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A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Vol1 | by George B. Wood



The work now offered to the medical public, while it aims to present whatever in Therapeutics and Pharmacology is directly and practically important to the physician, is intended also to be an exponent specially of what the author himself knows and believes on the subjects of which it treats. Its value, therefore, must depend greatly on the opportunities which he has possessed of acquiring knowledge, and forming just views upon these subjects; and upon this point, consequently, they for whom the work is intended have a right to be informed

TitleA Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Vol1
AuthorGeorge B. Wood
PublisherJ. B. Lippincott & Co
Year1867
Copyright1867, George B. Wood
AmazonPart 1 and Part 2

A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica

By George B. Wood, M.D., President Of The American Philosophical 80ciett; President Op The College Of Physicians Of Philadelphia; Emeritus Professor Of The Theory And Practice Of Medicine In The University Of Pennsylvania; One Of The Authors Of The United States Dispensatory; Author Of A Treatise On The Practice Of Medicine, Etc. Etc.

Third Edition.

In Two Volumes.

Vol. I.

Philadelphia:

J. B. Lippincott & CO.

1868.

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by George B. Wood, M.D., In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

To My Dear Friend, Franklin Bache, M.D., Professor Of Chemistry In The Jefferson Medical College Of Philadelphia; Late President Of The American Philosophical Society; My Partner In Much Labour; My Companion In Many Social Hours; Whom, In The Course Of An Intimate Acquaintance Of More Than Thirty Years, I Have Never Known To Do An Unjust Act, Or Cherish An Unjust Thought ; The Accurate Man Of Science; The Skilful Teacher; The Upright And Honourable Man; And, In All Points, The Gentleman, I Inscribe this Work, In Testimony Of My Profound Esteem And Sincere Affection.

Geo. B. Wood.

Philadelphia, August, 1856.

