This section is from the book "Materia Medica And Therapeutics - Vegetable Kingdom", by Charles D. F. Phillips. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica And Therapeutics: Vegetable Kingdom.
The occasional occurrence of symptoms, after the use of large doses of cinchona (less frequently after pure quinine), which resemble those which accompany a malarial paroxysm is undoubted. The marked peculiarity, however, which characterizes malarial disease is a succession of paroxysms without apparent renewal of the exciting cause. This does not occur with cinchona; Hahnemann himself stating that renewal of the artificial fever only occurred after fresh doses of the drug.2 It will be seen, there
1 (Traité de Therapeutique, 9th ed., 1877, vol. ii.. p. 576.)
2 (As both homoeopaths and those who are not have fallen into error as to what Hahnemann did say in this connection, we hero give in full the passage, as found in a fore, that cinchona is not homoeopathic to the periodical feature of the disease, though it may sometimes produce symptoms that closely counterfeit an individual paroxysm. Pfluger gives a remarkable instance of this. - (Berl. klin. Wochenschrift, No. 37, 1877)).
Physiological Action of Quinine. - This subject has recently assumed vast proportions, and every month adds so much to our knowledge that it is nearly impossible that this article should fail to omit some more or less important facts which will have been published by the time it appears. It is necessary to consider quinine first in its physiological relations to protoplasm, and afterwards as to its action on the various organs of the body. That quinine in large doses is a protoplasm-poison has been lately proved by a number of observers; the fact having been first discovered by Binz, of Bonn, and subsequently verified by many of his pupils, and by various other physiologists. The latest demonstration of it was given by Dr. Buchanan Baxter in an elaborate research published in November last.2
As long ago as 1849 Buchheim and Engel had observed that quinine had power to check the progress of alcoholic fermentation; and the interesting researches of Pasteur, which came later, directed general attention to the importance of the low organisms which are present in fermenting liquor. In 1868 Binz published his first researches, which made it evident that quinine exercises a restraining action on the growth and movements of protozoa, and in large enough dose destroys their life. In this and subsequent papers by Binz, and by Scharrenbroich and Martin, it was further shown that this influence applied also to the development and to the migrations of the white corpuscles of the blood; and although there have been disputes as to the degree of saturation of the blood with quinine which is required in order to arrest the movements of the corpuscles, there can be no question now that this action exists, and that it can be carried to an extent which is even fatal to the life of the animal. In the interesting paper by Buchanan Baxter, the process of investigation is described very clearly. The hydrochlorate of quinine was dissolved in 0.75 per cent. solution of common salt; a large drop of this mixture having been placed on a glass, the cut surface of a newt's tail was touched with a clean cover-glass one inch in diameter; a few seconds having been permitted to elapse to allow of coagulation beginning, the cover-glass was carefully inverted on the drop. The excess of the fluid was then drained from the edges of the preparation with bibulous paper, and a ring of oil painted around it to prevent evaporation. Baxter makes the following very practical remarks on the general phenomena to be observed: note to his translation of Cullen's Materia Medica, Leipzig, 1790. Bd. ii., p. 109: " Ich nahm des Versuchs halber etliche Tage zweimal täglich jedesmal vier Quentchen gute China ein; die Fusse, die Finsferspitzen, u s. w., wurden mir erst kalt; ich ward matt und schlafrig, dann fing mir das Herz an zu klopfen, mein Pulz ward hart und geschwind; eine unleidliche Aengstlichkeit, ein Zittern (aber ohne Schauder), eine Abschlagenheit durch alle Glieder; dann Klopfen im Kopfe, Röthe der Wangen, Durst, kurz alle mir sonst beim Wechselfieber gewöhnlichen Symptomen erscheinen nach einander. doch ohne eigentlichen Fieberschauder. Mit Kurzem: auch die mir bei Wechselfiebern gewohnlichen besonders characterischen Symptomen, die Stumpfheit der Sinne, die Art von Steifigkeit in alien Gelenken. besonders aber die taube widrige Empfindnng. welche in dem Pei-iostium über alien Knochen des ganzen Korpers ihren Sitz zu haben scheint - alle erschienen. Dieser Paroxysm dauerte zwei bis drei Stun-den jedesmal, und erneuerte sich wenn ich diese Gabe wiederholte, sonst nicht. Ich hörte auf. und ich war gesund.")
1Practitioner, Nov., 1873.
"It is important to define strictly what is meant by the term 'migratory movement' as used in the following pages. If a drop of newt's blood be prepared with salt solution in the manner just described, and examined some hours after, the following will be among the appearances presented by the colorless corpuscles.
1. Migratory movement. The protoplasmic mass is spread out into a thin film, adherent to the glass, and of a most irregular shape. The outline of the film may be well marked in parts, but is never complete; the blurred portions being beset with fine filamentous processes, which are continually changing in size and number, some being retracted, while others are put out. The aggregate result of the changes of form which the corpuscle undergoes is a change in its position; it migrates from one part of the field to another.
"2. Change of form without change of position.
"a. The corpuscle is spherical, non-adherent, its surface velvety or shaggy, giving it an indistinct or blurred outline.
" β. Its outline is sharp; it is more or less spherical, non-adherent, and exhibits a peculiar waxy lustre. Its nucleus or nuclei are usually invisible. If carefully watched, it may be seen to change its shape very gradually; one part of its surface rising slowly into knob-like protuberances, while another part sinks into a corresponding extent; the protuberances being limited by definite contours, and exhibiting the same waxy lustre as the main body of the corpuscle. No filamentous processes are put forth. Such corpuscles, though their movements are undoubtedly vital, do not change their place. But they are capable of resuming the migratory condition as soon as the cause of their temporary quiescence ceases to operate.