Source, Etc The official varieties of starch (Amylum, B.P.) are those obtained from wheat, Triticum sativum, Lamarck, from maize, Zea Mays, Linne, and from rice, Oryza sativa, Linne (N.O. Gramineoe)....
-Lycopodium (Lycopodium)
Source, Etc Lycopodium consists of the spores of the common clubmoss, Lycopodium clavatum, Linne (N.O. Lycopodiaceoe), and probably other species. The clubmoss, with its long creeping stems and ascen...
-Lupulin (Lupulinum)
Source, Etc Lupulin consists of the glands obtained from the strobiles of HumulusLupulus, Linne (N.O. Urlicaceoe.) The cone-like, collective fruits of the hop (see p. 128) are known as strobiles, and...
-Kamala (Kamala)
Source, Etc Kamala consists of the glands and hairs that cover the fruits of Mallotus philippinensis, Muller Argoviensis (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe), a small tree widely distributed throughout India, Ceylon...
-Cotton (Cotton Wool, Gossypium)
Source, Etc Cotton wool consists of the hairs of the seed of Gossypium barbadense, Linne (N.O. Malvaceae), and other species of Gossypium. The cotton plants, of which many varieties exist, are eithe...
-Galls (Galla)
Source, Etc Galls are excrescences on the twigs of Quercus infectoria, Olivier (N.O. Cupuliferoe), resulting from the deposition of the eggs of Cynips galloe tinclorioe, Olivier. Under the generic t...
-Cowhage (Mucuna)
Source, Etc Cowhage consists of the hairs attached to the fruit of Mucuna pruriens, de Candolle (N.O. Leguminosoe), a climbing plant indigenous to India, Africa, and South America. The fruit, a smal...
-Section X. Dried Latex
Latex is the name given to the milky liquid contained in laticiferous tissue. This tissue may take the form of elongated, branching cells (Apocynaceoe, Asclepideoe, Urticaceoe, most Euphorbiaceoe) or ...
-Opium
Source, Etc Opium consists of the dried latex of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, Linne (N.O. Papaveraceoe). The drug was apparently known in very remote times, as both the Greeks and Romans were...
-Opium. Continued
The bulk of the opium normally imported into England consists of the Turkey and Persian drugs; the latter is largely exported to South America and elsewhere for smoking, but when sufficiently cheap is...
-Latex
Assay Opium may be assayed by the official process. Uses Opium is one of the most valuable of drugs. It is unexcelled as an hypnotic and sedative, and is frequently administered to relieve pain and...
-Lactucarium
Source, Etc Lactucarium consists of the dried latex of Lactuca virosa, Linne (N.O. Compositae), and other species of Lactuca. Lactuca virosa is a native of central and southern Europe, but is cultiva...
-Guttapercha
Source, Etc Guttapercha is obtained from the latex of several species of Palaquium and Payena (N.O. Sapotaceoe), the principal being P. oblongifolium, Burck, P. borneense, Burck, P. Leerii, Burck, an...
-Caoutchouc
Source, Etc Caoutchouc is a substance contained in the latex of a large number of plants, especially of those belonging to the natural orders Euphorbiaceoe, Urticaceoe, and Apocynaceoe, but it is by ...
-Euphorbium (Euphorbium)
Source, Etc Euphorbium is the dried latex of Euphorbia resini-fera, Berg (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe), a plant about a metre in height, resembling in appearance and habit a cactus, and common in the mountain...
-Section XI. Dried Juices
A number of plants exude on incision liquids that have been contained in certain specialised cells. These liquids differ in their composition from the latex contained in laticiferous tissue and also f...
-Aloes (Aloe)
Source, Etc Aloes is officially described as the juice that flows from the transversely cut leaves of certain species of Aloe (N.O. Liliaceoe) evaporated to dryness. The aloe plants are indigenous t...
-Aloes
Varieties Of Aloes The chief commercial varieties of aloes may be conveniently considered under three heads, viz.: East African, South African, and West Indian. ...
-East African Aloes
1. Socotrine Aloes Socotrine Aloes. This variety is stated in the British Pharmacopoeia to be derived from Aloe Perryi, Baker, and probably other species. It is brought by Arab traders from the east ...
