books



previous page: A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Vol1 | by George B. Wood
  
page up: Materia Medica Books
  
next page: British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia | by The British Homoeopathic Society

A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Vol2 | by George B. Wood



Part II. Special Therapeutics And Pharmacology. Continued from Volume 1.

TitleA Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Vol2
AuthorGeorge B. Wood
PublisherJ. B. Lippincott & Co
Year1867
Copyright1867, George B. Wood
AmazonPart 1 and Part 2

A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica

By George B. Wood, M.D., President Of The American Philosophical 80ciett; President Op The College Of Physicians Of Philadelphia; Emeritus Professor Of The Theory And Practice Of Medicine In The University Of Pennsylvania; One Of The Authors Of The United States Dispensatory; Author Of A Treatise On The Practice Of Medicine, Etc. Etc.

Third Edition.

In Two Volumes.

Vol. II.

Philadelphia:

J. B. Lippincott & CO.

1868.

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by George B. Wood, M.D., In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

To My Dear Friend, Franklin Bache, M.D., Professor Of Chemistry In The Jefferson Medical College Of Philadelphia; Late President Of The American Philosophical Society; My Partner In Much Labour; My Companion In Many Social Hours; Whom, In The Course Of An Intimate Acquaintance Of More Than Thirty Years, I Have Never Known To Do An Unjust Act, Or Cherish An Unjust Thought ; The Accurate Man Of Science; The Skilful Teacher; The Upright And Honourable Man; And, In All Points, The Gentleman, I Inscribe this Work, In Testimony Of My Profound Esteem And Sincere Affection.

Geo. B. Wood.

Philadelphia, August, 1856.