-Preface To The First Edition
The work now offered to the medical public, while it aims to present whatever in Therapeutics and Pharmacology is directly and practically important to the physician, is intended also to be an exponen...
-Preface To The Third Edition
In consequence of pressing engagements in the revision of his other works, which could not with propriety be postponed, the author has been compelled in some degree to neglect the present, which has n...
-A Treatise On Therapeutics And Pharmacology. Introductory Observations
Pharmacology, or the science of Materia Medica, treats of medicines in all their relations; Therapeutics, of remedies in general, and their application to the' cure and alleviation of disease. Medi...
-Part I. General Therapeutics And Pharmacology. Chapter I. Operation Of Medicines
The operation of medicines is either primary or secondary; the primary operation being that which results from their immediate influence on the system; the secondary, that which follows their original...
-Section I. Primary Operation Of Medicines
One of three events must occur when a medicine is applied with effect to any part of the body. Either it must enter the circulation, and be carried with the blood throughout the system, acting upon su...
-Subsection I. Primary Operation Through The Circulation. - Absorption
It was at one time thought by many that medicines never entered the circulation. The absorbents were supposed to afford the only avenue of foreign bodies into the system. Substances incapable of being...
-Absorption. Part 2
* At the time of the appearance of the second edition of this work, the result of recent experiments had not been favourable to the opinion, that medicines applied to the skin by means of baths, wheth...
-Absorption. Part 3
Circumstances affecting Absorption. Various circumstances more or less affect the facility or rapidity of absorption. Reference has already been made to the influence, in this respect, of the nature o...
-Absorption. Part 4
* These experiments were made chiefly in Germany. Begun by Oesterlein, they were repeated and varied by Eberhard, Kolliker, Meyer, Donders, and Mensonides, all with more or less confirmatory results. ...
-Subsection II. Primary Operation Through The Nerves
About half a century ago, it was a prevalent belief that medicines operated on parts distant from the seat of their application by means of sympathy; in other words, by the transmission of their local...
-Subsection III. Primary Local Operation
By the expression, local action, is here meant that exerted on the part, or in the immediate neighbourhood of the part, to which the medicine is originally applied. Some medicines are exclusively l...
-Subsection IV. Modes Of Primary Operation
Hitherto we have been considering rather the seat of the operation of medicines, and their manner of reaching it, than the mode in which they produce their effects. The latter point must now receive a...
-2. Chemical Methods
Reference is not had, in this place, to the chemical changes which medicines undergo in the alimentary canal preparatory to absorption, nor even to those which may take place in the course of the circ...
-3. Physiological, Vital, or Dynamic Methods
Most medicines probably produce their peculiar effects by operating on the vital properties of the system, or of the part affected. Of the nature of this action we are quite ignorant, and must remain ...
-Section II. Secondary Operation Of Medicines
The secondary operation of medicines has been already defined to be that which follows their original and characteristic impression, in consequence of certain physiological laws. Without treating in t...
-Chapter II. Effects Of Medicines. Section I. Estimation Of Their Powers Or Effects
In treating of the effects of medicines, the first point which offers itself for consideration is the method by which they can be ascertained. Is it possible to determine, before trying a medicine upo...
-Section II. Whether The Effects Are Organic Or Functional
The effects of medicines, in other words, the changes produced by them in the system, must be either organic or functional; that is, must consist in an alteration, either of the organization or struct...
-Section III. Characteristic Effects Of Medicines
Medicines either increase, lessen, or alter the healthy functions; and, in reference to these several effects, are called stimulants, sedatives, and alteratives; the effects themselves being distingui...
-Section IV. Influences Modifying The Effects Of Medicines
The circumstances which are calculated to modify the ordinary and characteristic action of medicines should always be taken into account by the physician. These may be divided into such as relate espe...
-Influences Modifying The Effects Of Medicines. Part 2
3. Temperament Temperament should receive some attention in the administration of medicines; but the judicious physician will probably be influenced in relation to it more by his general principles...
-Influences Modifying The Effects Of Medicines. Part 3
7. Habit This is a powerful agency. Its effect is almost uniformly to lessen the susceptibility to the influence of medicines, and thus to require an increase of their dose for the production of a ...
-Chapter III. Application Of Medicines
Medicines have hitherto been considered in relation, not so much to their application to the cure of disease, as to their modes of affecting the system in health. It now remains to consider them more ...
-Section I. Modes Of Therapeutic Action, Or Therapeutic Processes.
These may be arranged under the heads of 1. depletion ; 2. repletion; 3. dilution: 4. elimination : 5. stimulation; 6. sedation; 1. revulsion; 8. supersession : 9. alteration: 10. contra-causation; 11...
-Subsection I. Depletion
1. Nature of Depletion By this term is here meant diminution of the blood, in relation either to the whole mass, or to some one or more of its constituents. As it is these constituents of the blood...
-Subsection II. Repletion
This term is here employed, rather in reference to its origin than in accordance with its accepted meaning, to signify an increase in the quantity of the blood in general, or of its solid animalized i...
-Subsection III. Dilution
By this is meant the copious internal use of water, whereby the liquids of the body are diluted, and rendered less excitant. The contents of the stomach are first diluted, then the blood through absor...
-Subsection IV. Elimination
It is well known that, in the course of various diseases, matters accumulate in the blood, either altogether foreign to that fluid, or existing in it during health only in almost inappreciable quantit...
-Subsection V. Stimulation
Stimulation, as here understood, is the exaltation of any or of all the vital functions above the state in which they may happen to exist, at the time when the stimulating measure is resorted to. Ther...
-Subsection VI. Sedation Or Depression
This implies a diminution of action. Like stimulation it may be general or local. General sedation may affect especially either the circulation and its dependent functions, or the nervous system. The ...
-Subsection VII. Revulsion. Derivation. Counter-Irritation
Revulsion consists in the diversion of disease from one part of the system, by the production of inflammation or irritation in another part. The term derivation is applied to the same process, but may...
-Subsection VIII. Supersession Or Substitution
By this process is meant the displacing or prevention of one affection by the establishment of another in the seat of it. It is a general, though by no means universal pathological law, that two power...
-Subsection IX. Alteration
This name may be given to that operation of medicines by which they change existing morbid actions or states, without any observable effect on the system to which the result could be ascribed. The med...
-Subsection X. Contra-Causation
I use this term to express that operation of a remedy which consists in the cure of a disease by the removal of its cause. It very often happens that one morbid state depends upon another; and the cur...
-Subsection XI. Chemical Influence
This might, perhaps, be included in some one or more of the processes already referred to. Substances may be employed therapeutically, in reference to their chemical influence, for three purposes; fir...
-Subsection XII. Mechanical Influence
This is often very important in the treatment of disease. Upon careful examination, however, of its effects, it will be found in general to act upon some one or more of the principles already consider...
-Section II. Forms In Which Medicines Are Applied
Medicines are used in the solid, liquid, and aeriform states. In the solid state, they arc employed, internally, in the several shapes of powder, electuary, conserve,,pill or bolus, and lozenge; and e...
-Subsection I. Solid Forms
1. Powders (pulveres) are medicines finely comminuted by the processes of pounding, grinding, levigation, elutriation, precipitation, etc. This is a convenient form for the administration of insoluble...
-Subsection II. Liquid Forms
In the liquid form medicines may be given internally, or applied to the surface. In the former case, if taken in any considerable quantity, they receive the name of potion (polio), or draught (hauslus...
-Subsection II. Liquid Forms. Continued
Decoctions. Decocla 5. Decoctions (decocla) differ from infusions simply in the circumstance that boiling is used in preparing them. They are liable to the same objections as the hot infusions in a...
-Subsection III. Aeriform State
This may be a state either of gas or vapour. Gases are aeriform fluids which retain their condition at common temperatures. Vapors are likewise aeriform fluids, but require an elevated temperature, un...
-Section III. Parts To Which Medicine Are Applied, And Modes Of Application
The parts to which medicines are applied, in order to affect the system, are chiefly 1. the alimentary canal, 2. the skin, 3. the bronchial tubes and pulmonary air-cells, and 4. the subcutaneous areol...
-Subsection I. Alimentary Canal. The Stomach
Medicines are applied to the two opposite extremities of the alimentary canal; to the stomach, namely, and to the rectum. 1. The Stomach This is the most convenient, generally the most effective...
-2. The Rectum
Medicines are employed by the rectum with two distinct objects; one to evacuate the bowels by simply irritating the part, the other to produce their peculiar and characteristic impression either on th...
-Subsection II. Application of Medicines. The Skin
Next to the alimentary canal, the skin is most frequently resorted to for the application of medicines. The object may be either to affect the system or some unconnected part through absorption, sympa...
-2. Medicine Application with Friction
The friction here alluded to is employed not to excite the surface, but, by deranging the epidermic scab's, to force an entrance for medicinal substances to the absorbent tissues beneath. It is made b...
-3. The Endermic Method of Medicine Application
In this mode of employing medicines, the epidermis is first removed, and the medicine then applied to the denuded surface. It is by far the most efficient external method. Medicines are rapidly absorb...
-Subsection III. The Lungs
The bronchial mucous membrane, and the surface of the pulmonary air-cells, afford not unfrequently a ready entrance of medicines into the system, in consequence of the great facility of absorption thr...
-Subsection III. The Lungs. Continued
Finally, certain fumes and vapours may be inhaled through a common smoking pipe, as those of stramonium and camphor for example, the former being set on fire in the bulb, the latter volatilized in the...
-Subsection IV. The Subcutaneous Areolar Tissue
Subcutaneous Injection. Hypodermic Method. These names have been given to a plan of medication, first announced, in 1855, by Dr. Alexander Wood, of Edinburgh, consisting of the injection of remedial s...
-Subsection IV. The Subcutaneous Areolar Tissue. Continued
There are, however, circumstances which considerably limit its applicability. The danger of producing great local irritation, inflammation, or gangrene, is extremely slight, when due attention is paid...
-Subsection V. Other Surfaces Of Application
There is no surface attainable from without, to which medicinal applications have not been made, with reference to a curative influence on the surface itself. The conjunctiva, the nasal duct, the nost...
-Chapter IV. Classification Of Medicines
The use of classification is to facilitate the work both of the author or teacher, and of the student. To the former it is highly advantageous by affording him the opportunity of presenting, in one vi...
-Plan Of Classification
Remedies are divided primarily into those which operate upon the system, and those upon extraneous bodies accidentally contained within the system. The former division embraces the great body of remed...
-I. Systemic Remedies
Some remedies extend their action throughout the whole living sys -tem; others, operating upon one or more of those functions, as the circulatory and nervous, which pervade the body, are apparently fe...
-I. General Remedies
The general remedies are necessarily, as before stated, either stimulant, sedative, or alterative; that is, either elevate, depress, or alter the systemic actions. These three sets constitute the seco...
-1. General Stimulants
If the operation of stimulant substances be closely observed, it will be noticed that, while some are slow, moderate, and lasting, others are, on the contrary, quick, energetic, and proportionably bri...
-1. Permanent Stimulants
There is a very striking distinction between the permanent stimulants; one section confining their direct influence to the vital function of organic contractility, the other operating upon the vital f...
-2. Diffusible Stimulants
Some of these appear to be universal, such as heat and electricity; but the greater portion, and perhaps all which come strictly under the denomination of medicines, exhibit a special tendency to one ...
-2. General Sedatives
These are remedies which directly depress the vital functions. While a few operate universally, as cold and water, most of them, like the corresponding stimulants, act especially or exclusively on one...
-3. General Alteratives
These are remedies which insensibly change the functions or organization, without any necessary elevation or depression of the vital actions, and the influence of which is mainly recognized by their e...
-II. Local Remedies
I do not include in this division, in reference at least to their peculiar and characteristic properties, the general remedies which may sometimes be made to act locally by confining them to a particu...
-1. Local Remedies Acting On The Functions
The subdivisions of these are all ultimate classes of medicines, and are as follows : 1. Emetics, which operate on the stomach, producing vomiting; 2. Cathartics, which operate on the bowels, pr...
-2. Local Remedies Affecting The Organization
The subdivisions of these are also ultimate classes, and are as follows: 1. Rubefacients, inflaming the skin; 2. Epispastics, producing blisters; and 3. Escharotics, destroying the life of th...
-II. Non-Systemic Remedies
These are remedies acting on bodies foreign to the system, but within it They embrace the five classes of 1. Antacids, which neutralize acid in the stomach, or elsewhere in the system; Absorbent...
-Part II. Special Therapeutics And Pharmacology. Division I. Systemic Remedies. Subdivision 1. General Remedies. Chapter I. General Stimulants. Section First. Permanent Stimulants. Class I. Astringents
Astringents are remedies which produce contraction of the living tissues. I do not here refer to the visible contraction which takes place in muscles under the influence of the will, or other excitant...
-1. Mode Of Operation
Dead animal structure, submitted to the action of astringent substances, especially to those of vegetable origin, has long been known to undergo condensation, in consequence of chemical combination be...
-2. Effects On The System
The observable physiological effects of astringents are, beside the general condensation of tissue referred to, or rather as a part or result of it, shortening of fibres; diminished caliber of the art...
-3. Indications, And Therapeutic Applications
The indications for the use of astringents are such as might be inferred from their physiological effects. They are three in number; 1. to check morbid discharges, 2. to obviate morbid relaxation, and...
-A. Internal Use Of Astringents
1. To Check Morbid Discharges In fulfilling this indication, astringents act by contracting the pores in the blood-vessels through which the discharge takes place. Two distinct kinds of morbid disc...
-A. Internal Use Of Astringents. Continued
There is reason to believe that diarrhoea sometimes results from a pure relaxation of the mucous membrane of the bowels, permitting the liquid parts of the blood to pass through the walls of the capil...
-B. External Use Of Astringents
The same indications exist for the external or topical as for the internal use of astringents; and they are even more effectual by the former method . than the latter. 1. For arresting morbid disch...
-4. Division Of The Astringents
There is sufficient ground for arranging astringent medicines in two sections, one including the vegetable, and the other those of mineral origin. 1. The vegetable astringents are distinguished by ...
-Cold, As An Astringent
Cold is primarily sedative, and secondarily stimulant through reaction. Its astringent influence, in relation to which alone it is here considered, is merely incidental to the sedative. The effects ar...
-I. Galls. Galla. U.S., Br
Origin Galls are excrescences upon the young branches of Quercus infectoria, a small tree growing in Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, and other parts of central Asia. They result from punctures in the te...
-1. Tannic Acid. - Acidum Tannicum. U. S., Br. - Tannin Of Galls - Gallo-Tannic Acid
Origin This is the variety of tannic acid which precipitates the salts of sesquioxide of iron of a bluish-black colour. Besides galls, it is found in different products of the oak, and in other veg...
-Tannic Acid Therapeutic Application
When pure astringency is required, tannic acid is preferable to the crude medicines containing it, from its comparatively small dose, its less unpleasant taste, its less liability to offend the stomac...
-Tannic Acid Administration
The dose is from two to ten grains, to be repeated, in chronic cases, three or four times a day; in those requiring a speedy impression, every hour, two, or three hours. The medicine may be given in p...
-2. Gallic Acid. - Acidum Gallicum. U.S., Br
Origin Gallic acid is procured from galls, either through the gallic acid fermentation which these undergo when exposed, in the state of powder, to water and atmospheric air, or through the reagenc...