-South African Aloes
3. Cape Aloes Cape Aloes. Large quantities of aloes of excellent quality are exported from Mossel Bay to Cape Town in Cape Colony. It is obtained from Aloe ferox, Miller, a species widely distributed...
-West Indian Aloes
5. Barbados Aloes Barbados Aloes. But very little aloes is now produced in the island of Barbados, and that which bears this name is in reality prepared in the Dutch islands of Curacao, Aruba, and Bo...
-Kino (East Indian, Malabar, Madras, Or Cochin Kino)
Source, Etc The term ' kino ' or ' kano ' was first applied to a red astringent substance imported from West Africa about the middle of the eighteenth century. This was obtained from Pterocarpus erin...
-Red Gum (Eucalyptus Kino, Gummi Eucalypti)
Source, Etc Eucalyptus Kino, or as it is commonly termed ' red gum,' is a variety of Australian kino obtained from Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlechtendal (N.O. Myrtaceoe), and other species (E. marginata...
-Butea Gum (Bengal Kino, Buteae Gummi)
Source, Etc Butea gum is the juice obtained by incising the stem of Butea frondosa, Roxburgh (N.O. Leguminosoe), dried. Description The drug usually occurs in small, irregular, angular fragments to...
-Elaterium
Source, Etc Elateriumisthe feculence that is deposited, on standing, by the juice of the nearly ripe fruit of the Squirting Cucumber, collected and dried. This plant, Ecballium Elaterium, Richard (N....
-Section XII. Extracts
Under this heading are grouped together drugs prepared by evaporating aqueous decoctions of various plants. ...
-Gambier (Pale Catechu, Terra Japonica, Catechu)
Source, Etc Gambier is an extract prepared from the leaves and young shoots of Uncaria Gambier, Roxburgh (N.O. Rubiaceoe). This plant is a climbing shrub indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and larg...
-Cutch (Catechu, Black Catechu, Catechu Nigrum)
Source, Etc Cutch is an extract prepared from the heartwood of Acacia Catechu, Willdenow (N.O. Leguminosoe), a tree of medium size common in India and Burma. It yields a valued timber, and also an as...
-Curare
Source, Etc Under the name of curare several (at least three) varieties of a dark, extract-like mass appear in commerce. They are all arrow poisons prepared by tribes of Indians in the valleys of the...
-Section XIII. Gums
Under this name a number of substances resembling in their properties acacia gum, tragacanth, or cherry gum have been grouped together. They are all insoluble in alcohol, ether, etc, but dissolve or a...
-Acacia Gum (Gum Arabic, Acaciae Gummi)
Source, Etc Acacia gum is a dried exudation from the stem and branches of various species of Acacia (N.O. Leguminosoe), especially of Acacia Senegal, Willdenow, a small tree attaining a height of 5 o...
-Ghatti Gum (Gummi Indicum)
Source, Etc Ghatti gum is obtained from Anogeissus latifolia, Wallich (N.O. Combretaceoe), a large tree indigenous to India and Ceylon. Description The gum occurs in vermiform or rounded tears, the...
-Tragacanth Gum (Tragacantha)
Source, Etc Tragacanth gum is a dried, gummy exudation from the stem of Astragalus gummifer, Labillardiere (N.O. Leguminosoe), and other species of Astragalus. These plants are small, branching, tho...
-Section XIV. Resins
Under the term resin a number of substances possessing certain properties in common are grouped together, but it is impossible to define the group as sharply as those of the fats, waxes, etc. The most...
-Colophony (Amber Resin, Resin, Resina)
Source, Etc Colophony is the residue left after the distillation of the oil of turpentine from the crude oleo-resin of various species of Pinus (N.O. Coniferae). Most Coniferous trees contain in the...
-Burgundy Pitch (Pix Burgundica)
Source, Etc Burgundy pitch is a resinous exudation obtained from the stem of Picea excelsa, Link (N.O. Coniferoe), melted and strained. Burgundy pitch is collected chiefly in Finland, smaller quanti...
-Amber (Succinite, Succinum)
Source, Etc Amber is the fossil resin of certain extinct Coniferous trees, chiefly of Finns succinifera, Conwentz. The term is a generic one, several varieties of amber having been distinguished, but...
-Guaiacum Resin (Resina Guaiaci)
Source, Etc Guaiacum resin is the resin obtained from the stem of Guaiacum officinale, Linne, or Guaiacum sanctum, Linne (N.O. Zygophylleoe). The bulk of the resin of commerce is produced in the foll...