-Part II. Special Therapeutics And Pharmacology. Continued. Division I. Systemic Remedies. Continued. Subdivision 1. General Remedies. Continued. Chapter II. General Sedatives
These are remedies which, by a direct influence, depress the vital actions. I shall treat, under this general head, of the sedatives which may be considered as universal, and afterwards, in separate c...
-I. Cold As A Sedative
As heat is one of the excitant agencies essential to the support of the vital functions at their healthy standard, it follows that cold, which is simply a diminution of heat, must be attended with dep...
-1. Effects Of Cold
The first effect of the application of a cold body to the surface is the sensation of cold. This is owing to an impression conveyed from the point of application to the cerebral centres, and is really...
-2. Indications For The Employment Of Cold
Indications for the sedative effects of cold are offered in vascular or nervous excitement, in abnormal elevation of temperature, and sometimes when it may be desirable to lessen sensitiveness to pain...
-A. Inflammation
As a local remedy, cold is often very serviceable in inflammation. it operates by diminishing the quantity of blood in the part, and depressing the nervous irritation, which jointly constitute the mai...
-B. Vascular Irritation
The topical use of cold is beneficial in this condition for the same reasons precisely as in inflammation. in vascular irritation or active congestion of the brain, it is almost indispensable. This co...
-C. Febrile Disease
In all febrile diseases with a hot, dry skin, hot breath, and thirst, the sedative influence of cold is strongly indicated. it may be applied by means of cool fresh air inhaled into the lungs, which i...
-E. As An Anaesthetic Agent
Though intense cold produces pain, and at first increases the sensitiveness of the part to painful impressions, as to that of a blow for example, yet after a time it completely benumbs the nerves, and...
-As An Anaesthetic Agent. Part 2
The operations to which, according to Dr. Arnott and others who have tried the plan, it is peculiarly appropriate, are those for cutaneous or small subcutaneous tumours, the opening of abscesses, paro...
-As An Anaesthetic Agent. Part 3
By means of this apparatus, with pure ether, a reduction of temperature to - 6 Fahr. may be obtained at pleasure. The skin becomes whitened and quite insensible in a minute or less. When the skin...
-II. Water As A Sedative Agent
A certain proportion of water is essential to health and life. it is necessary, mechanically, in order to give a due mobility both to the liquids and solids, enabling the former to move from point to ...
-Water As A Sedative Agent. Continued
if warm water is taken into the stomach considerably beyond the wants of the system, so long as it remains in that viscus it dilutes its contents, lessens their excitant influence on the secretory fun...
-2. General Indications
The indications which water is capable of fulfilling, either topically or generally, externally or internally used, are to relax and soften the skin when dry and constricted; to diminish arterial exci...
-A. Inflammation And Vascular Irritation
1. External inflammation. in inflammation and vascular irritation, water is of great use as an adjuvant of depletory measures. Applied locally in external complaints, it has the direct effect of dimin...
-B. Idiopathic Fevers
The warm bath is in general less advantageous in the idiopathic fevers than the phlegmasiae. Still, it may be occasionally employed with advantage, especially in children, when symptoms of nervous irr...
-C. Nervous Diseases
It is in these complaints that water, in the form of the warm bath, shows its remedial powers most advantageously. in most spasmodic and convulsive affections it is used either as the main remedy, or ...
-III. Depletion As A Sedative Agent
By depletion is here meant a diminution, direct or indirect, of the quantity of the blood. A direct diminution is effected by withdrawing a portion of the circulating fluid immediately from the blood-...
-1. Direct Depletion By Bleeding
Direct depletion is accomplished either by the elimination of the liquid parts of the blood through the different secretory functions, or by bleeding. in relation to the former measure, nothing need b...
-A. Effects Of Bleeding On The System
The effects of bleeding are to lessen the quantity of blood for a time, and to impair its quality. The first effect is too obvious to require proof; the second is not so obvious, but not less certain....
-B. Modes Of Bleeding
The methods of bleeding may be divided into the general and local. The former may be effected by opening a vein, or an artery; the operation being called venesection in the former case, and arteriotom...
-Modes Of Bleeding. Part 2
In the highest stage of vascular fulness and activity, local bleeding is of little benefit. The blood abstracted is so rapidly supplied, and the distending force of the forward movement so great, that...
-Modes Of Bleeding. Part 3
3. in connection with local bleeding, reference may be made to other modes of accomplishing the same object temporarily, by accumulating the blood in one part of the body, beyond its normal proportion...
-Modes Of Bleeding. Part 4
1. inflammations. As an antiphlogistic measure, the loss of blood holds a position far above any other agent; and it is in this capacity, moreover, that it exercises the most beneficial therapeutic in...