-II. Oak Bark
White-Oak Bark - Quercus alba. U. S. Black-Oak Bark - Quercus tinctoria. U. S. Quercus. Quercus pedunculata. Br. The bark of most of the oaks is possessed of properties very nearly identical,...
-III. Kino. U. S., Br
The name of kino was first conferred upon an astringent product, introduced into use by Dr. Fothergill of London, about the middle of the last century, and supposed to have been the concrete juice of ...
-IV. Catechu. U.S
Catechu Nigrum. Black Catechu. Acacia Catechu. Br. Origin and Properties. Catechu is an extract prepared from the inner wood of Acacia Catechu, a small tree growing in Hindostan, Pegu, and other pa...
-V. Rhatany. Krameria. U. S., Br
Origin and Properties. Rhatany is the root of Krameria triaiidra, a shrub growing in Peru. It is usually in long, cylindrical pieces, from the size of a straw, to half an inch or more in diameter, som...
-VI. Logwood. Haematoxylon. U. S. - Haematoxylum. Br
Origin This is the inner or heart-wood of Haematoxylon Campechi-anum, a tree of medium size, growing in Campeachy and on the shores of the Bay of Honduras, in the Peninsula of Yucatan, and in Jamai...
-VII. Cranesbill. Geranium. U.S
Origin and Properties. This name has been given to the root, or rather rhizome of Geranium maculatum, a small, herbaceous, perennial plant, growing in woods throughout the United States. It is in piec...
-VIII. Blackberry Root. Rubus. U.S
Origin Under this name the present U. S. Pharmacopoeia unites the roots of the Rubus villosus or common blackberry, and the Rubus Canadensis (B. trivialis, Pursh) or dewberry; and, as there is no k...
-IX. Uva Ursi. U.S.,Br
Origin and Properties. Uva ursi consists of the leaves of Arcto-staphylos Uva Ursi, or bearberry, a low evergreen shrub, growing in the northern parts of Asia, Europe, and America, and extending in th...
-X. Pipsissewa. Chimaphila. U.S
Origin and Properties. This consists of the leaves of Chimaphila umbellate-, a low evergreen plant, growing in the northern parts of Asia, Europe, and America, and abundant in the United States. These...
-XI. Alum. Alumen. U.S., Br
Origin Alum is a double salt, composed, in the crystalline state, of one equivalent of sulphate of alumina, one of sulphate of potassa, and twenty-four of water; and denominated, chemically, sulpha...
-Alum. Alumen. Part 2
In comparing the remedial efficacy of alum with that of the vegetable astringents, it will probably be found to be relatively more efficacious, when operating through the medium of the circulation, th...
-Alum. Alumen. Part 3
It may also be used in hemorrhage from the mouth or throat, and to arrest bleeding from leech-bites. The latter is often extremely obstinate, and has even proved fatal. A method I have long used, with...
-XII. Lead. Plumbum
The preparations of lead are here considered, because one of their most prominent properties, and that for which probably they are most employed, is their astringency; though, in other respects, they ...
-Lead. Plumbum. Part 2 Poisonous Effects
Among the earlier symptoms of lead-poisoning are dryness of the mouth and nostrils, diminished urine, and a tendency to costiveness, with small, dry, and sometimes light-coloured stools, evincing dimi...
-Lead. Plumbum. Part 3 Mode Of Operation
2. Mode Of Operation There can be little doubt that the preparations of lead operate by direct contact with the parts affected, being in the first place absorbed into the blood, and then distribute...
-Lead. Plumbum. Part 4
* A case is recorded in which the disease originated from inhaling the fumes of old painted wood undergoing combustion; the poison arising no doubt from the carbonate of lead in the paint. (Journ. deP...
-3. Treatment Of The Effects Of Lead
When a quantity of any one of the preparations has been swallowed, sufficient to produce severe irritation or inflammation of the stomach, an emetic of ipecacuanha should be immediately administered, ...
-Treatment Of The Effects Of Lead. Continued
The above remarks are applicable to lead-poisoning in general. Particular forms of it require special modifications of treatment. In the form of colic, it is necessary to relieve the pain, and overcom...
-5. Preparations Of Lead. I. Acetate Of Lead - Plumbi Acetas. U. S., Br. - Sitr Gar Of Lead. - Saccharum Saturni
Acetate of lead is prepared by the action of vinegar, or other form of dilute acetic acid, either upon plates of metallic lead oxidized by exposure to the air, or directly upon the protoxide of lead w...
-Effects of Acetate Of Lead Upon the System
Acetate of lead has all the effects upon the system which have already been described as characterizing the preparations of lead in general. In large doses, or unsuitably applied, it is irritant; but,...
-Acetate Of Lead Therapeutic Application
This medicine is much used for the general purposes of the astringents. In consequence of its combination of sedative with astringent properties, it will frequently act very efficiently in the relief ...
-Acetate Of Lead Local or External Use
2. Local or External Use. Under this head, it is intended to embrace all those modes of using the remedy, in which it is brought into direct contact with the seat of its intended operation through ext...
-II. Solution Of Subacetate Of Lead. - Llquor Plumbi Subacetatis. U.S., Br. - Goulard's Extract
This is made by boiling litharge or protoxide of lead with solution of acetate of lead, and filtering. It is a solution of diacetate of lead, consisting of one equivalent of acetic acid and two of ...
-III. Carbonate Of Lead - Plumbi Carbonas. U.S., Br. - Cerusse. - Cerussa. - White Lead
White lead is made either, 1. by the reaction of the vapour of vinegar, and exhalations from decomposing stable manure, upon coiled plates of lead, or 2. by passing carbonic acid through a solution of...
-IV. Nitrate Of Lead. - Plumbi Nltras. U. S
This is made by direct combination of litharge and nitric acid. It consists of one equivalent of protoxide of lead and one of nitric acid, without water. Sensible and Chemical Properties. Nitrate o...
-V. Iodide Of Lead. - Plumbi Iodidum. U.S
This is made by mutual decomposition between iodide of potassium, and nitrate or acetate of lead in solution; the resulting precipitate being washed with distilled water. It consists of one equivalent...
-VI. Semivitrified Oxide Of Lead - Oxide Of Lead. - Plumbi Oxidum. Us. - Litiiargyrum. Br. - Litharge
Litharge is prepared by exposing melted lead, at a high temperature, to a current of air from a pair of blast-bellows, which blows off the oxide formed on the surface of the metal into a recipient, wh...
-1. Lead Plaster. - Emplastrum Plumbi. U. S. - Emplastrum Lithakgyri. Br. - Litharge Plaster. - Diachylon
This is made by boiling litharge, olive oil, and water together, over a slow fire, until they concrete into a plaster. According to the views now generally received, olive oil consists of two fatty ac...
-2. Resin Plaster. - Emplastrum Resinae. U.S., Br. - Adhesive Plaster
This is made by melting lead plaster and resin together. The British Pharmacopoeia adds a little soap, which renders the plaster more pliable, and less apt to crack in cold weather. It is the common a...
-3. Soap Plaster. - Emplastrum Saponis. U. S., Br
This is made by incorporating soap with the lead plaster. It is a very mild preparation, sedative, and supposed to be discutient, and hence employed in chronic swellings and indurations, spread usuall...
-Class IX. Tonics
Tonics arc medicines which moderately and somewhat durably exalt the vital actions. They promote the appetite, invigorate digestion, render the pulse fuller, stronger, and sometimes more frequent, rai...
-Tonics. Part 2
Other evils arise from the abuse of these medicines. Allowing that they act equally on the whole system, and equally elevate all the functions, they of course promote digestion, increase the quantity ...
-Tonics. Part 3
3. General depression or debility may result from the torpidity of a particular function or organ, upon which, in turn, the general deficiency may react, so as to sustain and even increase its inertne...
-Tonics. Part 4
2. Other medicines of the class operate directly and mainly on the blood itself; not through the agency of the digestive process, but by intimate admixture with that fluid, into which they find admiss...
-1. Tonic Diet
A proper regulation of the diet is indispensable to the obtaining of satisfactory results from the use of tonic medicines. Experience has established the fact, beyond controversy, that a mixture of ve...
-2. Exercise As A Tonic
This is an invaluable tonic measure in debility. There arc two kinds of exercise, which, though they produce the same ultimate effect, operate in a somewhat different manner, and are calculated to mee...
-Exercise As A Tonic. Continued
Yet passive exercise is alone insufficient; for there are certain functions, such as that of muscular motion, which can be performed only through the agency of the will, and which will suffer if permi...
-3. Pure Air As A Tonic
This, though a very efficient tonic under certain circumstances, must be considered as acting negatively. In large towns, the atmosphere is impregnated with effluvia, the general effect of which on th...
-4. Mental Influence As A Tonic
Certain states of the mind are known, from experience, to have a sedative effect upon the system at large. Grief, anxiety, and all the various modifications of fear are distinguished, in common nomenc...
-6. Travelling As A Tonic
This agency is merely a combination of those already treated of; but it affords so ready and efficient a method of obtaining their conjoint influence, that it merits a distinct notice. Exercise steadi...
-6. Cold As A Tonic
Cold is directly sedative; but, as it does not for a time lessen power, while the excitability of the depressed part is increased by its comparative rest, the necessary consequence is that, upon the w...
-7. Transfusion of Blood As A Tonic
By this process is meant the transfer of the blood of one individual into the blood-vessels of another. It is eminently a tonic measure, as it aims to do directly what some of the most effective tonic...
-I. Tonics Of Animal Origin
Though an animal diet may be considered as tonic, and this includes many distinct substances, cod-liver oil is the only one, strictly entitled to the name of a medicine, which belongs to this subdivis...
-Cod-Liver Oil. Oleum Morrhuae. U. S., Br
Origin Cod-liver oil is obtained from the livers of Gadus Morrhua, or the common cod, and several other species of the same genus, inhabiting the waters of the Atlantic, near the shores of Northern...
-Cod-Liver Oil. Oleum Morrhuae. Part 2
Therapeutic Applications. Cod-liver oil has recently taken a place among the most valuable articles of the Materia Medica. Used from time immemorial, in the maritime districts of Holland, Germany, and...
-Cod-Liver Oil. Oleum Morrhuae. Part 3
Should tubercle, however, have been deposited in the glands, or other part affected, as this must be eliminated before a cure can take place, the result is more tedious and uncertain. In such cases, c...
-Cod-Liver Oil. Oleum Morrhuae. Part 4
Scrofulous Inflammation of the Serous Tissues. This often exists in connection with tubercles, as already stated in reference to the peritoneum. The pleura, pericardium, and synovial membranes are sim...
-Cod-Liver Oil. Oleum Morrhuae. Part 5
Contraindications It is contraindicated in an inflamed and irritable stomach, a plethoric state of the circulation, and active local congestion; and when, in the course of its administration, these...
-II. Tonics Of Vegetable Origin
The vegetable tonics may be subdivided into three sets; namely. i. the pure bitters, 2. the bitters with peculiar properties, and 3. the aromatics. ...
-1. Pure Bitters, Or Simple Bitters
These are characterized by bitterness with little or no intermixture of other taste, and by a purely tonic power, which is identical or nearly so in all. There appears to be a close relation between t...
-I. Quassia. U. S., Br
Origin Quassia is the wood of Quassia excelsa (Simaruba excelsa. De Cand.; Picraena excelsa, Lindley), a lofty tree growing in Jamaica and other West India islands; and of Quassia amara, a small tr...
-II. Simaruba. U.S
Origin This is the bark of the root of Quassia Simaruba (Simaruba officinalis, De Cand.), a tree of considerable size, growing in the West Indies, and in Guiana. Properties It is in long flat...
-III. Gentian. Gentiana. U. S., Br
Origin and Sensible Properties. Gentian is the root of Gentiana lutea, and of some other species of Gentiana, herbaceous perennials, growing in the mountainous regions of Europe. It is usually several...
-IV. Columbo. Calumba. U. S., Br
Origin and Properties. Columbo is the root of Cocculus palmatux, a climbing plant, growing in the forests of Mozambique, on the southeastern coast of Africa. As brought into the market, it is in trans...
-1. Goldthread. - Corns. U. S
This is the product of Coptis trifolia, a very small plant, with a perennial creeping root, inhabiting low and shaded places in the northern parts of this continent, and of Asia. It is abundant in our...
-2. Yellow-Root. - Zantiiorrhiza. U. S
By this name is designated, in the secondary list of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, the root of Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, an indigenous shrub, growing in the interior of the Southern, and in the Western State...
-3. Star-Grass - Aletris. U. S
This is the root of Aletris farinosa, a small indigenous herbaceous perennial, named from the star like form assumed by the leaves, which spread out on the ground at the base of the stem. The root is ...
-2. Peculiar Bitters
These are medicines which, with the simple tonic powers characteristic of the pure bitters, possess others also, which modify the tonic action, and give them an influence on the system more or less pe...
-I. Peruvian Bark. Cinchona
Origin This is the bark of different species of Cinchona, trees growing in South America, along the course of the Andes, extending from the northern coast near Caracas to La Paz in Bolivia, through...
-1. Classification Of Peruvian Barks. A. Officinal Barks
1. Pale Bark (Cinchona Pallida, U S., Br.) is in cylindrical pieces, called quills from being rolled, from a few inches to eighteen in length, from two lines to an inch in diameter, and from half a...
-B. Non-Officinal Peruvian Bark Or Carthagena Barks
1. Hard Carthagena Bark comes usually in pieces somewhat regular in shape, either completely or partially quilled, or flat, and frequently warped; the quills being from five inches to a foot long, fro...
-2. Peruvian Bark Constituents And Chemical Relations
Constituents* The most important of these are the alkaloids, quinia, cinchonia, quinidia, cinchonidia, quinicia and cinchonicia. Of these there are two distinct groups, one consisting of quinia, quini...
-3. Effects Of Peruvian Bark On The System
As the virtues of the bark reside mainly in its alkaloids, and these are closely analogous in their effects, it will be most convenient to treat first of quinia, as the one best known and most used; a...
-Effects Of Peruvian Bark On The System. Continued
Hitherto our attention has been directed to the influence of quinia, in large doses, upon the circulation, or the cerebral functions. * In this case, M. Bazire, a practitioner of medicine, in an ex...
-4. Peruvian Bark Mode And Nature Of Operation
It is probable that the tonic operation of quinia upon the digestive organs is chiefly direct; as it certainly possesses the property of local stimulation. This is evinced by the pain and inflammation...
-Peruvian Bark Mode And Nature Of Operation. Continued
* The solution employed by Briquet for this purpose contained 2 parts of iodine, 8 of iodide of potassium, and 250 of water. He found the action of the test to correspond closely with the observable e...
-5. Peruvian Bark Injurious Effects And Their Treatment
In ordinary doses, quinia is not apt to produce deleterious effects, unless through want of appropriateness to the pathological condition in which it may be prescribed; but, when very largely administ...
-6. Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application
It is an undecided question, whether Peruvian bark was known as a medicine to the aborigines of S. America, before the discovery of the country by Europeans. Both sides of the question have the suppor...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 2
Of exhaustion from excessive secretion we have examples in the effects of colliquative sweats, diuresis, and diarrhoea, and of copious mucous discharges from the bronchial tubes and urinary passages. ...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 3
2. As an Antiperiodic, or Anti-intermittent No remedy approaches Peruvian bark in antiperiodic powers. There is scarcely a doubt that, for its peculiar properties in this respect, it is indebted ex...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 4
Another question to be decided is, how far the treatment is to be influenced by any existing complication of the intermittent fever. Some have supposed that a coexisting inflammation contraindicates t...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 5
Used in the method above pointed out, sulphate of quinia is capable of interrupting almost any case of intermittent fever, from the mildest to the most violent. But different quantities are required i...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 6
The various neuroses occasionally assume the same regularity of recurrence. Epileptic convulsions, in general so intractable, may be treated with quinia with good hope of success, when they occur regu...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 7
Preventive Influence. Upon the same principles as those on which periodical diseases may be cured, they may also be prevented by sulphate of quinia. There is no prophylactic measure against the miasma...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 8
4. As A Sedative It will be recollected that I consider the sedative effect, produced by large doses of quinia, as essentially secondary; being always preceded by a longer or shorter period of ...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 9
Typhoid or enteric fever is also among the diseases in which this method of treatment has been employed. Some have supposed that, like miasmatic fever, this affection could be promptly arrested, stran...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 10
* A case has fallen under my notice, strongly illustrative of the dangerous effects which may arise from very large quantities of sulphate of quinia in this lever. 1 was called in consultation to a ca...
-Peruvian Bark Therapeutic Application. Part 11 5. Local Use
Peruvian bark is slightly irritant to the parts with which it is brought into contact, and sulphate of quinia more so. Hence, the powdered bark was formerly sprinkled over indolent, flabby, and slough...