-Araroba (Goa Powder)
Source, Etc Araroba, or, as it is often termed, Goa powder, is a substance found in cavities in the trunk of Andira Arardba, Aguiar (N.O. Leguminosoe), a large tree common in the damp forests of Bahi...
-Benzoin (Benzoinum)
Benzoin occurs in several well-defined commercial varieties, one only of which, viz., Sumatra benzoin, is official. The trees from which benzoin is obtained do not contain any special secreting cells...
-Sumatra Benzoin
Description This, the official variety, is obtained from Styrax Benzoin, Dryander (N.O. Styraceoe), a tree indigenous to Sumatra and Java. The drug is obtained by hacking the bark of the tree with an...
-Benzoin
Description This variety of benzoin is collected in the Siamese province of Luang Prabang, in the neighbourhood of the Mekong new wood in which a ring (or sometimes two rings) of oleo-resin ducts are...
-Siam Benzoin
River. Part is exported to London via Singapore, but much reaches the market by way of France. It appears in commerce either as separate tears or in the form of masses composed of tears more or less f...
-Penang Benzoin
Two distinct varieties of Sumatra benzoin have been known under this name. The one, now generally termed storax-benzoin, has a very agreeable odour resembling storax; the other, known as ' glassy Pena...
-Palembang Benzoin
This variety, which is not official, is produced in Sumatra, it is said from S. Benzoin. It is commonly imported in tins, four of which are packed in a wooden case. It differs markedly in appearance f...
-Dragon's Blood (Sanguis Draconis)
Source, Etc Dragon's blood is a resinous secretion produced on the fruits of Doemondrops propinquus, Beccari, D. ruber, Martius, and probably other species. The two species named were formerly includ...
-Mastich (Mastiche)
Source, Etc Mastich is a resin obtained from a broad-leaved variety of Pistacia Lentiscus, Linne (N.O. Anacardiaceoe), a shrub or small tree indigenous to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean...
-Sandarac (Gum Juniper, Sandaraca)
Source, Etc Sandarac is a resin obtained from Callitris quadrivalvis, (N.O. Coniferoe), a small tree about 7 metres high, growing on the mountains in the north-west of Africa. It is usually obtained ...
-Shellac (Lac, Lacca)
Source, Etc Shellac is a resinous exudation that encrusts the bodies of Coccus (Tachardia) Lacca, Kerr (Order Hemiptera, Family Coccidce). These minute insects live upon plant juices sucked up by a ...
-Section XV. Gum-Resins
The gum-resins consist, as their name indicates, chiefly at least of resin and gum. With these constituents, however, there are always associated small quantities of other substances such as volatile ...
-Gamboge (Cambogia)
Source, Etc Gamboge is a gum-resin obtained from Garcinia Hanburii, Hooker Alius (N.O. Guttiferoe), a tree of moderate size found in Cambodia, Siam, and the southern parts of Cochin China. The bark ...
-Scammony (Scammonium)
Source, Etc Scammony is a gum-resin obtained by incision from the living root of Convolvulus Scammonia, Linne (N.O. Convolvulaceoe). The scammony plant is a twining plant indigenous to the eastern M...
-Myrrh (Myrrha)
Source, Etc Myrrh is a gum-resin obtained from the stem of Commiphora Myrrha, Holmes, and probably other species (N.O. Bur-seraceoe). It is collected chiefly in Somaliland (in the north-east of Afric...
-Olibanum (Frankincense, Olibanum)
Source, Etc Olibanum or, as it is sometimes termed, frankincense (to be carefully distinguished from American frankincense) is a gum-resin obtained from Boswellia Carterii, Birdwood, and other specie...
-Ammoniacum (Ammoniacum)
Source, Etc Ammoniacum is a gum-resin exuded from the flowering and fruiting stem of Dorema Ammoniacum, D. Don (N.O. Umbelliferoe), and probably other species, distributed throughout Persia and exten...
-Galbanum (Galbanum)
Source, Etc Galbanum is a gum-resin obtained from Ferula galbaniflua, Boissier and Buhse (N.O. Umbelliferoe), and probably from other species. These plants are, like those yielding ammoniacum, large...