-Modes Of Bleeding. Part 5
Bounds must be placed to the quantity of blood taken even when the remedy is most strongly called for. it must be remembered that morbid changes often happen in the course of the disease, which time a...
-Modes Of Bleeding. Part 6
2. Vascular irritation or Active Congestion. The same indications exist here as in positive inflammation, of which, indeed, active congestion is often the immediate antecedent, and may be considered a...
-Modes Of Bleeding. Part 7
5. To Promote Absorption. With this object, bleeding has sometimes been used in dropsies; but it is almost never proper, unless in cases in which the dropsy is dependent upon vascular irritation or in...
-2. Indirect Depletion
By this expression is meant a diminution of the quantity of blood, arising from a diminished supply of nutritive material, calculated to repair the waste incurred in the support of the functions. if t...
-Indirect Depletion. Part 2
3. Low Diet Antiphlogistic Diet. Three conditions are essential to the constitution of a strictly low diet, adapted for full antiphlogistic effect; first, that it must be feebly nutritive; secondly...
-Indirect Depletion. Part 3
b. A diet more nutritious than the preceding consists of vegetable products, containing, along with one or more of the principles above treated of, others supposed to be identical with certain essenti...
-Class I. Arterial Sedatives. Refrigerants
Syn. Refrigerants. These are medicines which reduce the force of the circulation by an immediate influence, independently of any depletion they may occasion, and without any obvious direct action o...
-I. Antimony. Antimonium
The preparations of this metal are, beyond all comparison, the most important of the arterial sedatives. Brought into notice by Basil Valentine, a German monk of the fifteenth century, to whose unfort...
-I. Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa
Anti-Monii et Potassae Tartras. U.S. - Antimonium Tartara-tum. Br. - Antimonii Potassio-Tartras. Loud. - Antimo-nium Tartarizatum. Ed., Dub. - Tartarated Antimony. - Potassio-tartrate of Antimony. - T...
-Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Part 2
Tartar emetic may produce all the foregoing effects without giving rise to nausea; but, from a certain amount of it, which differs extremely under different circumstances, this effect almost always en...
-Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Part 3
But it is not in all cases that this tolerance of the medicine can be established. Probably, so far as concerns its direct relations with the gastric nervous centre, the result might be uniform; but, ...
-Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Part 4
The fatal result sometimes takes place in a few hours, but generally not under two or three days, and is often much longer protracted. I have myself witnessed two instances of poisoning from this medi...
-Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Part 5
The peculiar sedative effects of the antimonial on the circulation and respiration are certainly produced through absorption; as they are not apt to occur when vomiting and purging ensue, except in so...
-Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Part 6
The Use of Tartar Emetic in Large Doses in inflammation. The remarks hitherto made refer to the use of tartar emetic in the ordinary doses of from one-twelfth to one-quarter of a grain every hour or t...
-Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Part 7
I cannot think that, under any circumstances, whether in children or adults, admitting the use of the lancet and local bleeding, the plan of excessive antimonialization should be substituted; and, in ...
-Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Part 8
The same remark is applicable to their use in scrofulous affections. it is in the earlier stages of these complaints, before exhausting suppuration has occurred, while the attendant local inflammation...
-Antimonial Wine - Vinum Antimonii. U.S. - Vinum Antimoniale. Br
This is prepared by dissolving tartar emetic in sherry wine, in the proportion of two grains to each fluidounce. Madeira or good teneriffe will answer equally well. The inferior wines, and all those h...
-I. Sulphurated Antimony
Antimonii Sulphuratum. U.S., Br. - Antimonii Sulphuretum Praecipitatum. U.S. 1850. - Precipitated Sulphuret of Antimony. This is prepared by boiling together powdered sulphuret of antimony and solu...
-II. Oxysulphuret Of Antimony
Antimonii Oxysulphuretum. U. S. - Kermes Mineral. If, in the process for preparing the sulphurated antimony, the liquor obtained by boiling together sulphuret of antimony and the alkaline solution ...
-III. Golden Sulphur Of Antimony
Sulphur Antiif to the solution remaining after the deposition of kermes, in the second of the two processes above given, sulphuric acid is added, the whole of the oxide and sulphuret remaining in the ...
-Monii Aureum
Properties Golden sulphur of antimony is distinguished by its fine golden-yellow colour. its chemical reactions are the same with those stated as belonging to the sulphurated antimony or precipitat...
-III. Oxide Of Antimony. - Antimonii Oxidum. U.S.; Br
There are three definite compounds of antimony and oxygen, of which one only is ranked as an oxide, and is capable of acting as a base; the others having acid properties. it is at present generally co...