-7. Peruvian Bark Preparations, And Modes Of Administration
Powdered Bark. The powder might be the most efficacious form for administration, could it always be taken in sufficient quantities, and without irritation of the stomach. But its taste is so revolting...
-Peruvian Bark Preparations, And Modes Of Administration. Continued
Tinctures. Two tinctures are directed by our officinal code, one simple, and the other compound. The simple Tincture (Tinctura Cinchonae, U. S.) is ordered to be made with the officinal yellow or C...
-Sulphate Of Quinia. - Quinia Sulphas. U. S., Br
Preparation This is, beyond all comparison, the most important and most extensively used of the preparations of bark, and may be considered as a sufficient representative of its virtues, on all ord...
-Sulphate Of Quinia. Quinia Sulphas. Part 2
Administration Sulphate of quinia may be administered in substance or solution. In my own experience, I have been able to discover little difference, in therapeutic results, between these two modes...
-Sulphate Of Quinia. Quinia Sulphas. Part 3
For the method of effecting subcutaneous injection, and the instruments employed, the reader is referred to page 81 of this volume. To Obtain the salt of quinia in the liquid form, it is necessary eit...
-Sulphate Of Quinia. Quinia Sulphas. Part 4
Quinoidin. - Amorphous Quinia - Quinicia and Cinchonicia After the crystallization of all the sulphate of quinia that can be obtained in that form, in the process for preparing the salt, there is l...
-1. Nectandra. U. S., Br. - Syn. Bebeeru Bark
This bark, which is the product of Nectandra Rodioei, or bebeeru-tree, a lofty tree inhabiting Guiana and neighbouring parts of South America, was introduced into the Pharmacopoeias mainly as the sour...
-2. Dogwood. - Cornus Florida. U. S
This is the bark of Cornus Florida, or common dogwood, a small indigenous tree, remarkable for its conspicuous white flowers, which render it one of the finest ornaments of our forests in the spring, ...
-3. Willow Bark. - Salix. U. S
The barks of all the species of willow, possessing a very bitter taste, may be considered as designated by the title above given; for all probably have identical properties; but only that of Salix alb...
-4. Hydrastis. - Hydrastis. U. S
Yellow-root, orange-root, and yellow puccoon are the common names by which this medicine, as well as the plant producing it. have been long known in this country, and which have been officinally super...
-5. Barberry. - Berberis. U. S
The bark of the root of Berberis vulgaris is the part designated in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia as officinal. The plant is a shrub, sometimes attaining the size of a small tree, indigenous in Europe, but ...
-II. Hops. Humulus. U.S. - Lupulus. Br
Origin Hops are the fruit or strobiles of Humulus Lupulus, a climbing perennial plant, growing wild in Europe and North America, and largely cultivated in both continents. The fruit is picked when ...
-Hops Effects on the System
Notwithstanding the vast consumption of hops in malt liquors, their effects on the system, and mode of operation, have not yet been thoroughly investigated, or satisfactorily determined. That they are...
-Hops Therapeutic Application
Hops may be used as a tonic in dyspeptic or debilitated states of the digestive organs, and are specially indicated in cases attended with nervous restlessness and want of sleep. This condition not (i...
-Hops Administration
Hops are seldom if ever given in substance. The Infusion (Infusum Humuli, U. S.), which is made in the proportion of half an ounce to a pint of boiling water, may be given in the dose of a wine-glassf...
-III. Wild-Cherry Bark. Prunus Virginiana. U. S
Origin This is the inner bark of Cerasus serolina, or wild-cherry, a large indigenous tree, growing abundantly in the Middle and Western States. The officinal name originated in the mistaken suppos...
-IV. Chamomile. Anthem Is. U. S, Br
Origin The chamomile of the shops consists of the flowers of Anthe-mis nobilis, a perennial, herbaceous plant, growing wild in Europe, where it is also cultivated for use. Though it has been introd...
-V. Thoroughwort, Or Boneset. Eupatorium. U. S
Origin This consists of the leaves and flowering tops of Eupalorium perfoliatum, an indigenous, perennial, herbaceous plant, growing abundantly, usually in clusters, in low moist grounds, in most p...
-VI. Serpentaria. U.S. Serpentaria. U. S., Br. -Syn. Virginia Snakeroot
Origin This consists of the roots of Aristolochia Serpentaria, Aris-tolochia reticulata, and probably several other analogous species of the same genus, all of them small, indigenous, herbaceous pe...
-Arnica. U. S., Br
On comparing arnica with other medicines, I find none to which it appears to me to approach more closely than serpentaria; though it must be acknowledged that there is considerable difference between ...
-VII. Myrrh. Myrrh A. U. S., Br
Origin Myrrh is a concrete exudation from Balamodendron Myrrh a, a shrub or small tree, growing in the deserts of Arabia and North-eastern Africa, Two commercial varieties were formerly brought int...
-1. Angustura Bark - Angustura. U. S. - Cusparia. Br
This is the bark of the Galipea officinalis of Hancock, a small tree growing in the interior of South America, on the banks of the Orinoco, It is taken first to the town of Angustura upon the Orinoco,...
-2. Cascarilla. U.S., Br
Cascarilla is the bark of Croton Eleuteria, a small West India shrub, inhabiting especially the Bahamas, and abundant in the little island of Eleuteria, from which it derived its name. Properties ...
-3. Contrayerva. U. S. 1850
Contrayerva has been omitted in the present Pharmacopoeia. It is the root or rhizome of Dorstenia Contrayerva, a small perennial plant, growing in the West Indies, Mexico, and Peru. As in the shops, i...
-4. Wormwood. - Absinthium. U.S
Wormwood, as a medicine, consists of the leaves and flowering tops of Artemisia Absinthium, the common wormwood of our gardens, but a native of Europe. It has a strong, peculiar odour, and an extremel...
-5. Tansy. - Tanacetum. U. S
The tansy, or Tanacetum vulgare, is an herbaceous perennial, indigenous in Europe, but introduced into the United States, where it grows wild, and is cultivated in gardens. The whole herbaceous part i...
-6. Horehound. - Marrubium. U.S
Common horehound, or Marrubium vulgare, is a perennial herbaceous plant, a native of Europe, but introduced into the United States, where it grows abundantly along the roadsides. The whole herbaceous ...
-7. Catnep. - Cataria. U.S
This well-known plant, sometimes called catmint (Nepeta Cataria), is a very old medicine, at present more employed in domestic than in regular practice. The whole herb is efficacious; but the leaves o...
-8. Yarrow. - Achillea. U.S
This was introduced into the secondary catalogue of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia at the recent revision. The whole herb is used. It is the product of Achillea Millefolium, often called milfoil, from the gr...
-3. Aromatics
This subdivision of medicines is characterized by an agreeable odour and taste, dependent on the presence of volatile oil. They do not correspond exactly with the tonics, being more excitant, though l...
-Aromatics Therapeutic Application
They are much used as cordial stimulants to the stomach and bowels, in debility of these organs; and have the great advantage over the more diffusible stimulants, such as alcohol in its different form...
-Aromatics Administration
The aromatics may be given in substance, or in the forms of infusion, tincture, fluid extract, and volatile oil. The form of infusion is much used, and generally very suitable; but it should be rememb...
-I. Orange-Peel
1. Bitter Orange-Peel. Aurantii Amari Cortex. U. S - Aurantii Cortex. Br. 2. Sweet Orange-Peel. Aurantii Dulcis Cortex. U.S. Origin This is the rind of the orange, of which there are two kind...
-1. Lemon-Peel. - Limonis Cortex. U. S., Br
This is the rind of the lemon, which is the fruit of a variety of Citrus medica, a native of Asia, but now cultivated throughout the civilized world, cither in the open air, or in conservatories. It h...
-2. Oil Of Bergamot. - Oleum Bergamii. U. S.- Bergamotae Oleum. Ed
This oil is obtained by expression, or distillation, from the fresh rind of the fruit of Citrus Limetta. It is employed chiefly, if not exclusively, for the sake of its very agreeable odour; being mix...
-II. Cinnamon. Cinnamomum. U. S., Br
Under the above name, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia recognizes two products, the proper cinnamon gathered in Ceylon, and another kind brought from China, and known in commerce by the name of cassia. These m...
-1. Canella. U. S
This is the bark of Canella alba, a large tree growing in Jamaica and other West India islands. The bark is stripped from the branches, deprived of its epidermis, and dried. Sensible Properties. It...
-2. Winter's Bark. - Wintera
This has been of late rejected from the Pharmacopoeia, and owes what little attention is now paid to it to old associations. It is the bark of Drimys Winteri ( Wintera aromatica, Willd.), an evergreen...
-III. Cloves. Caryophyllus. U. S - Caryophyllum. Br
Origin Cloves are the dried unexpanded flower-buds of Caryophyllus aromaticu8, a small and beautiful tree, inhabiting the Molucca Islands, in the East Indies, whence it has been successfully transp...
-IV. Nutmeg. Myristica. U.S., Br
Origin Nutmeg is the kernel of the fruit of Myristica moschata, a handsome middle-sized tree, originally confined to the Moluccas, but now cultivated in Sumatra, Java, Singapore, Cayenne, Brazil, a...
-V. Black Pepper. Piper. U. S., Br
Origin Black pepper consists of the dried unripe berries of Piper nigrum, a climbing plant, indigenous in the East Indies, where it is also largely cultivated, especially on the coast of Malabar, i...
-VI. Cubebs. Cubeba. U. S., Br
Origin Cubebs are the dried unripe fruit of Piper Cubeba (Cubeba officinalis of Miquel), a climbing perennial of the E. Indies, inhabiting especially Java and the neighbouring islands. Sensible ...
-VII. Pimento. Pimenta. U. S., Br
Origin Pimento consists of the dried unripe berries of Myrlus Pimenla (Eugenia Pimento, De Cand.), a handsome tree, growing in the West Indies, Mexico, and South America, where it is indigenous, an...
-VIII. Cardamom. Cardamomum. U. S., Br
Origin This is the fruit of Elellaria Gardamomum, a perennial plant, with clustered stems, from six to twelve feet high, and bearing its fruit upon a flower-stalk, which springs from the base of th...
-IX. Fennel-Seed. Foeniculum. U.S., Br
Origin Fennel-seed is the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare (De Cand.), F. officinale (Merat and De Lens), and possibly F. dulce (De Cand.). These are perennial umbelliferous herbs, growing wild in the S...
-1. Caraway. - Carum. U. S. - Carui. Br
Caraway consists of the half-fruits or mericarps, commonly called seeds, of Carum Carui, a small biennial umbelliferous plant, growing wild in many parts of Europe, and cultivated both there and in th...
-2. Coriander. - Coriandrum. U.S., Br
This is the fruit of Coriandrum sativum, a small plant inhabiting Egypt and the South of Europe, and cultivated for use. It is commonly called coriander seed. It is spherical, about the eighth of an i...
-3. Anise. - Ansum. U.S
Anise is the fruit of Pimpinella Anisum, a small plant, native of Egypt and Syria, but introduced into the South of Europe, where, as well as in Germany, it is cultivated for use. Each fruit, commonly...
-4. Star Aniseed. - Anisum Stellatum
This is the fruit of Illicium anisatum, an evergreen tree, growing in China, Japan, and Tartary. It consists of from five to ten brownish ligneous capsules, four or five lines long, each containing a ...
-5. Dill. - Anethum. Br
The fruit of Anethum graveolens, or common dill-plant, though little employed in this country, is still considerably used in Great Britain, and retains a place in the British Pharmacopoeia. The plant ...
-X. Lavender. Lavandula. U.S
Origin Lavender consists of the flowers of Lavandula vera, a small shrub, growing wild in the South of Europe, and cultivated everywhere in gardens The flowers are arranged around a terminal flower...
-XI. Rosemary. Rosmarinus. U.S
Origin This consists of the tops of Rosmarinus officinalis, an evergreen shrub, inhabiting the shores of the Mediterranean, and cultivated in the gardens of Europe and this country. As found in our...
-XII. Peppermint. Mentha Piperita. U. S
Origin Peppermint is the herb of Mentha piperita, a small, herbaceous perennial, indigenous in Europe, but naturalized in this country, and cultivated largely in England and the United States. The ...
-XIII. Spearmint. Mentha Viridis. U.S
This is the herb of Mentha viridis, an herbaceous perennial plant, like the above species a native of Europe, and naturalized in this country, where it is also cultivated for use. The herb differs ...
-1. European Pennyroyal. - Pulegium
This formerly held a place in all the three Pharmacopoeias of Great Britain and Ireland, but has been discarded in the British. It is, therefore, no longer officinal; but merits a brief notice in cons...
-2. American Pennyroyal. - Hedeoma. U.S
This is the herb of Hedeoma pulegioides, a small indigenous annual, growing in all parts of the United States, usually preferring dry, Sterile, or impoverished fields, and sometimes, from its abundanc...
-3. Horsemint. - Monarda. U.S
Horsemint is the herb of Monarda punctata, an indigenous herbaceous plant, a foot or two high, growing preferably in light and gravelly soils, from New Jersey to the Gulf of Mexico. Its odour is aroma...
-4. Common Marjoram. - Origanum. U.S. 1850
This has been discarded both in the U. S. and British Pharmacopoeias, and is no longer officinal. It is the herb of Origanum vulgare or common marjoram, a perennial, herbaceous plant, growing wild bot...
-5. Thyme. - Thymus
Thyme is the herbaceous part of Thymus vulgaris, a small under-shrub, growing wild in the South of Europe, and cultivated in our gardens. It has a characteristic, strong, agreeable odour, which it ret...
-6. Sage. - Salvia. U.S
Sage consists of the leaves of Salvia officinalis, or common garden sage, an undershrub of two feet or more in height, originally from the South of Europe, but cultivated everywhere in gardens. They h...
-7. Balm. - Melissa. U. S
Balm is the herb of Melissa officinalis, a perennial herbaceous plant, a foot or two in height, originally from the South of Europe, but naturalized in this country, and cultivated in our gardens. The...
-XIV. Partridge-Berry. Gaultheria. U. S
Origin Gaultheria consists of the leaves of Gaultheria procum-bens, an indigenous, small, shrubby evergreen, inhabiting the woods or hill-sides, and dry sandy plains, from Canada to Georgia. It has...
-XV. Ginger. Zingiber. U.S., Br
Origin Ginger is the root or rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a biennial or perennial plant, two or three feet in height, a native of Hindos-tan, and cultivated in various parts of the East Indies, ...
-1. Zedoary. - Zedoaria
Two kinds of zedoary are noticed by authors, the round and the long; but the former only is now to be found in the shops. The round zedoary is the root of Curcuma Zedoaria, growing in the East Indies,...
-2. Turmeric - Curcuma. U.S
This is the root of Curcuma longa, a small perennial plant, indigenous in the East Indies and Cochin China, and abundantly cultivated in various parts of Southern Asia. There are two varieties, both p...
-3. Calamus. U. S
This is the root (rhizome) of Acorus Calamus or sweet flag, an indigenous plant growing also in Europe and Western Asia, and, in this country, abounding in low, meadowy grounds, too wet for the cultur...
-4. Wild Ginger. - Asarum. U. S. - Canada Snakeroot
Wild ginger is the root (rhizome) of Asarum Canadense, a very small, perennial indigenous plant, growing in wooded grounds, from Canada to Georgia. All parts of the plant have an agreeable aromatic od...
-5. Vanilla. U. S
Vanilla is one of the most agreeable of the aromatics; and it is singular that it should not have been sooner adopted by the Pharmacopoeias. It is now recognized only in our own. It is the fruit of th...
-III. Tonics Of Mineral Origin
There is sufficient ground, in the different properties exercised by the different mineral tonics, for arranging them in three subdivisions; one, including those which, so far as their pure and direct...
-1. Mineral Tonics Acting On The Stomach And Bowels. Mineral Acids
The peculiarity of this subdivision is owing simply to the circumstance that, in consequence of their strong chemical affinities, they seem to be incapable of absorption into the circulation unchanged...
-I. Sulphuric Acid. Acidum Sulphuricum. U.S., Br
Sulphuric acid was known as early as the seventh century. As found in commerce, it is often called oil of vitriol, and is more or less impure, containing, among other foreign bodies, a small proportio...
-Sulphuric Acid. Acidum Sulphuricum. Part 2
Mode of Operating The first effect of the acid, given medicinally, is to stimulate the function of digestion. It probably enables the stomach to secrete the gastric juice more freely, upon the appl...
-Sulphuric Acid. Acidum Sulphuricum. Part 3
In the hemorrhages, sulphuric acid is occasionally useful; but it docs not stand among the most efficient remedies. In hemorrhage from the stomach and bowels it may do good by a direct action on the b...
-Preparations of Sulphuric Acid
As kept for internal use, sulphuric acid is always in one of the following forms. In relation to its external use as a caustic, it will be treated of under the escharotics. 1. Diluted Sulphuric...
-II. Nitric Acid. Acidum Nitricum. U. S., Br
Origin This acid, according to Dr. Percira, was known to Geber in the seventh century. In commerce it is usually denominated aquafortis, and in technical language sometimes azotic acid. It is prepa...
-Nitric Acid Therapeutic Application
The use of nitric acid as a tonic is very nearly the same as that of sulphuric acid. Like that, it is peculiarly applicable to the debility of convalescence, with want of appetite, and a disposition t...
-Nitric Acid Administration
The dose of the officinal acid is from three to seven drops; but, as kept in the shops, it is often of less than the officinal strength; and no precise rule can be given under the circumstances. I hav...
-III. Muriatic Acid. Acidum Muriaticum. U. S. - Acidum Hydrochloricum. Br. Syn. - Hydrochloric Acid. - Ghlorohydric Acid
Origin Muriatic acid was described by Basil Valentine in the fifteenth century. To the older chemists it was known by the name of spirit of sea salt; when better understood, but before its composit...
-IV. Nitromuriatic Acid. Acidum Nitromuriaticum. U. S
Origin, etc. This combination first attracted notice as a solvent for gold, whence it received the name of aqua regia. It is said to have been known to Geber, who lived in the seventh century; but its...