-Asafetida (Asafetida)
Source, Etc Asafetida is a gum resin obtained from the root of Ferula fcetida, Kegel, F. rubricaulis, Boissier (N.O. Umbelliferoe), and probably other species. These plants, like those yielding ammon...
-Section XVI. Oleo-Resins
The drugs that are grouped together under the above heading are mixtures of resins with volatile oils or oily liquids. They are secreted in schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts which may be of eithe...
-Canada Turpentine (Canada Balsam, Terebinthina Canadensis)
Source, Etc Canada turpentine is an oleo-resin obtained by incision from the balsam fir, Abies balsdmea, Miller, and the hemlock spruce, A. canadensis (Linne), Miller (N.O. Conifeoe), trees widely di...
-Copaiba (Copaiva, Balsam Of Copaiba)
Source, Etc Copaiba is an oleo-resin obtained from the trunk of Copaifera Lansdorfii, Desfontaines (N.O. Leguminosoe), and other species of Copaifera. The trees from which the official oleo-resin is...
-Maracaibo Copaiba
Description Maracaibo copaiba is a clear, viscous, brownish-yellow liquid with a slight but distinct green fluorescence. It possesses a characteristic aromatic odour and an unpleasant, acrid and rath...
-Para Copaiba
Description Para copaiba is a thin, clear, bright yellow liquid quite free from any fluorescence. The specific gravity varies from 0.917 to 0.980, but is usually low. In accordance with the greater f...
-African Copaiba
African copaiba, the botanical source of which is not known, is imported from the Niger basin in West Africa. It is a rathei dark yellow, slightly fluorescent oleo-resin possessing an aromatic, pipera...
-Adulterants of Copaiba
The British Pharmacopoeia (1914) recognises any variety of South American copaiba containing about 45 per cent, of volatile oil, and therefore excludes thin Para varieties containing much over that pr...
-Elemi (Manila Elemi, Resina Elemi)
Source, Etc The term ' elemi' is a generic one and is applied to a number of oleo-resins having certain physical properties in common. Tschirch enumerates no fewer than 46 varieties, all of which are...
-Balsam Of Tolu (Balsamum Tolutanum)
Source, Etc Balsam of Tolu is a balsam obtained by making incisions in the trunk of Myroxylon Toluifera, Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth (N.O. Leguminosoe). The tree is a native of Colombia, and occur...
-Balsam Of Peru (Balsamum Peruvianum)
Source, Etc Balsam of Peru is a balsam exuded from the trunk of Myroxylon Pereiroe, Klotsch (N.O. Leguminosoe), after the bark has been beaten and scorched. The tree grows in the forests of that par...
-Storax (Styrax)
Source, Etc Storax is a balsam obtained from the trunk of Liquid-ambar orientalis, Miller (N.O. Hamamelideoe), a tree of medium size forming forests in the south-west of Asiatic Turkey. Neither the ...
-Section XVII. Tars And Empyreumatic Oils
These are viscous or oily substances produced by the destructive distillation of organic substances such as wood, coal, etc. ...
-Tar (Wood Tar, Stockholm Tar, Pix Liquida)
Source, Etc Tar or, as it is better termed, wood-tar (Pix liquida), to distinguish it from coal-tar (Pix carbonis), is a bituminous liquid obtained from the wood of Pinus sylvestris, Linne (N.O. Coni...
-Coal-Tar (Pix Carbonis)
Source, Etc Coal-tar is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal in iron or clay retorts. The gaseous products that are formed during the process constitute ordinary illuminating gas; the liq...
-Juniper-Tar Oil (Huile De Cade, Oil Of Cade, Oleum Cadinum)
Source, Etc Juniper-tar oil is obtained by the destructive distillation of the wood of Juniperus Oxycedrus, Linne (N.O. Coniferoe); it is prepared chiefly in the mountains in the south-east of France...
-Section XVIII. Fixed Oils, Fats And Waxes
Fixed oils and fats are substances of either vegetable or animal origin, and consist of various organic acids of high molecular weight belonging chiefly to the stearic, oleic, linolic or ricinoleic ac...
-Poppy Oil (Oleum Papaveris)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of Papaver somni-ferum, Linne. (Compare ' Poppy Capsules.') Description, Etc Pale to golden-yellow; specific gravity 0.924 to 0.927; iodine value about ...