-Antimonial Powder - Pulvis Antimonialis. Br
This was formerly prepared by heating together sulphuret of antimony and the shavings of hartshorn, or of bones, until the sulphur of the sulphuret, and the organic matters of the horn or bone were co...
-Antimoniated Hydrogen. Hydrogen
This is a new antimonial, introduced for its supposed efficiency in the treatment of pneumonia, and probably deserving more attention than it has yet received. It was brought to the notice of the prof...
-II. Refrigerant Salts
Most of the alkaline salts, whether neutral, or with excess of acid, are directly sedative to the circulation, independently of any evacuation they may produce. As a general rule, their sedative influ...
-Nitrate Of Potassa. - Potassae Nltras. U.S., Br. - Nitre. - Saltpetre
Origin Nitre is at present obtained almost exclusively from the East indies, where it is extracted from the soil occasionally overflowed by the Ganges, and enriched by the animal and vegetable matt...
-Nitrate Of Potassa. Nitre. Saltpetre. Part 2
In the treatment of poisoning from nitre, if the patient has not vomited, ipecacuanha should be given till this effect is produced; warm diluent and demulcent drinks should be given, in any event, in ...
-Nitrate Of Potassa. Nitre. Saltpetre. Part 3
But it is necessary to treat more particularly of a mode of using it in acute rheumatism, which, though employed by Dr. Brocklesby, of England, in the middle of the last century, was not generally ado...
-III. Vegetable Acids
Most of the vegetable acids of a sour taste have a certain resemblance in effect, which serves to group them together as a subordinate division of the class of arterial sedatives or refrigerants, to w...
-I. Citric Acid. - Acidum Cltricum. U.S., Br
Origin and Preparation. Citric acid exists in various acid fruits, as the sour orange, lemon, lime, tamarind, etc.; but it is in the form of lemon-juice that it is most frequently employed. The juice ...
-Citric Acid. - Acidum Cltricum. U.S., Br. Continued
Dr. Rees has also found the remedy very advantageous in certain cases of chronic rheumatism, connected with deposition of urate of soda in and about the smaller joints, and partaking, as he properly o...
-II. Acetic Acid. - Acidum Aceticum. U.S., Br
Acetic acid exists in the juice of some vegetables, but is not extracted for use. It is officinal in five forms; namely, the glacial acetic acid, which is the strongest, the strong acetic acid, the di...
-Acetic Acid. - Acidum Aceticum. U.S., Br. Continued
The concentrated, glacial, or monohydraled acid is a powerful local irritant, inflaming and vesicating the skin, and even acting as a caustic if too long continued. it has the property of dissolving t...
-III. Tartaric Acid. - Acidum Tartaricum. U.S., Br
Preparation Tartaric acid exists, in the free state, in several vegetable juices, among which are those of grapes, tamarinds, and pine-apples. For use, it is obtained from bitartrate of potassa, by...
-Nervous Sedatives
These are medicines which, by a direct influence, reduce nervous power, while they also depress the circulation. They appear to affect especially the organic nervous centres, without a peculiar direct...
-I. Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br
Origin This is the product of Digitalis purpurea, a beautiful herbaceous, biennial or perennial plant, indigenous in Europe, and cultivated in this country as an ornament of gardens, and to a consi...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 2
It must be acknowledged that a very different account of the effects of digitalis on the circulation has been given by some writers. Thus, Dr. James Sanders, of Edinburgh, who bases his statements upo...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 3
The opinion has recently been put forth by Dr. Fuller, of London, and has received the support of several writers, that digitalis, so far from being sedative to the heart, is in fact tonic in its infl...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 4
On the Nervous System. All the effects on the circulation above detailed may often be obtained from digitalis without any serious disturbance of the nervous system; but sometimes the influence of the ...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 5
The treatment adapted to poisoning from a large dose of digitalis, if the patient has not vomited, is to administer ipecacuanha till this effect is produced; if vomiting has taken place, to assist in ...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 6
3. Therapeutic Application Digitalis has been known as a medicine from the earlier modern times; though the ancients were probably altogether ignorant of its powers. it was recommended in scrofula ...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 7
In intermittent fever, the remedy has been employed by Bouillaud and others, as an antiperiodic, with asserted success; but it is, to say the least, of doubtful efficacy, and should not be confided in...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 8
An important incidental advantage, in these cases, is frequently its effect in removing the dropsical effusion, whether in the pericardium, the other serous cavities, or the general areolar tissue, wh...
-Foxglove. Digitalis. U. S., Br. Part 9