-Nitromuriatic Acid Effects on the System
Nitromuriatic acid promotes the appetite, and in other respects operates as a tonic to the digestive function, in the same manner as nitric acid. Like that acid, too, it is irritant to the alimentary ...
-Nitromuriatic Acid Therapeutic Application
Like the mineral acids generally, the nitromuriatic may often be used advantageously in general debility with enfeebled digestion. For the special affections in which it may be thus employed as a toni...
-Nitromuriatic Acid Administration
The dose of the acid is from two to ten drops, according to its strength. About five drops is a medium dose, which may be given in from two to four fluidounces of sweetened water, and repeated two, th...
-V. Phosphoric Acid. Acidum Phosphoricum
There are three isomeric conditions of phosphoric acid, identical in composition, but differing in their relation to bases, of which one unites with one equivalent, the second with two eqs., and the t...
-VI. Carbonic Acid Water. Aqua Acidi Carbonici. U. S. Artificial Seltzer Water. - Artificial Mineral Water
Preparation Carbonic acid water is prepared, according to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by forcing into water five times its bulk of carbonic acid gas. obtained by the reaction between marble and dilute...
-Carbonic Acid Gas
Much attention has been recently bestowed on the medical properties and uses of carbonic acid in its pure gaseous form. Towards the close of the last century, it was brought into notice, as an anaesth...
-2. Mineral Tonics Acting On The System Generally, Through Its Vital Properties
It is at present no longer doubted that the medicines belonging to this subdivision enter the circulation, and thus come into contact with all the tissues. They operate primarily on the alimentary muc...
-I. Silver. Argentum. U. S. Refined Silver
Refined Silver. Br. Appendix. Metallic silver is quite inert, and may lie for a long time in the alimentary canal without sensible effect. It is only in chemical combination that it becomes efficie...
-Silver. Argentum. U. S. Refined Silver. Part 2
* Some doubt is thrown upon the uniform occurrence of the chemical reaction here referred to, by an experiment of Professor Procter, performed at my request. A drop of solution of nitrate of silver wa...
-Silver. Argentum. U. S. Refined Silver. Part 3
Therapeutic Application Besides the uses of the nitrate as an ternal remedy, which will be noticed elsewhere, it is employed for two distinct purposes; the one, for its direct influence on the alim...
-Silver. Argentum. U. S. Refined Silver. Part 4
The same practitioner has found the medicine very useful in infantile diarrhoea. In cases attended with tormina, and glairy or bloody stools, he gives, morning and evening, an enema consisting of eigh...
-Silver. Argentum. U. S. Refined Silver. Part 5
Administration When the effects of nitrate of silver upon the system generally are desired, it should be given preferably in the form of pill; as a larger dose can thus be taken, without irritating...
-1. Oxide Of Silver. - Argenti Oxidum. U. S., Br
This is prepared by adding solution of potassa to a solution of nitrate of silver, the oxide being precipitated. It is an olive-brown powder, inodorous, nearly tasteless, and very slightly soluble in ...
-2. Chloride Of Silver. - Argenti Chloridum
This is made by adding muriatic acid, or a solution of chloride of sodium, to a solution of nitrate of silver. The chloride of silver is precipitated as a white curdy substance, which, when washed and...
-3. Iodide Of Silver. - Argenti Iodidum
This may be prepared by mixing solutions of nitrate of silver and iodide of potassium; the iodide of silver being thrown down as an insoluble, greenish-yellow powder. Dr. Charles Patterson, of Dublin,...
-II. Copper. Cuprum
In the metallic state, copper is quite inert. Instances are on record in which copper coins have remained long in the stomach without any observable effect; and animals which have been made to swallow...
-I. Sulphate of Copper. - Cupri Sulphas. U.S., Br. - Blue Vitriol
Origin Sulphate of copper exists in solution in the water running from copper mines, from which it is obtained by evaporation and crystallization. But it is more frequently prepared artificially; a...
-II. Ammoniated Copper. - Cuprum Ammoniatum. U.S
Origin This is made by rubbing together carbonate of ammonia and sulphate of copper. A reaction takes place, attended with the escape of carbonic acid, and resulting in the formation of a moist dee...
-III. Zinc. Zincum. U.S
Metallic zinc is without influence on the system; and it is only in chemical combination that it becomes active. The effects of its preparations are closely analogous to those of the preparations of c...
-I. Sulphate Of Zinc. - Zlnci Sulphas. U. S., Br. - White Vitriol
Origin This was known so early as the middle of the sixteenth century. It is prepared by acting upon metallic zinc with dilute sulphuric acid. The metal is oxidized at the expense of the water, the...
-Sulphate Of Zinc External Use
There are few more valuable medicines for external use than sulphate of zinc. Being at once excitant and decidedly astringent, it serves to stimulate enfeebled surfaces, and, by contracting their bloo...
-II. Acetate Of Zinc - Zlnci Acetas. U.S., Br
This is prepared by exposing metallic zinc to the action of a solution of acetate of lead. The zinc takes the place of the lead in the solution, while the latter metal is deposited in the pure state. ...
-III. Valerianate Of Zinc. - Zlnci Valerianas. U.S., Br
This may be made by double decomposition between valerianate of soda and sulphate of zinc, dissolved separately in boiling water, and then mixed. Upon evaporation, the valerianate of zinc is formed, b...
-IV. Precipitated Carbonate Of Zinc - Zlnci Car-Bonas Praecipitata. U.S. - Zinci Carbonas. Br. - Carbo-Nate Of Zinc
The U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs this to he made by double decomposition between sulphate of zinc and carbonate of soda, mixed in boiling hot solution. It has been introduced among the officinal prepar...
-Calamine - Calamina. U.S. 1850
This, when genuine, is an ore of zinc consisting chiefly of the carbonate of that metal. It is in hard masses, which are first heated, then pulverized, and afterwards submitted to the processes of lev...
-V. Oxide Of Zinc - Zincl Oxidum. U. S., Br
Origin and Properties. The oxide of zinc is prepared either by burning the metal, and condensing the vapours, or by heating the carbonate of zinc strongly, and thus driving off the carbonic acid. Proc...
-VI. Chloride Of Zinc - Zlncl Chloridum. U.S., Br
The mode of preparing, and the properties of this compound, will be considered under the head of escharotics, to which it belongs by its most important application. It is sufficient here to state that...
-IV. Bismuth. Bismuthum. U. S., Br
The only preparation of bismuth used in medicine was for a long time the subnitrate; but the subcarbonate has been of late introduced as a substitute, and is now recognized in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia;...
-I. Subnitrate Of Bismuth. - Blsmuthi Subnltras. U.S. - Bismuthum Album. Br. - White Oxide Of Bismuth. - Magistery Of Bismuth
Origin Subnitrate of bismuth is prepared by dissolving the metal in nitric acid, and pouring the resulting solution into water. Two salts are formed; one a supernitrate, with great excess of acid, ...
-II. Subcarbonate Of Bismuth - Blsmuthi Subcar-Bonas. U.S
This is prepared by mixing solutions of nitrate of bismuth and carbonate of soda, and washing and drying the resulting precipitate. By double decomposition between the two salts, nitrate of soda and c...
-III. Citrate Of Bismuth And Ammonia. - Syn. Liquor Bismuthi
This preparation was made in order to meet the demand for a soluble form of bismuth, by which its effects on the system might be obtained with greater certainty, and from a smaller dose. Originally ma...
-3. Reconstructive Mineral Tonics
It will be remembered that these are tonic substances which enter essentially into the constitution of the system. The only medicines which have been satisfactorily proved to belong to this subdivisio...
-Iron. Ferrum. U.S. Iron Wire. Br
It has long been known that iron is a normal constituent of the blood; and comparatively recent researches have shown that it exists exclusively in the colouring matter of the red corpuscles, of which...
-Iron. Ferrum. Iron Wire. Part 2
2. The effects upon the system, or on parts more or less remote from the surface of application, are next to be considered. These depend upon the absorption of the iron, and are usually not exhibited ...
-Iron. Ferrum. Iron Wire. Part 3
Passive hemorrhage from the stomach or bowels is sometimes beneficially treated with the chalybeates. To the active hemorrhages from these parts they are inapplicable, in consequence of their excitant...
-Iron. Ferrum. Iron Wire. Part 4
There is a peculiar form of anaemia, different in its origin from the preceding, in which iron is scarcely less effectual. I allude to the condition of system often left behind by miasmatic fevers, ch...
-Iron. Ferrum. Iron Wire. Part 5
Chorea, associated with anaemia, will often yield to the chalybeates when other remedies fail; though, as a general rule, they are inferior in this affection to some other metallic tonics. In epile...
-Iron. Ferrum. Iron Wire. Part 6
III. Choice of Preparations of Iron For many of the facts upon which the following conclusions rest, I have pleasure in acknowledging my indebtedness to a memoir by M. Quevenne, published in Boucha...
-1. Preparations Of Iron In The Metallic State. I. Reduced Iron. - Ferrum Redactum. U.S.,Br. - Powder Of Iron. - Ferri Pulvis. U. S. 1850. - Quevenne's Iron
This is prepared by passing hydrogen over sesquioxide of iron heated to redness. The hydrogen abstracts oxygen from the sesquioxide, and escapes as watery vapour, leaving the iron in a metallic state....
-II. Iron Filings. - Ferri Ramenta. U. S. 1850. - Ferri Llmatura. Ed
These were formerly much more used than at present; and were not dismissed from our Pharmacopoeia until the late revision. As kept in the shops, they are too often the mere refuse of the workshops, an...
-2. Preparations Of Iron In The State Of Oxide. I. Black Oxide Of Iron. - Ferri Oxidum Nigrum. - Martial Ethiops
Under this name, several preparations have been introduced into use, all of analogous composition, and probably identical medical properties, but differing somewhat in the proportion of their ingredie...
-II. Sesquioxide Of Iron. - Ferri Sesquioxidum
The proper chemical sesquioxide of iron consists of two equivalents of the metal, and three of oxygen. It constitutes the sole or chief ingredient of several officinal preparations, of which the hydra...
-1. Hydrated Sesquioxide Of Iron. - Ferri Oxidum Hydratum. U. S. - Ferri Peroxidum Hydratum. Br
This is prepared by dissolving sulphate of iron in water, adding sulphuric acid, and boiling; then adding nitric acid in small portions successively, boiling after each addition, until a dark colour i...
-2. Anhydrous Sesquioxide Of Iron. - Ferri Peroxidum. Br. - Colcothar
This may be prepared by drying the hydrated sesquioxide above noticed, and afterwards exposing it for a short time to an obscure red heat; or by calcining the sulphate of iron. In the former case, the...
-3. Rust of Iron. - Rubigo Ferri
This is made by exposing iron, in the shape of wire or filings, to the action of air and water. The metal becomes in time covered with a powder, which is rubbed off by trituration under water, and, be...
-III. Subcarbonate Of Iron. - Ferri Subcarbonas. U. S. - Ferri Carbonas Prsecipitatus, U. S. 1830. - Precipitated Carbonate Of Iron. - Crocus Martis
This was introduced into practice as a substitute for the old rust of iron. Its claim to the title of subcarbonate cannot be sustained on chemical grounds. Only one compound of carbonic acid and iron ...
-3. Preparations Of Iron In The Saline State. I. Pills Of Carbonate Of Iron. - Pllulae Ferri Carbonatis. U.S. - Ferri Carbonas Saccharata. Br.-Pilula Ferri Carbonatis. Br. - Vallets Ferruginous Pills
The protoxide of iron has so powerful an affinity for oxygen, that it cannot remain an instant in contact with air, or water containing air, without undergoing a partial change into sesquioxide; and a...
-II. Sulphate of Iron. - Ferri Sulphas. U.S., Br. - Green Vitriol
Preparation For medical purposes, this salt should be prepared by heating together dilute sulphuric acid and iron wire. The iron is oxidized at the expense of the water, hydrogen escaping with effe...
-1. Solution Of Subsulphate Of Iron. - Liquor Ferri Subsulphatis. U. S. - Astringent Solution Of Sulphate Of Iron. -Monsel's Solution
This preparation of iron was brought into notice, a few years since, as a powerful styptic, by M. Monsel, surgeon to the military hospital at Bordeaux; and was introduced into the U. S. Pharmacopoeia ...
-2. Solution of Tersulphate Of Iron. - Liquor Ferri Tersulphatis. U. S. - Solution Of Persulphate Of Iron. Br. Appendix
This solution was introduced into the Pharmacopoeias chiefly as a step in the preparation of various important chalybeates, and is therefore less immediately interesting to the practitioner of medicin...
-3. Sulphate of Iron And Ammonia. - Ferri Et Ammonia Sulphas. U. S. - Ammonio-Ferric Alum
This is a new officinal of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, introduced as a substitute for ammonia alum, which it resembles in composition; the sesquioxide of iron being substituted for alumina. Hence it has ...
-III. Solution Of Nitrate Of Iron. - Liquor Ferri Nitratis. U.S. - Liquor Ferri Pernitratis. Br
Preparation This preparation, first made known as a remedy by Mr. William Kerr, of Scotland, in 1832, has been adopted as officinal in the U. S. and Br. Pharmacopoeias. As made by the process of Mr...
-IV. Phosphate Of Iron. Ferri Phosphas. U. S., Br
Phosphate of iron is prepared, according to the directions of our officinal code, by mixing solutions of sulphate of iron and phosphate of soda. A double decomposition takes place, resulting in the fo...
-1. Pyrophosphate Of Iron. - Ferri Pyrophosphas. U.S
Under this name, a preparation of iron has been introduced into the present edition of U. S. Pharmacopoeia, consisting of sesquiphosphate of sesquioxide of iron, which is insoluble in water, and citra...
-2. Syrup of Phosphate of Iron. - Syrupus Ferri Phos-Phatis. Br
Several syrups of phosphate of iron have been proposed. The British syrup contains the phosphate of iron of the Pharmacopoeia, dissolved by means of phosphoric acid, and duly incorporated with sugar. ...
-V. Tartrate Of Iron And Potassa. - Ferri Et Po-Tassae Tartras. U. S. - Ferrum Tartaratum. Br. - Tartarated Iron. Syn. Ferri Potassio-Tartras. Ferrum Tar-Tarizatum
This is among the most valuable of the chalybeates. It is prepared, according to the method of Soubeiran, which has been adopted in the U. S. and Br. Pharmacopoeias, by adding gradually to a heated mi...
-VI. Tartrate Of Iron And Ammonia. - Ferri Et Ammoniae Tartras. U.S
Preparation This is made, according to the process of Professor Procter, by dissolving freshly prepared hydrated sesquioxide of iron in a solution of bitartrate of ammonia, then evaporating by mean...
-VII. Citrate Of Iron. - Ferri Cltras. U.S
The U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs this salt to be made by evaporating the officinal Solution of Citrate of Iron (Liquor Ferri Citratis, U. S.) to the consistence of syrup, and then spreading it on plate...
-VIII. Citrate Of Iron And Ammonia. - Ferri Et Ammoniae Citras. U.S., Br
Preparation and Composition. This salt is made by mixing officinal solution of citrate of iron and water of ammonia, evaporating at a heat of 150 or less to a syrupy consistence, and then drying ...
-1. Arseniate of Iron. - Ferri Arsenias. Br
This is an officinal of the British Pharmacopoeia, made by mixing solutions of sulphate of iron, and of arseniate and acetate of soda. A white precipitate falls, which soon becomes green on exposure t...
-2. Acetate Of Iron. - Ferri Acetas
Acetate of protoxide of iron is in small, green crystals, which decompose rapidly on exposure to the air; acetate of sesquioxide of iron is uncrystallizable, and, in the solid state, deliquescent; it ...
-3. Citrate of Iron And Magnesia. - Ferri Et Magnesiae Cltras
This is made by dissolving freshly prepared hydrated sesquioxide of iron in citric acid, saturating with carbonate of magnesia, evaporating to the consistence of syrup, and drying in thin layers. It i...
-4. Lactate of Iron. - Ferri Lactas. U. S
Under the impression that lactic acid is ordinarily present in the gas-ric juice, that it is consequently the form of lactate which the ferruginous preparations introduced into the stomach generally a...
-5. Valerianate Of Iron. - Ferri Valerianas Dub
This preparation was introduced into the Dublin Pharmacopoeia, probably under the impression, that the valerianic acid contained in it might superadd to the tonic action of the iron, in chlorotic case...
-4. Preparations Of Iron In The State Of Haloid Salts. I. Chloride Of Iron. - Ferri Chloridum. U.S. - Ses-Quichloride Of Iron. Perchloride Of Iron
This is properly the sesquichloride or perchloride of iron. Though long and very largely used in alcoholic solution, and more recently, to a considerable extent, dissolved in water, this chalybeate ha...
-1. Tincture Of Chloride Of Iron. - Tinctura Ferri Chlo-Ridi. U.S. - Tinctura Ferri Perchloridi. Br. - Ferri Muriatis Tinctura. Ed. - Muriated Tincture Of Iron
Preparation This was formerly prepared by dissolving subcarbo-nate of iron (U. S.) in muriatic acid, and, after filtration, adding alcohol to the solution. As the subcarbonate of iron of the U. S. ...
-2. Solution Of Perchloride Of Iron. - Liquor Ferri Perchloridi. Br
A strong solution of perchloride of iron having come into extensive use as a styptic, the British Pharmacopoeia adopted it as officinal, and gives a process for its preparation. Unfortunately, however...
-II. Ammoniated Iron. - Ferrum Ammoniatum. U. S. 1850. - Ammonio-Cltloride Of Iron
When the subcarbonate of iron of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia (sesquioxide of iron) is digested with muriatic acid, a reaction takes place, by which the sesquichloride of iron is formed in solution. If now...
-III. Iodide Of Iron. - Ferri Iodidum. Br
Preparation Iodide of iron is prepared by simply mixing the two ingredients together, with the presence of water, which dissolves the resulting compound, and, after filtration, yields it by evapora...
-IV. Ferrocyanide Of Iron. - Ferri Ferrocyanidum. U. S. - Pure Prussian Blue
Preparation As the Prussian blue of commerce is always more or less impure, this preparation should be made specially for medical use. The U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs that to the officinal solution...
