Even as a true Antiseptic and Antiperiodic, coffee is adopted by many physicians; the practice comes from the Philippine Islands, and has been introduced into Europe by Dutch physicians, and the opinion seems quite as strong in Holland as in the East that coffee will cure intermit-tents as effectually as quinine itself. Upon this subject there is no English experience, so far as I am aware.

In spasmodic Asthma coffee is a remedy of old standing. It was especially recommended by the late Dr. Salter, who, in his excellent treatise on that disease, speaks of cafe noir as one of the most generally useful of all remedies for asthma. It is to be taken very hot, in small quantities of the most concentrated infusion, and upon an empty stomach. Asthmatics should not use coffee as a daily beverage, but reserve it for the time of an attack.

In Hay Fever black coffee has been well spoken of by Mr. Worth-ington.

In Whooping-cough it has been recommended.

In Headaches dependent on the nervous system, rather than the digestive organs, coffee is a most valuable remedy; in fact, from the simplest "nervous headache" up to the most typical migraine, coffee, with few exceptions, affords either cure or palliation.

In the typical Migraine, however, we shall do well to throw aside the use of coffee, and employ only the hypodermic injection of caffeine. I believe that Eulenburg was the first to speak of the value of caffeine in this complaint; he employed for injection a solution in water with a little spirit, in which some twenty-five or thirty minims contained the dose (0.0G gramme, or about one grain), and found great benefit from its use.

In other Neuralgias caffeine has also been found very useful by some authors. Dr. Anstie employed it successfully in intercostal neuralgia accompanying shingles. A solution in glycerine has been recommended by Lorent - one grain in two and a half minims; but this gives a deposit, and requires using at the moment of injection.

For migraine, caffeine has also been extensively used in the form of the so-called citrate of caffeine; but this appears to be a salt of indefinite composition, and much less trustworthy than caffeine hypodermically injected.

In Diarrhoea, especially when occurring in children, coffee is useful by virtue of its astringent properties, which depend upon the peculiar coffee-tannin. But this property is very unequally exerted upon different persons; and there are people with whom, for unknown reasons, coffee always acts rather as an aperient than otherwise.

In Delirium Tremens coffee is often exceedingly useful; and a case is recorded in which the hypodermic injection of caffeine (one-grain dose) proved useful in the insomnia of chronic alcoholism. It must be borne in mind that there is a restlessness and insomnia connected with great lowering of general nervous power, which is quite as marked as the similar condition which may be produced by exalted reflex irritability.

1 Dr. Radcliffe informs me that, in the wards of Westminster Hospital, he for many years employed coffee to the absolute exclusion of alcohol in typhus and typhoid fever, and with the most satisfactory results.

Preparations And Dose. - These are sufficiently discussed above.

Tea, the product of several different species of Thea, a genus which belongs to the order Camelliaceee, is remarkable in a pharmacological point of view from containing in its leaves an alkaloid, Theine, generally believed to be not merely isomeric but identical with caffeine. It is needless to say that if this be the case the popular idea is amply confirmed which attributes many of the qualities and virtues of tea to the subtler aromatic ingredients, seeing that there is an unmistakable difference between the general effects of the two beverages. At present, however, we know nothing of the action of these additional ingredients. Concerning the general differences between the effects of tea and coffee, we might say that tea is more refreshing and stimulating in states of fatigue of brain or muscle, and that when taken in excess (more particularly in chronic excess), it more powerfully affects the stability of the motor-system, causing a tremulousness of the limbs which is less frequently produced by excesses in coffee; on the other hand, coffee is much more prone to produce distressing palpitations of the heart, and, in some persons of weak digestive powers, coffee taken with substantial food will altogether arrest the digestion of the latter.

Paraguay tea, or Mate, the great national drink of the inhabitants of a very large area of South America, is made from the leaves of the Ilex Paraguayensis, a member of the order Aquifoliacew. It contains caffeine in large proportion, and is by many supposed to be intermediate in its effects between tea and coffee. The infusion is drunk without milk or sugar, and is taken extremely hot; it is sucked through a tube.

Guarana, the last on our list, is prepared from the Paullinia sorbills, being in fact a paste made from the fruit of that plant, which belongs to the order Sapindaceai. The alkaloid, at first called guaranine, has long been known to be really identical with caffeine; hence guarana-powder is only a somewhat uncertain, because varying preparation of caffeine. Nevertheless it is a somewhat convenient form for the internal administration of this drug. It has been used for many years in France, and some two or three years ago Dr. Wilks introduced it into this country as a remedy for migraine. It is sold in boxes of powders, or in small bottles, the stopper being hollowed out, so as to contain a measure of twenty grains. It is undoubtedly a very effective palliative of sick-headache. One dose of twenty grains may be taken every half hour, infused in a teacup of boiling water until about two or three have been taken; more than this tends in some subjects to produce distressing palpitation.