-Expressed Oil Of Mustard (Oleum Sinapis Expressum)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of Brassicasinapioides, Roth, and of Brassica alba, Boissier. (Compare ' Black Mustard Seeds.') Description, Etc Brownish-yellow; specific gravity 0.914...
-Rape, Oil (Oleum Rapae, Colza Oil)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of Brassica campestris, Linne, B. Napus, Linne, and other species of Brassica (N.O. Cruciferoe). Description, Etc Bright yellow, rather viscous; specifi...
-Chaulmoogra Oil (Gynocardia Oil, Oleum Chaulmoograe)
Source, Etc The soft fat expressed from the seeds of Taraktogenos Kurzii, King (N.O. Bixineoe), Burma. It was formerly supposed to be derived from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata, Robert Brown, which...
-Cotton-Seed Oil (Oleum Gossypii)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of various species of Gossypium (N.O. Malvaceoe). The seeds are black, ovoid to rounded, 7 to 9 mm. long, 3 to 5 mm. wide; the section shows folded cotyl...
-Oil Of Theobroma (Cocoa Butter, Oleum Theobromatis, Butyrum Cacao)
Source, Etc The solid fat expressed from the seeds of Theobroma Cacao, Linne (N.O. Sterculiaceoe). See p. 153. Description, Etc Hard, brittle, pale yellow; softens at about 25; melting-point 3...
-Linseed Oil (Oleum Lini)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of Linum usitatis-simum, Linne (N.O. Lineoe). (Compare ' Linseed,' p. 149). Description Yellowish-brown, with characteristic odour; specific gravity 0.9...
-Arachis Oil (Nut Oil, Ground Nut Oil, Pea Nut Oil, Oleum Arachidis)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of Arachis hypogoea Linne (N.O. Leguminosoe). The plant is an annual, attaining 1 m. in height; the lower flowers develop fruits which bury themselves in ...
-Almond Oil (Oleum Amygdalae)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the Bitter or Sweet Almond. See p. 161. Description, Etc Pale yellow, nearly inodorous. Specific gravity 0.915 to 0.920; iodine value 93 to 100; does not congeal ...
-Olive Oil
Source, Etc Olive oil is the oil expressed from the pericarp of the ripe fruit of the olive tree, Olea europoea, Linne (N.O. Oleaceoe). The olive is a small tree widely distributed by cultivation, e...
-Sesame Oil (Gingelly Oil, Teel Oil, Benne Oil, Oleum Sesami)
Source, Etc Sesame oil is the oil expressed from the seeds of Sesamum indicum, Linne (N.O. Pedalineoe), an annual plant about 1 m. high, extensively cultivated in India, China, Japan and most tropica...
-Croton Oil (Oleum Crotonis)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of Croton Tiglium, Linne (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe). See p. 184. Description, Etc A brownish yellow to dark reddish brown, viscous, slightly fluorescent oil w...
-Castor Oil (Oleum Ricini)
Source, Etc The oil expressed from the seeds of Ricinus communis, Linne (N.O. Euphorbiaceoe). See p. 182. Description, Etc Nearly colourless, viscous, slight odour, acrid unpleasant taste. Specific...
-Coco Nut Oil (Coprah Oil, Oleum Cocois, Oleum Cocois Nuciferae)
Source, Etc The fat obtained by expression from the kernels of the coco nut, Cocos nucifera, Linne, and C. butyracea (N.O. Palmoe), cultivated in southern India, Ceylon, South America and other tropi...
-Cod-Liver Oil (Oleum Morrhuae)
Source, Etc Cod-liver oil is the oil extracted from the fresh liver of the cod, Gadus morrhua, Linne (Phylum Chordata, Sub-phylum Craniata, Class Pisces, Order Teleostei). The cod inhabits the North...
-Suet (Sevum)
Source, Etc. - The official suet is mutton suet, obtained from the abdomen of the sheep, Ovis aries, Linne (Phylum Chordata, Sub-phylum Craniata, Class Mammalia, Order Ungulata). It is purified by tho...
-Lard (Adeps)
Source, Etc Lard is the purified fat from the abdomen of the hog, Sus scrofa, Linne (Phylum Chordata, Sub-phylum Craniata, Class Mammalia, Order Ungulata). The abdominal fat of the hog is obtained i...