-Section Second. Diffusible Stimulants
Under this division of General Stimulants are included those which act quickly and energetically, but only for a comparatively short period. In the degree in which they possess the stimulant property ...
-Division Of Diffusible Stimulants
Most of the general excitant influences, though they may in a greater or less degree affect the whole system, are characterized by having a preferable tendency to some one of the subordinate systems r...
-I. Heat As A Diffusible Stimulant
It is only when of higher degree than the temperature of the body, or of that part of the body to which it may be applied, that heat is used therapeutically. No precise degree, therefore, can be fixed...
-1. Effects Of Heat On The System
The first effect of heat is to excite its own peculiar sensation in the seat of application. In a moderate degree, this may not be unpleasing; indeed, when the temperature has been depressed below the...
-2. General Therapeutic Application of Heat
Two main purposes are fulfilled by heat acting as a stimulant; first, to elevate the depressed, or support the failing functions; and secondly, to equalize the distribution of the blood and nervous en...
-3. Modes Of Applying Heat Therapeutically
Of the heat generated within the body by exercise, stimulation, rich diet, friction, etc., I shall not here treat, because it is a result of other measures, and, though it may be one of the means by w...
-Modes Of Applying Heat Therapeutically. Part 2
Dry Air b. Dry Air. Another method of sustaining the warmth of the body is to surround it with dry air, which is a very bad conductor. But dry air favours greatly the evaporation of liquids, and th...
-Modes Of Applying Heat Therapeutically. Part 3
Heated air may be employed for the same purposes. The body will support a much higher temperature of the surrounding air when it is dry, than when moist, because in the former state it is a much worse...
-Hot Bath
Hot Bath. In a bath of this kind, the effects are both stimulant and sedative; and whether one effect or the other shall predominate, must depend on the degree of the temperature above that of the sur...
-Hot Bath. Continued
In sudden prostration occurring in the advanced stages of low fevers, in prolonged asphyxia, in the collapse of cholera, haematemesis, and melaena, similar indications are afforded by the cold surface...
-Local Hot Bathing
Local Hot Bathing. Hot water may be employed locally by semicupium, coxaeluvium, pediluvium, maniluvium, fomentation, or cataplasm. For an account of these methods of application, the reader is referr...
-Hot Vapour Bath
Hot Vapour Bath. In some countries there are public vapour baths, in which numbers may be collected in the same chamber; and this is occasionally so arranged, with seats rising one above another, that...
-II. Electricity As A Diffusible Stimulant
In treating of electricity as a remedial agent, I shall take it for granted that the reader is already acquainted with its chemical and physical properties, and with the prevalent opinions of its natu...
-1. Modes Of Development Or Excitation
For medical purposes electricity is developed or excited in four somewhat distinct methods; 1. by friction, in the form of common electricity; 2. by contact and chemical reaction, in the form of galva...
-A. Excitation By Friction
General Observations Electricity excited by friction is usually denominated static, conveying the idea that it is stationary or not in action, while in the form of galvanism it is said to be dynami...
-B. Excitation By Contact And Chemical Action
Galvanism, or the dynamic form of electricity, is excited by the contact of two metals, or other conducting bodies, with the presence of a fluid capable of chemical action on one only of the two, or o...
-C. Excitation By Magnetic Induction
When a magnet is placed within a coil of wire insulated by being covered with silk thread, the latter assumes a polar condition the reverse of that of the magnet; and, if the magnetic circuit and that...
-Electro-Magnetic Or Magneto-Electric Machines
Different machines of this kind have been devised by different persons. Among them probably those of Clark, Dujardin, and the Messieurs Breton are best known. The current is broken in these instrument...
-D. Electric Excitation By Galvano-Magnetic Induction
If within a coil of insulated wire a piece of soft iron be placed, and i galvanic current be passed through the coil, the soft iron becomes magnetized, and continues so as long, and only as long, as t...
-Volta-Electric Machines. Galvano-Magnetic Induction Machines. Electro-Dynamic Machines
A large number of these machines have been contrived in England, France, and Germany, as those of Newman, the Messrs. Breton, Keller, etc. The following are the essential parts of the apparatus: 1. a ...
-2. Effects Of Electricity On The System
As electricity is probably identical under whatever aspect it may present itself, its effects under similar circumstances are probably also identical; but, in the different conditions in which it is a...
-A. Effects Of Electricity Excited By Friction
The effects of a mere accumulation of electricity in the system have not been satisfactorily determined. We feel often very differently before and after a thunder-storm. Many persons imagine they can ...
-Effects Of Dynamic Electricity
This includes both galvanism, strictly speaking, and the electricity developed by induction. Dynamic electricity differs, in its attendant physiological phenomena, materially from the static. It produ...
-3. Methods Of Application
In describing the instruments for the development of static and galvanic electricity, and the effects of these two modes of electrical excitement, I have probably said as much as may be necessary in r...
-Methods Of Application. Part 2
2. To the Skin If static electricity is employed for exciting the skin, it is necessary that it should be of feeble intensity, as it would otherwise penetrate the deeper tissues. The dynamic form i...
-Methods Of Application. Part 3
To the Special Senses For the sight, galvanism is preferable to electricity by induction, as it is more powerfully stimulant to the organ of vision.* If either of the inductive machines be used, th...
-4. Therapeutic Applications
Under the impression that nervous power is nothing more than a form of electricity, which some physiologists were at one time disposed to believe, it was imagined that the latter agent might be made e...
-1. Paralytic Affections
It is only by stimulating the paralyzed part, or the nervous centre or nervous trunk supplying it, that electricity operates in the cure of palsy. It is obvious, therefore, that it is wholly inapplica...
-1. Palsy from Cerebral Hemorrhage
This generally assumes the form of hemiplegia; but it may also be paraplegic or local. The reader will bear in mind the observations above made, in relation to the circumstances under which electricit...
-2. Palsy of the Insane
This form of palsy is scarcely a proper subject, under any circumstances, for the application of electricity, which is contraindicated by the existing and increasing cerebral lesion. It may. however, ...
-3. Spinal Palsy
This has most frequently the form of paraplegia. When dependent on active congestion, inflammation, or even pressure from moderate hemorrhage or effusion, it often, I believe, ends favourably with the...
-4. Traumatic Palsy
This is one of the forms of palsy in which electricity exercises the most extraordinary powers. It is applicable, of course, only after the wound or injury of the nerve has healed, or been repaired; b...
-5. Rheumatic Palsy
This name has been given to a variety of palsy which comes on after exposure to cold. It is sometimes precede)] by pain, which disappears, leaving the palsy behind; sometimes is wholly unattended with...
-6. Hysterical Palsy
When palsy attacks hysterical women, and can be referred to no precise origin, it is considered usually as entitled to this designation. It is characterized by retaining the electro-muscular contracti...
-7. Diphtheric Palsy
For a minute description of the palsy so apt to follow attacks of diphtheria, to which the attention of the profession has been especially called only of late, the reader is referred to my Treatise on...
-8. Lead Palsy
If the muscles retain only a small portion of their electric contractility, it may be considered certain that the disease will recover easily and rapidly; and even with a complete loss of that propert...
-9. Progressive Fatty Muscular Atrophy
Under this name M. Du-chenne refers to a disease long known as a variety of general palsy, but which has only recently become well understood. It consists essentially in a gradually progressive atroph...
-10. Paralysis of the Bladder
Dysury. - Incontinence. Difficulty in evacuating the bladder sometimes proceeds from palsy or debility of the abdominal muscles; the urine being forcibly expelled if a catheter is introduced. In such ...
-13. Palsy of the Larynx
Aphonia. When not dependent on organic lesion, or symptomatic of some other disease, this will sometimes yield to local faradisation applied to the muscles from without, and the skin also, or by opera...
-14. Cutaneous Anaesthesia, or Loss of Sensibility in the Skin
The loss of sensibility in paralytic muscles is generally remedied at the same time with loss of motion. But sometimes the two conditions exist separately; and insensibility of the skin is not a very ...
-15. Amaurosis
Electricity should never be employed in this affection. if there be any reason to suppose that it depends on active congestion, inflammation, or other organic disease in the nervous centre of vision, ...
-16. Deafness
In nervous deafness, faradisation of the chorda tym-pani has been followed by happy results. Great care must be exercised in conducting this operation. While the patient lies on his side, the meatus a...
-2. General And Local Relaxation, Debility, Or Torpor
Under this head may be enumerated a considerable number of affections in which electricity has been found more or less useful. In asphyxia and syncope it may be resorted to in reference to the shoc...
-3. Neuralgic And Rheumatic Affections
Neuralgia. Electricity has been found curative in many cases of this affection, operating, it would seem, sometimes directly by the benumbing influence of its excessive power, sometimes revulsively. T...
-4. Spasmodic Affections
Many of these complaints have been treated by electricity, with variable success, as hysteria, epilepsy, chorea, etc., and Matteucci even ventured to recommend it in tetanus, on the ground that a cont...
-5. Indolent Swellings
Various tumefactions, hypertrophic, rheumatic, and scrofulous, the result of simple chronic inflammation, or left behind after sprains or other injuries, have from time to time been treated by electri...
-6. Extra-Uterine Pregnancy
Electricity is said to have been successfully resorted to by Professor Burci, of Pisa, in an extra-uterine pregnancy, in order to prevent the further development of the foetus, and favour its absorpti...
-7. Therapeutic Application Of Chemical Influence
Electricity has been employed for three distinct purposes, in reference to its chemical reagency: 1. for the cure of aneurisms, through its coagulating influence upon the blood; 2. for the solution of...
-Class I. Arterial Stimulants
These arc diffusible stimulants operating especially on the circulatory-function, with little comparative influence on the nervous system. They have sometimes been called Incitants or Simple Stimulant...
-I. Cayenne Pepper. Capsicum. U. S., Br. Syn. Red Pepper
Origin Cayenne pepper is the fruit of Capsicum annuum, an annual plant from one to three feet high, inhabiting intertropical America, and supposed by some to be a native of the East Indies. It is c...
-II. Oil Of Turpentine. Oleum Terebinthinae. U.S., Br
Origin As used in this country, oil of turpentine is obtained exclusively from our common or white turpentine, by distillation. Properties It is a limpid, colourless liquid, of a strong, pecu...
-Oil Of Turpentine Therapeutic Application
From the variety and importance of its therapeutic effects, oil of turpentine deserves to rank among the most valuable medicines. In regard to some of these effects, the anthelmintic, namely, the rube...
-Oil Of Turpentine Therapeutic Application. Part 3
Enteric or Typhoid Fever. Though the oil may be of some use as a mere stimulant in this disease, it is, in that respect, of but comparatively little value, and cannot be depended on to the exclusion o...
-Oil Of Turpentine Therapeutic Application. Part 4
Puerperal Fever. Dr. Brenan, of Dublin, has spoken in the strongest terms of the usefulness of this remedy in puerperal fever. He gave it in doses of one or two tablespoonfuls every three or four hour...
-III. Carbonate Of Ammonia. Ammoniae Carbonas. U.S., Br
Preparation Carbonate of ammonia is prepared by subliming a mixture of carbonate of lime and muriate of ammonia. The muriatic acid and lime, reacting upon each other, produce chloride of calcium an...
-Carbonate Of Ammonia Therapeutic Application
In an impure form this salt has long been used in medicine, under the names of sal volatile, salt of hartshorn, etc. It may often be very usefully employed. In consequence of the energy and, at the sa...
-Carbonate Of Ammonia Administration
The dose of the medicine is from two or three to twenty grains, repeated every half hour, hour, or two hours. From five to ten grains every hour or two is the ordinary dose in low fevers. Thirty grain...
-1. Water Of Ammonia. - Aqua Ammoniae. U.S. - Liquor Ammoniae. Br., U.S. 1850. - Solution Of Ammonia
This is water impregnated with gaseous ammonia. As it is much more used as an external irritant than as a stimulant internally, it will be more particularly treated of among the rubefacients. Its effe...
-2. Spirit Of Ammonia. - Spiritus Ammoniae. U.S
This is a solution of gaseous ammonia in officinal alcohol, and differs, therefore, from the last-mentioned preparation only in the menstruum. It has about the same proportion of ammonia as the watery...
-3. Aromatic Spirit Of Ammonia. - Spiritus Ammonia Aromaticus. U. S., Br
As now directed in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, this is simply a solution in alcohol, in fixed proportions, of carbonate of ammonia, water of ammonia, and the volatile oils of lemons, nutmeg, and lavender...
-IV. Phosphorus. U.S
Preparation This is obtained by first decomposing the phosphate of lime, contained in calcined bones, by means of dilute sulphuric arid, and afterwards decomposing the excess of phosphoric acid in ...
-Phosphorus Effects on the System
Phosphorus is generally admitted to be irritant to the stomach, and powerfully stimulant to the system, especially to the circulation. It is said also to stimulate the nervous centres, strongly to exc...
-Phosphorus Mode of Operation
Phosphorus itself, unchanged, is probably quite inert Its entire insolubility, the perfect impunity with which it can be handled, and its want of taste when quite clean, are evidences to this effect I...
-Phosphorus Therapeutic Application
The use of phosphorus as a medicine takes date from the middle of the last century. Though now little employed, in consequence of its frequently violent effects, it has at different times and by diffe...
-Phosphorus Administration
With proper caution in its use, no serious danger need be apprehended. In the first place, it should never be given in the solid or undissolved form, not even in a state of mechanical division, howeve...
-Class II. Nervous Stimulants. Antispasmodics
Syn. Antispasmodics. It is this universality of their action that distinguishes them from the following class, or that of cerebral stimulants. As one of the nervous stimulants may superadd to its o...
-1. Nervous Stimulants Effects On The System
It has been already stated that most of these medicines stimulate the circulation, and consequently increase the temperature of the surface. Indeed, this effect is often more obvious in health than th...
-2. Nervous Stimulants Therapeutic Application
The special application of this class of medicines is to the relief of nervous disorder. They are used in all affections of this kind, whether the result of over-excitement, or of depression of the ne...
-Nervous Stimulants Therapeutic Application. Part 2
2. Sometimes the affection, originating as above, may coexist with other diseases originating in different causes. Inflammation of one of the important organs may complicate thehysterical phenomena, a...
-Nervous Stimulants Therapeutic Application. Part 3
The nervous conditions or affections requiring the use of the nervous stimulants may be arranged under the following heads. 1. Morbid Excitability of the Nervous Centres This is a morbid conditi...
-1. Nervous Stimulants Emotional Influences
The excitant emotions may often be usefully brought into play, in depressed or disordered states of the nervous functions. Hope, confidence, joy, love, ambition, and other analogous states of mind, ex...
-2. Nervous Stimulants Sensational Influences
These may often be so employed as to become powerful means in the cure of various functional disorder. They operate either by a direct excitation of depressed nervous centres, or by revulsively reliev...
-Cold as a Nervous Stimulant
Cold operates, in this capacity, solely through the sensation produced by its contact with the surface. Though a depressing agent in its direct action upon the part with which it comes in contact, it ...
-Electricity in Relation to its Sensational Effect
In the precise sense in which the remedy is here considered, electricity acts merely by exciting sensation. In regard to its influences in general, it is a universal stimulant, and has been treated of...
-I. Musk. Moschus. U. S., Br
1. Origin Musk is the product of an animal bearing some resemblance to the deer, usually less than three feet high, with elevated haunches, long and narrow ears, a short tail, and tusks projecting ...
-Musk Therapeutic Application
Musk was unknown to the ancients, and is said to have been introduced into Europe by the Arabians. It may be used for the general purposes of the nervous stimulants already detailed; and probably exer...
-II. Castor. Castoreum. U. S., Br
Origin Castor is a product of the beaver, Castor Fiber of naturalists. In this animal, in both sexes, there are two pairs of follicles or small sacs, situated between the anus and external genitals...
-III. Assafetida. Assafcetida. U. S., Br
Origin Assafetida is a concrete juice, derived from the root of Nar-thex Assafoetida, an umbelliferous herb, from six to nine feet high, growing in the interior mountainous regions of Persia, and n...
-Assafetida Therapeutic Applications
Therapeutic Applications. Assafetida is a highly important medicine, and there is reason to apprehend that it may be too much neglected in consequence of its extreme offensiveness. The probability is ...