-Beeswax (Cera Flava; Cera Alba)
Source, Etc Beeswax is the wax separated from the honeycomb of the hive bee, Apis mellifica, Linne, and possibly other species of Apis (Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Hymenoptera). Wax is a...
-Spermaceti (Cetaceum)
Source, Etc Spermaceti is a solid wax obtained from the head of the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, Linne (Phylum Chordata, Sub-phylum Graniata, Class Mammalia, Order Cetacea), and probably othe...
-Wool Fat (Lanolin, Adeps Lanae)
Source, etc. - Wool fat is a fatty or, more correctly, waxy substance secreted by the hairs constituting the fleece of the sheep Ovis aries, Linne (Phylum Ghordata, Sub-phylum Craniata, Class Mammalia...
-Manna (Manna)
Source, Etc Manna is strictly a generic term applied to the saccharine exudations from a number of different plants belonging to various natural orders, but when not otherwise specified is understood...
-Honey (Mel)
Source, Etc Honey is a saccharine substance deposited by the hive bee, Apis mellifica, Linne (Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Hymenoptera), and other species of Apis in the cells of the honey...
-Section XX. Camphor
Source, Etc Camphor is a crystalline substance contained in the volatile oil of the camphor tree, Cinnamomum Camphora, Linne (N.O. Laurineoe), a large tree indigenous to the island of Formosa, and to...
-Section XXI. Animals And Animal Glands And Secretions
Organotherapy, or the treatment of disease by means of animal secreting organs or of preparations derived from them, has been continually in use for some 5,000 years, but it has recently been scientif...
-Leech (Hirudo)
Source, Etc Leeches are aquatic worms, and are bred in ponds for medicinal use, chiefly in Germany (near Hanover) and in the south of France (near Marseilles). Two varieties are official - viz. the s...
-Cochineal (Coccus)
Source, Etc Commercial cochineal is the dried, fecundated, female insect, Coccus cacti, Linne (Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Hemiptera). The cochineal insects are indigenous to Central Ame...
-Animal Glands. Ductless Glands
The ductless glands include a group of organs of very varied functions. They have no special ducts to convey their secretions either into the digestive tract or elsewhere. They do, however, form subst...
-Suprarenal Gland
The suprarenal gland is a small, ductless, glandular organ situated above the kidney. It consists chiefly of an outer yellowish portion or cortex and an inner darker portion or medulla. This inner por...
-Thyroid Gland (Glandulae Thyroidei)
Source, Etc The official thyroid gland is obtained from the sheep, Ovis aries, Linne (N.O. Ungulata). Description The thyroid gland is a highly vascular organ consisting of two almond-shaped lobes ...
-Pancreas (Pancreas)
Source, Etc The pancreas used in medicine is obtained from the pig, Sus scrofa, Linne (N.O. Ungulata). Description The pancreas is a gland, weighing (in man) from 60 to 100 grammes, situated near t...
-Ox Gall (Ox Bile, Fel Bovinum)
Source, Etc Ox gall is the liquid contained in the gall-bladder of the ox, Bos taurus, (Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia, Order Ungulata). The gall-bladder is a pyriform bag attached to the under sur...
-Pepsinum (Pepsin)
Source, Etc Commercial pepsin is a mixture of the enzyme pepsin with other substances, obtained from the mucous membrane lining the stomach of the pig, sheep, or calf. The surface of this mucous mem...
-Gelatin (Gelatinum)
Source, Etc Gelatin is an albuminoid substance obtained by boiling skins, cartilages, etc, with water, straining, skimming, and otherwise purifying the solution, evaporating and finally drying by exp...
-Musk (Moschus)
Source, Etc Musk is the dried secretion from the preputial follicles of the musk deer, Moschus moschiferus, Linne (Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia, Order Ungulata), The musk deer is a small, gracefu...
-Castor (Castoreum)
Source, Etc The drug that is known by this name consists of the dried preputial follicles of the beaver, Castor fiber, Linne (Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia, Order Rodentia). The beaver inhabits pr...
-Animal Substances In Less Frequent Use
Cuttle-fish Bone (Cuttle-fish Shell, Os Sepioe) is the internal shell of the cuttle, Sepia officinalis, Linne (N.O. Dibranchiata). A large mollusc common round the coast of Great Britain and abundant...







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