-Assafetida Administration
The dose of assafetida is from five to twenty grains. More, however, might sometimes be given with safety and probable advantage. It should generally be administered in pill or emulsion; the former be...
-1. Sagapenum. Lond
Though recognized in the late London Pharmacopoeia, this is no longer officinal, having been discarded in the British. It is the concrete juice of an unknown Persian plant, supposed to be umbelliferou...
-2. Galbanum. U.S., Br
Galbanum is the concrete juice of an uncertain plant, probably a species of Ferula, growing in Persia, on the borders of the Caspian. It is said sometimes to be procured by incision, sometimes to exud...
-3. Ammoniac. - Ammoniacum. U.S., Br
This gum-resin will be hereafter treated of as a stimulant expectorant, when its origin, properties, composition, and physiological effects will be detailed. In the present place it is sufficient to s...
-IV. Valerian. Valeriana. U. S., Br
Origin This is the root of Valeriana officinalis, a European herbaceous perennial from two to four feet high, with branches terminating in clusters of small sweet-scented (lowers. The plant is now ...
-Valerianate Of Ammonia. - Ammoniae Valerianas. U.S
This salt is prepared by saturating valerianic acid with ammonia. The chief difficulty is in obtaining it dry and crystallized, in consequence of its extreme deliquescence. It is in white pearly qu...
-V. Garlic. Allium. U.S
Origin Garlic consists of the bulbs of Allium sativum, or common garden garlic, a native of Europe, but cultivated in most civilized countries. The bulbs, when taken from the ground, are dried, usu...
-VI. Coffee And Tea
I consider these two substances together, because their effects are of a closely similar character, and, where any difference exists, it can be readily indicated without producing confusion. Coffee...
-Coffee And Tea Effects on the System
I shall first treat of the effects of roasted coffee, and afterwards allude to the slight differences which exist between them and the effects of tea. Unroasted coffee, being almost never used, will n...
-Coffee And Tea Method of Operating
The immediate effects of coffee on the stomach result, I presume, from its direct contact with the tissue. Those upon the nervous system are probably produced by some one or more of its ingredients be...
-Coffee And Tea Therapeutic Application
Coffee and tea came into use in Western Europe about the middle of the seventeenth century. Unfortunately, their habitual use as articles of diet limits very much their therapeutic application. The sy...
-Coffee And Tea Administration
Coffee may be used in medicine in the form of powder, decoction, or infusion. Of the powder, a drachm or two may be taken for a dose; but it is very seldom used in this way. The decoction may be made ...
-1. Rectified Oil Of Amber - Oleum Succini Rectificatum. U.S
Oil of Amber (Oleum Succini, U. S.), in its impure commercial form, is obtained from amber by subjecting it, mixed with sand, to dry distillation. A sour liquid comes over, on the surface of which a v...
-2. Dracontium. U.S
This is the root of Symplocarpus foetidus, or common skunk cabbage, an indigenous plant, with broad cabbage-like leaves, and a very fetid odour, growing in low meadowy or swampy places, throughout the...
-3. Cypripedium. U. S
Under this title, has been introduced into the U. S. Pharmacopoeia the root of Cypripedium pubescens, one of several species, which, with the common name of ladies' slipper or moccasin plant, inhabit ...
-4. Saffron. - Crocus. U. S., Br
The term saffron is, in common language as well as officinally, used to designate a product of the Crocus sativus, or common cultivated saffron, consisting of the convoluted stigmas and a portion of t...
-5. Cochineal. - Coccus Cacti. U.S., Br
This, like the substance just treated of, is much more used for its sensible than for its remedial properties. Little, therefore, need be said of it here; but the reader will find it described, in rel...
-6. Coca
Though not recognized by the Pharmacopoeias, and scarcely known in this country except as an imported curiosity, the substance thus named exercises over the system an influence so extraordinary, that ...
-Class III. Cerebral Stimulants. Stimulant Narcotics
Syn. Stimulant Narcotics. These are medicines which, to a stimulant influence over the circulation and nervous system generally, add a peculiar power over the special functions of the brain, as evi...
-Cerebral Stimulants Effects on the System
The first effect of a cerebral stimulant, given in doses calculated to bring its characteristic influence into operation, is more or less to excite the stomach. In a short time, its influence extends ...
-Cerebral Stimulants Effects on the System. Continued
Death, then, from the cerebral stimulants is usually an example of asphyxia. The heart, as in the same affection from other causes, continues to beat for a short time after respiration has ceased, som...
-Cerebral Stimulants Therapeutic Application
The therapeutics of this class of medicines will be most conveniently treated of under the several individual articles; as there is so much specialty in their uses, that few general observations would...
-I. Alcohol
I propose first to give a general account of alcohol, its effects, and medical uses, and afterwards to treat of the forms in which it is used, and of what may be peculiar to each. Alcohol is the pr...
-1. Alcohol Effects On The System
The following observations have reference to alcoholic beverages in general, and not to any one distinct form; but the effects described are to be understood as exclusively those of the alcoholic ingr...
-Alcohol Effects On The System. Part 2
Now and then, instead of the series of phenomena above presented, nausea and vomiting come on at some period in the progress of the debauch, and the further development of the symptoms is prevented. T...
-Alcohol Effects On The System. Part 3
A third mode of poisoning is by the superinduction of inflammation of the brain or its meninges. This condition is either left behind after the disappearance of the coma, or the symptoms of the two co...
-Alcohol Effects On The System. Part 4
4. From the constant stimulation of the whole system, and especially of the brain, the excitability is so far exhausted that, on the withdrawal of the stimulus, a condition of extreme prostration take...
-Alcohol Appearances on Dissection
Appearances on Dissection. When death has occurred suddenly from enormous quantities of the poison, no pathological appearance need be expected after death; the stomach and brain being at once overwhe...
-Treatment of Alcoholic Poisoning
Treatment of Alcoholic Poisoning. In the acute cases, the prominent indication, in the earlier stage, is to evacuate the stomach; for which purpose recourse may be had to emetics or the stomach-pump. ...
-2. Alcohol Mode Of Operating
The operation of alcohol as a stimulant is probably dynamic, that is, the result of its influence on the vital properties of the tissues, and independent of any chemical action exerted upon those tiss...
-3. Alcohol Therapeutic Application
The first great question in the therapeutics of alcohol is how far its habitual use is favourable or unfavourable to health. In the greater number of cases, judging from the experience of the world si...
-Alcohol Therapeutic Application. Part 2
In low febrile diseases the alcoholic liquors are a most valuable resource, and, indeed, often indispensable. At least, I have very frequently met with conditions in these fevers, in which I should ha...
-Alcohol Therapeutic Application. Part 3
Considerable attention has recently been attracted to the asserted efficacy of this remedy in the state of system resulting from the bites of poisonous serpents; and cases have been recorded which go ...
-4. Forms In Which Alcohol Is Used. A. Fermented Liquors. I. Wines. - Vina
The U. S. Pharmacopoeia recognizes only two kinds of wine; 1. Sherry Wine, Vinum Xericum, U. S. (Vinum Album, U. S. 1850, White Wine); and 2. Port Wine, Vinum Portense, U. S. (Vinum Rubrum, U. S. 1850...
-Wine Effects on the System
The effects of wine, as a mere alcoholic liquor, have been already sufficiently described; but there are certain peculiarities in its operation which demand notice. These result either from other ingr...
-Wine Therapeutic Application
Wines may be employed for all the purposes for which alcoholic stimulation is demanded, and, as a general rule, are greatly preferable to ardent spirits. Almost the only exceptions to this rule are in...
-2. Malt Liquor. - Cerevisia
This is prepared, by means of the vinous fermentation, from an infusion of malt, which is made from barley, by exposing it to a moderately elevated temperature with moisture, so as to promote germinat...
-B. Distilled Liquors
Under this head may be included all that is necessary to be said both of the ardent spirits, and the stronger preparations called in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia simply Alcohol and Stronger Alcohol, and in...
-1. Ardent Spirits. - Proof Spirit
These are prepared by a simple distillation of the fermented liquors. and receive names according to the particular liquors from which they may be severally derived. Thus, the spirit distilled from wi...
-2. Alcohol. U.S. - Spiritusrectificatus. Land. - Rectified Spirit
By the term alcohol, as before stated, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia recognizes a spirit of the sp. gr 0.835, prepared by distilling brandy or other form of ardent spirit. The corresponding British rectifi...
-3. Stronger Alcohol. - Alcohol Fortius. U.S
This preparation is somewhat stronger than the preceding, having the sp. gr. 0.817. It differs also in being more completely destitute of fusel oil; and on this account was introduced into the Pharmac...
-4. Diluted Alcohol. - Alcohol Dllutum. U.S. - Spi-Ritus Fortior. Br
This is prepared, according to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by mixing equal measures of officinal alcohol and distilled water. It is not quite so strong in alcohol as the proof spirit of the British Pharm...
-II. Ether. Aether. U. S., Br. Syn. Sulphuric Ether. Aether Sulphuricus
Ether is obtained by the distillation of a mixture of alcohol and sulphuric acid; but, as thus procured, it is impure, containing, besides the pure ether, sulphurous acid, ethereal oil, alcohol, and w...
-Stronger Ether. - Aether Fortlor. U. S. - Pure Ether. Br. Appendix
The process of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia consists in first shaking un-purified ether and water strongly together, and, after subsidence, pouring off the supernatant ether, thus deprived of its alcohol; ...
-1. Pure Ether Effects On The System
Ether is a universal and highly diffusible stimulant, closely resembling alcohol in its action, but much more speedy and less durable. When I say that it is universal, I do not mean that it absolutely...
-Pure Ether Effects On The System. Continued
For many hours after the immediate effects of the inhalation of ether are over, there is an escape of its vapour from the lungs, and possibly from other emunctories, which is obvious to the senses of ...
-2. Pure Ether Mode Of Operating
Ether probably operates as a stimulant by a direct influence on the vital susceptibilities of the tissues, without any chemical reaction. One proof of this is the vast amount which may be taken with i...
-3. Pure Ether Therapeutic Application
The use of ether as a medicine dates from an early period in modern history. I shall treat of its employment first as administered by the stomach, secondly by inhalation, and lastly as an external app...
-Ether Administration
The dose of ether is from half a fluidrachm to two fluidrachms, which, if a given effect is to be sustained, should be repeated at intervals of half an hour, or at most one hour, as the effect rapidly...
-Pure Ether As an Anaesthetic Agent in Surgery
There has been no little controversy about the propriety of using measures to prevent pain in surgery; but the mass of the profession, influenced in some degree, no doubt, by the powerful instincts of...
-3. Ether External Use
Ether is used externally for two purposes, for stimulation, and refrigeration. For the first, it is confined to the part to which it is applied; for the second, it is allowed freely to evaporate so as...
-1. Spirit Of Ether - Spiritus Aetheris. Br. - Spirit Of Sulphuric Ether
This is simply a mixture of one part by measure of ether and two of rectified spirit, or officinal alcohol. The only advantage of the preparation is that it is readily miscible with water, and may, th...
-2. Compound Spirit of Ether - Spiritus Aetheris Compositus. U.S. - Compound Spirit Of Sulphuric Ether. - Hoffmann's Anodyne Liquor. - Hoffmann's Anodyne
As directed in the Pharmacopoeia, this is made by mixing together half a pint of ether, a pint of alcohol, and six fluidounces of ethereal oil or heavy oil of wine. The Ethereal Oil (Oleum Aethereu...
-III. Nitrous Oxide. Protoxide Of Nitrogen. Laughing Gas
Though not yet recognized by the Pharmacopoeias, nitrous oxide possesses such valuable properties, and is at present so largely employed, that it cannot be passed over in silence in a work, purporting...
-Laughing Gas Medical Properties and Uses
Nitrous oxide has all the physiological properties which entitle a medicine to rank among the cerebral stimulants. In whatever mode introduced into the system, it especially stimulates the cerebral fu...
-Laughing Gas Mode of Exhibition
The ordinary method of administration is by means of an air-tight bladder, with a tube and mouth-piece attached, through which the patient breathes, inhaling the contents of the bag, and returning int...
-IV. Camphor. Camphora. U. S., Br
Origin Camphor is a concrete substance obtained from Camphora officinarum, an evergreen tree, of considerable size, growing in China and Japan, and other neighbouring countries, and occasionally ke...
-Camphor General Effects
Our attention is next to be directed to the effects of camphor on the system at large. Omitting the impression it may produce on the stomach, which will vary with the predominance of the refrigerant i...
-Camphor Poisonous Effects
In great excess, camphor sometimes occasions nausea and vomiting, by which it is discharged, and ill effects averted. If not speedily thrown off from the stomach, it gives rise to anxiety, vertigo, di...
-2. Camphor Mode of Operation
Camphor probably acts on the system at large exclusively through the blood. That it is absorbed is proved by its odour in the breath and perspiration, and, as some have asserted, in the urine, and by ...
-Camphor Contraindications
It is scarcely necessary to repeat that camphor should not be given during the existence of active vascular irritation, congestion, or inflammation of the brain, nor in high febrile excitement with a ...
-Camphor Administration
Camphor may be used in pill or emulsion, but the latter form is greatly to be preferred; as, in the former, it is more apt to irritate the stomach, probably by floating upon the gastric liquids, and t...
-1. Camphor Water - Aqua Camphorae. U. S., Br
This is made, according to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by rubbing two drachms of camphor, first with forty minims of alcohol, afterwards with four drachms of carbonate of magnesia, and lastly with two pi...
-2. Spirit of Camphor. _ Spiritus Camphorae. U. S., Br. - Tinctura Camphorae. U.S. 1850. - Tincture Of Camphor
This is simply a solution of camphor in officinal alcohol. A fluidrachm of it contains seven and a half grains. It is chiefly used externally, as an anodyne embrocation in rheumatic and gouty pains, c...
-3. Camphor Liniment. - Linimentum Camphorae. U. S., Br
This is a solution of camphor in olive oil, half an ounce of the former being employed to two fluidounces of the latter. It is used locally for the same purposes as the spirit, and as a discutient app...
-4. Camphorated Tincture Of Opium - Tinctura Oph. Camphorata. U. S. - Paregoric
This tincture will he treated of among the preparations of opium, to which the reader is referred. ...
-5. Soap Liniment. - Linimentum Saponis. U. S.,Br. - Tinctura Saponis Camphorata. U. S. 1850. - Camphorated Tincture Of Soap
This consists of Castile soap, camphor, and oil of rosemary, dissolved in alcohol diluted with one-eighth of its measure of water. It is a clear liquid, and is very much used as an anodyne and gently ...
-6. Camphorated Soap Liniment. - Linimentum Sapo-Nis Camphoratum. U. S. 1850. - Opodeldoc
The camphorated soap liniment is essentially the same as the soap liniment just described, differing in the kind of soap employed, which in this preparation is the common white soap, made with animal ...
-V. Opium. U.S.,Br
This is a concrete juice obtained by incisions in the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum, or the poppy, an annual plant, inhabiting Asia, in different parts of which, as well as in Egypt, it is abu...
-I. Varieties Of Opium
The only varieties which it is necessary to notice are, first, the Turkey opium, including the Smyrna and Constantinople, and, secondly, the Egyptian. 1. Turkey Opium This comes in masses of irr...
-2. Properties Of Opium In General
Good opium is of a reddish-brown or deep-fawn colour in mass, and when dry yields a yellowish-brown powder, which becomes adhesive at a slight elevation of temperature. When drawn over paper, it leave...
-3. Opium Effects Upon The System
It may be said of opium, in general terms, that, being at first moderately stimulant to the parts to which it may be applied, and to the cir-culation, and energetically so to the nervous system genera...
-2. Opium Action upon the Circulation
It was long an undecided point, whether opium was to be regarded as stimulant or sedative. The experiments of Dr. Crumpe, published in 1793, decided, what any one might have determined for himself by ...
-3. Opium Action upon other Functions or Organs
Some other effects of opium, which may be considered as more local than the preceding, are yet very important in a therapeutical point of view. On the secretions its influence is especially worthy ...
-4. Opium Action on the Part to which the Opium may be Applied
To whatever part opium may be applied, if vital, it is capable of producing its general effects. Injected into the rectum, or sprinkled upon the skin deprived of the epidermis, it operates with almost...
-5. Opium Idiosyncrasies
On certain individuals opium produces peculiar effects, which differ according to their several idiosyncrasies. Thus, in some persons it causes much more than the usual degree of excitement, intoxicat...
-7. Opium Acute Poisoning
It has been said that poisonous quantities of opium sometimes occasion no stimulant effect whatever, but are immediately sedative. I have never seen a case which would justify this statement, and do n...
-Treatment of Acute Opium Poisoning
There is no antidote to opium which can be relied on. The important indications are to evacuate the stomach, and to support the system in the state of prostration which follows the direct influence of...
-Chronic Opium Poisoning
The extremely grateful effects of opium on most prisons, in its first stimulant action, and in the calming influence which follows, has led to an enormous abuse of the drug, which, though less injurio...
-4. Opium Mode Of Operating
Opium probably acts simply by an influence upon the vital properties of the tissues, without any chemical reagency whatever. Hence the long comparative impunity under its abuse. At one time I was disp...
-5. Opium Therapeutic Application
Opium has been known, and probably used, from the earliest period of Grecian history. It ranks among the most important medicines, and, in the variety of its applications, and extent of its employment...
-A. Indications For The Use Of Opium
1. As a General Stimulant It will be remembered that opium, in its primary action, stimulates the circulation moderately, and the nervous system energetically. In reference to these properties, it ...
-A. Indications For The Use Of Opium. Continued
5. As an Indirect Nervous Sedative For its action in this way opium is indicated in all kinds of disorder throughout the system, which consists in or depends on nervous irritation. When the capacit...
-B. Contraindications To The Use Of Opium
Opium is contraindicated by a high state of febrile excitement with a full strong pulse, by determination of blood to the head threatening apoplexy, by hemorrhage in the brain, by acute inflammation o...
-C. Opium Special Therapeutic Applications
1. Idiopathic Fevers Several indications for the use of opium are offered in different varieties and conditions of fever. As a stimulant it is very useful in the low or typhoid state of fever, when...
-Opium Special Therapeutic Applications. Part 2
2. Inflammations Much apprehension has been entertained of the effects of opium in acute inflammations. The medicine is a stimulant: inflammation is essentially a state of over-excitement; and the ...
-Opium Special Therapeutic Applications. Part 3
In peritonitis opium and calomel are invaluable, when further depletion is out of the question, and in cases which will not admit of depletion at all. In the peritonitis from perforation of the bowels...
-Opium Special Therapeutic Applications. Part 4
3. Vascular Irritation In this condition, opium is often of great advantage, by diminishing the susceptibility of the nervous tissue of the part, and of the nervous centres, and thus obviating th...
-Opium Special Therapeutic Applications. Part 5
Neuralgia is often nothing more than a form of nervous gout or rheumatism, in which cases the opiate may be associated with the wine or extract of colchicum, and frequently also advantageously with a ...
-Opium Special Therapeutic Applications. Part 6
5. Nervous Depression In affections of this nature, the stimulant influence of opium on the nervous system renders it peculiarly efficacious. Perhaps under this head we might rank the collapse of t...
-Opium Special Therapeutic Applications. Part 7
In cholera, opium is no less efficient. The ordinary bilious cholera, or cholera morbus, may be treated with it in the manner above recom-mended for bilious diarrhoea; the two diseases being, in fact,...
-6. Opium Administration
The dose of opium varies extremely with the purpose to he fulfilled, the idiosyncrasies and habits of the patient, and the modification of susceptibility produced by disease. For full anodyne and sopo...
-7. Preparations Of Opium
These are very numerous, but scarcely more so than desirable, when the great diversity of circumstances is considered under which the medicine is used, the different purposes it is calculated to fulfi...
-Pills Of Opium. - Pilulae Opii. U.S.
These are prepared by simply incorporating opium with soap, which answers no other purpose than that of a convenient excipient. Each pill contains a grain of opium. ...
-Compound Pills Of Soap. - Pilulae Saponis Compositae. U.S. - Pilula Opii. Br
In these pills, as in the preceding, there is a mere mixture of opium and soap; but the proportions are so arranged, that five grains of the mass contain one grain of opium. The preparation affords a ...
-Powder Of Ipecacuanha And Opium. - Pulvis Ipecacuanhae Et Opii. U. S. 1850. - Pulvis Ipecacuanhae Compositor U. S
Compound Powder Of Ipecacuanha. Pulvis Ipecacuanhae cum Opio. Br. - Dover's Powder. This is an excellent diaphoretic preparation of opium, but will be more fully treated of with the diaphoretics. I...
-Confection Of Opium. - Confectio Opii. U S
This is prepared by rubbing opium up with honey and the officinal aromatic powder, consisting of cinnamon, cardamom, and nutmeg. It has the advantage, through the stimulating property of the aromatics...
-Extract Of Opium. - Extractum Opii. U.S., Br
This is an aqueous extract of opium, and of course consists exclusively of the principles soluble in water. Opium contains ingredients insoluble in water, which, however, it yields to an alcoholic sol...
-Opium Plaster. - Emplastrum Opii. U. S., Br
Opium plaster is made by mixing powdered opium, or still better the extract in half the quantity, with boiling water, incorporating the mixture with melted Burgundy pitch and lead plaster, and then ev...
-Tincture Of Opium. - Tinctura Opii. U. S., Br. - Laudanum. - Thebaic Tincture. - Tinctura Thebaica
Laudanum is prepared, according to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by-macerating two ounces and a half of powdered opium first, for three days, with a pint of water, then, for three days longer, with the sam...
-Deodorized Tincture Of Opium. - Tinctura Opii Deodo-Rata. U. S
This is a new preparation of opium, introduced into our Pharmacopoeia at the late revision. It is made by macerating opium in water so as thoroughly to exhaust it of all matter soluble in that liquid;...
-Camphorated Tincture Of Opium. - Tinctura Opii Cam-Phorata. U.S. - Tinctura Camphorae Cum Opio. Br. - Paregoric Elixir. - Paregoric
This very useful and popular preparation is made by macerating powdered opium, camphor, benzoic acid, oil of anise, and honey, in diluted alcohol. Opium is the chief active ingredient, and camphor nex...
-Acetated Tincture Of Opium. - Tinctura Opii Acetata. U.S
This is peculiar to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, having been introduced into it as a substitute for the vinegar of opium or black drop. It is made by macerating opium in a mixture of vinegar and alcohol. ...
-Wine Of Opium. - Vinum Opii. U. S., Br. - Sydenham's Laudanum
This is a vinous tincture, made by macerating powdered opium, cinnamon, and cloves in sherry wine. After maceration with a portion of the wine employed, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia completes the process b...
-Vinegar Of Opium. - Acetum Opii. U. S. - Black Drop
The U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs this preparation to be made by macerating opium, nutmeg, and saffron in diluted acetic acid, and afterwards subjecting the mixture to percolation with the same menstruu...
-Morphia. U. S
There are several methods of extracting morphia from opium. The U. S. officinal process consists essentially in macerating opium in water to exhaustion, adding alcohol to the infusion, precipitating t...
-Morphia Medical Properties and Uses
Morphia is undoubtedly the main active principle of opium; but that it is not the only one is proved by the fact, that a certain quantity of opium produces a much greater effect than all the morphia w...
-Sulphate Of Morphia
Morphiae Sulphas. U. S. - This salt is most used in the United States. It is prepared by mixing morphia with water, gradually dropping in diluted sulphuric acid till the powder is dissolved, and then ...
-Acetate Of Morphia
Morphiae Acetas. U. S. - To prepare this salt, the U S. Pharmacopoeia directs morphia, deprived of narcotina by means of ether, to be mixed with water, and acetic acid to be gradually dropped in till ...
-Muriate Of Morphia
Morphiae Murias. U. S. - Morphiae Hydro-chloras. Br. - Hydrochlorate of Morphia. - This is prepared, according to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, in the same manner as the sulphate. In Great Britain it is us...
-Codeia
This is the only other opiate alkaloid, the effects of which, until very recently, have been investigated. For the method of procuring it, the reader is referred to the Dispensatories. It is white, cr...
-Narcotina
For the mode of obtaining this substance from opium, the reader is referred to the U. S. Dispensatory. It exists uncombined in opium, which while agreeing in this respect, were severally distinguished...
-Poppy-Heads. - Papaver. U.S., Br
These are the dried ripe capsules of the poppy. They owe all their medicinal virtues to the narcotic principles of opium they contain, among which is morphia in variable, but always small proportion. ...
-VI. Hemp Of India. Cannabis Indica. Br
I prefer the designation above given to that of Indian Hemp, ordina. rily applied to the medicine, because the latter name is habitually used in this country for the Apocynum cannabinum, which is tota...
-Hemp Of India Active Principles
So far as is known, the active principles of hemp are a volatile oil and a peculiar resin called cannabin. That the former has narcotic properties is to be inferred from the effects of the odour of th...
-Hemp Of India Therapeutic Application
Hemp was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, who seem to have had some confused notion of its narcotic powers, though there is no reason to suppose that they ever employed it as a medicine. From t...
-Hemp Of India Preparations
Preparations. The forms in which hemp is ordinarily used in Europe and this country are the extract and tincture. Extract of Hemp (Extractum Cannabis), as recognized in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, is ...
-VII. Henbane. Hyoscyamus. Br
This is the Hyoscyamus niger of botanists, an annual or biennial herbaceous plant, indigenous in Europe, where it is also cultivated for medical use. It has been introduced into this country, and grow...
-Henbane Effects on the System
In doses scarcely sufficient to make themselves felt in health, hyoscyamus appears to act as a nervous stimulant in disease, calming restlessness, and other forms of slight nervous disorder, and, in c...
-Henbane Therapeutic Application
Henbane was known as a medicine to the ancients, but received little notice, until attention was attracted to it by Baron Storck, of Vienna, so famous for his experiments with this and other narcotics...
-Henbane Administration
Neither generally nor locally should henbane be administered with one of the fixed caustic alkalies; and, when it is desirable to combine an alkaline action with that of the medicine, the carbonates s...
-VIII. Belladonna. Belladonna Leaf. - Belladonnae Folium. U.S. - Belladonna. Br. Belladonna Root. - Belladonnae Radix. U.S., Br
Origin Under the name of Belladonna, the British Pharmacopoeia recognizes the leaves of Atropa Belladonna, or deadly nightshade, which in our own are designated as Belladonnae Folium; while in both...
-1. Belladonna Effects On The System
Belladonna produces its characteristic effects upon the system, to whatever part it may be applied, whether to the stomach, the skin, the rectum, the cellular tissue, or the blood. When it is given in...
-2. Belladonna Mode Of Operation
Belladonna is a feeble local irritant, has upon the circulation either a moderately excitant effect, or no direct effect whatever, and powerfully stimulates the brain. It undoubtedly operates on the s...
-3. Belladonna Therapeutic Application
It is uncertain whether belladonna was used by the ancients as a medicine. The earliest account we have of its employment in modern times was about the close of the seventeenth century, when it appear...
-1. Belladonna For The Relief Of Pain
a Neuralgic Affections. In these belladonna displays its most useful powers; and I know few remedies more effectual in their cure. No matter where the pain is seated, provided it be purely functional,...
-2. Belladonna For The Belief Of Spasm Or Muscular Rigidity
Singular as it may seem, the painful spasmodic affections are less benefited in general by belladonna than either pure neuralgic pain, or spasmodic affections without pain. Thus, spasms of the stomach...
-3. Belladonna To Stimulate The Nervous Centres
In reference to this indication, belladonna has been used in certain conditions of paralysis with asserted success, particularly in paraplegic cases. It is quite obvious that it should never be employ...
-4. Belladonna In Reference To Its Influence Upon The Eye
Belladonna is employed in affections of the eye with two objects; one to diminish the sensibility of the retina or optic nervous centre, and the other to dilate the pupil. With the first object, it ma...
-4. Belladonna Administration
After what has been stated above, little remains to be said on this point. Belladonna may be given in substance, infusion, extract, or tincture; and there are two officinal preparations intended exclu...
-Extract of Belladonna. - Extractum Belladonna. U. S., Br
This is prepared by bruising the fresh leaves, expressing the juice, heating this to the boiling point so as to coagulate the albumen, then straining, and evaporating the clear liquor to the proper co...
-Alcoholic Extract of Belladonna. - Extractum Belladonna Alcoholicum. U. S
The alcoholic extract is prepared by evaporating a tincture of the leaves made with diluted alcohol. The dose is half a grain to begin with. ...
-Tincture of Belladonna. - Tinctura Belladonna. U. S., Br
This is made in the proportion of four ounces of the dried leaves to two pints of diluted alcohol. It is an efficient preparation, if made from recently dried leaves. The dose is fifteen or thirty dro...
-Plaster Of Belladonna. - Emplastrum Belladonna. U. S., Br
This is prepared by incorporating the extract (alcoholic extract, U. S.) with melted resin plaster. It is used, spread upon coarse linen or leather, in rheumatic pains, neuralgia, dysmenorrhoea, etc. ...
-Ointment of Belladonna. - Unguentum Belladonnae. U. S., Br
This consists of one part of the extract and eight of lard mixed. It is used for friction upon the skin, or as a dressing to blistered surfaces. For the latter purpose, not more than half a drachm or ...
-Liniment Of Belladonna. - Linimentum Belladonna. Br
This is a very concentrated tincture of the root of belladonna, intended exclusively for external use. It may be applied by means of a camel's-hair pencil, or may be diluted with two or more measures ...
-Atropia. U. S., Br
This is thought to exist in belladonna, combined with malic acid in excess. For an account of the different somewhat complex processes by which it is extracted, the reader is referred to the U. S. Dis...
-IX. Stramonium
Datura Stramonium, thornapple, or Jamestown weed, is an annual plant from two to six feet high, growing in all quarters of the world, and flourishing especially in rank soil, as on dung-heaps, and on ...
-Stramonium Therapeutic Application
This medicine is not known to have been employed, before it was introduced to the notice of the profession by the famous Storck, who used it in insanity, chorea, and epilepsy. It is capable of fulfill...
-Stramonium Administration
The dose of the powdered leaves is two or three grains, twice or thrice daily. That of the powdered seeds is one grain, repeated as often. Should this dose produce no effect in a day or two, it should...
-Class IV. Spinal Stimulants
Of all the medicines in common use, only the products of the genus Strychnos belong properly to this class. Some others have a stimulant influence over the spinal functions, but they have also propert...
-Nux Vomica And Bean Of St. Ignatius. I. Nux Vomica. U. S., Br
Origin This name has been given to the seeds of Slrychnos Nux vomica, a middling-sized tree, growing in various parts of the East Indies. The bark is intensely bitter, containing the same alkaloids...
-II. Bean Of St. Ignatius. - Faba Sancti Ignatii. - Ignatia. U.S
Origin This is the seed of Strychnos Ignatia, the Ignatia amara of the younger Linnaeus, a tree of moderate size, growing in the Philippine Islands. The seeds are embedded in the dry pulp of a frui...
-1. Nux Vomica Effects On The System
The effects of nux vomica, in small doses, are those of a bitter tonic, combined, when the quantity taken is sufficient to affect the system, with an influence on the nervous functions which is quite ...
-Nux Vomica Poisonous Effects
Beyond the condition above described, the effects of the medicine become poisonous. The spasms are more frequent, extensive, and severe, sometimes involving almost the whole frame, and are attended wi...
-Treatment of Nux Vomica Poisoning
Treatment of Poisoning. The most important point of treatment in poisoning from nux vomica, bean of St. Ignatius, or any of their preparations, is to empty the stomach as speedily and as thoroughly as...
-2. Nux Vomica Mode Of Operating
Nux vomica and its preparations are locally somewhat irritant; but not powerfully so. There can be no doubt that the active matter is absorbed, and operates through the circulation. This is proved ...
-3. Nux Vomica Therapeutic Application
Nux vomica has long been used as a medicine in India, and was described by the early Arabian writers, by whom it was made known to modern Europe. The name is not appropriate: for in ordinary doses the...
-1. Nux Vomica Use as a Tonic
As a mere stimulant to the stomach, in ordinary dyspepsia, though probably equally efficient with the simple bitters, nux vomica has no advantage over them, while any accidental abuse of it would be a...
-2. Nux Vomica Use as a Spinal and Sensorial Stimulant
M. Fouquier, a French physician, was the first who regularly employed nux vomica in the treatment of palsy. He was very naturally led to this application of the medicine by the consideration of its ph...
-4. Nux Vomica Administration
In reference to the administration of nux vomica and its preparations, a few preliminary observations regarding certain peculiarities in the operation of the remedy are necessary, in order properly to...
-Nux Vomica Alcoholic Extract
Extractum Nucis Vomicae Extractum Nucis Vomicae. U. S. 1850, Br. - Extractum Nucis Vomicae Alcoholicum. U. S. - This contains all the virtues of the seeds. It is more convenient and efficacious tha...
-Strychnia
Strychnia. U. S., Br. - All that has been said of the effects of nux vomica on the system, and of its uses as a medicine, may be considered as applying also to strychnia. When pure it has the advantag...
-Brucia
This alkaloid is extracted in the same manner as strychnia, and accompanies it in the first steps of the process, but is in great measure separated on the crystallization of the latter from the alcoho...







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