* If the reader bear in mind the explanation, contained in the note upon page 112, of the impunity with which large doses of tincture of digitalis have been sometimes given, he will be able at once to...
-Digitalin. - Digitalium. - Digitalinum. Br
This is the active principle of digitalis, first obtained separate by M. Homolle, of France, and abundantly proved, by the experiments of MM. Homolle and Quevenne, to concentrate in itself all the vir...
-II. Tobacco. Tabacum. U. Ft, Br
Origin Tobacco consists of the leaves of Nicotiana Tabacum, a well-known, annual plant, indigenous in tropical America, and cultivated in most civilized countries, but nowhere so extensively as in ...
-Tobacco. Tabacum. U. Ft, Br. Continued
When a person, unaccustomed to the use of tobacco, takes it even in small quantities, the effect above mentioned is deepened into vertigo, nausea, and often vomiting, with feelings of epigastric uneas...
-2. Method Of Operating
The sedative effects of tobacco are undoubtedly, I think, produced through the absorption of its active principle. The proof of this is that it operates in the same manner to whatever surface it is ap...
-Method Of Operating. Continued
In the paroxysm of spasmodic asthma, the smoking of tobacco occasionally affords relief, especially in those who have not lost their susceptibility to its effects by habit. Tetanus is among the aff...
-III. Lobelia. U. S. Br
Origin Lobelia in flata, or Indian tobacco, is a small annual or biennial, indigenous plant, growing abundantly in most parts of the United States. Though the seeds are the strongest portion, the w...
-Lobelia. U. S. Br. Continued
Mode of Operating The local irritant properties of lobelia, as of digitalis and tobacco, may give rise occasionally to a sympathetic excitement of the circulation; but the direct effects of the med...
-IV. Aconite. Aconitum. Aconite Leaf. - Aconiti Folium. U. S. - Aconitum. Br. Aconite Root. - Aconiti Radix. U.S., Br
Origin and Properties Though all the acrid species of Aconitum possess medicinal virtues, the Aconitum Napellus, common monkshood, or wolfsbane, is the only one now acknowledged by the U. States or...
-Aconite. Aconite Leaf. Aconite Root. Part 2
The phenomena above referred to generally begin to appear in twenty or thirty minutes, are at their height in an hour or two, and continue with little abatement for three, four, or five hours; and, if...
-Aconite. Aconite Leaf. Aconite Root. Part 3
2. Mode Of Operating Though locally irritant to the vascular tissue, the primary effect on the nervous extremities themselves seems to be sedative; for a feeling of numbness attends the prickling s...
-Aconite. Aconite Leaf. Aconite Root. Part 4
As regards the employment of this remedy in the phlegmasiae generally, it labours like all the other nervous sedatives under the capital defect, that it does not lesson the quantity or alter the quali...
-Aconite. Aconite Leaf. Aconite Root. Part 5
M. Blanchet has given the remedy, in the form of aconitia, in cases of functional deafness and abnormal sounds, with the effect of sometimes curing the affection, and frequently relieving it; but in o...
-Aconitia. U. S., Br. - Aconitin. - Aconitina
This may be prepared in the following manner. To an alcoholic extract of the root add water acidulated with sulphuric acid, by which the native salt of aconitia is decomposed, and a readily soluble su...
-V. American Hellebore. Veratrum Viride. U.S
Under this name, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia recognizes the root or rhizome of Veratrum viride, variously called American hellebore, swamp hellebore, Indian poke, etc., an indigenous perennial, growing ab...
-American Hellebore. Veratrum Viride. U.S. Part 2
From doses insufficient to vomit, along with the epigastric uneasiness, or independent of it, there are sometimes feelings of chilliness, and considerable diminution in the frequency and the force of ...
-American Hellebore. Veratrum Viride. U.S. Part 3
As a remedy in pneumonia, it was recommended by Dr. Osgood; but did not come into extensive use until after Dr. Norwood's publication. Since then, it has been much employed, especially in the South, w...
-VI. Veratria. U.S., Br
Veratria is an organic alkali, found in white hellebore and cevadilla, in which it is said to exist in combination with gallic acid. As already stated, either it, or an alkaloid closely resembling it,...
-1. White Hellebore. - Veratrum Album. U. S
Origin and Properties This is the officinal title of the root or rhizome of Veratrum album, an herbaceous perennial plant, growing wild in the mountainous districts of Continental Europe, and abund...
-2. Cevadilla. - Sabadilla. U.S., Br
This consists of the seeds and capsules of one or more Mexican plants, belonging or closely allied to the genus Veratrum; and it is not impossible that it may be obtained both from Veratrum Sabadilla ...
-1. Preparation Of Veratria
Veratria is prepared from cevadilla by treating an alcoholic extract of the seeds and capsules with water diluted with sulphuric acid, by which the alkaloid is dissolved, and the sulphate formed in so...
-2. Properties Of Veratria
As thus obtained, Veratria is a grayish or brownish-white powder, uncrystallizable, inodorous, bitter and extremely acrid to the taste, producing through the mouth and fauces a durable sensation of ti...
-3. Effects Of Veratria On The System
Like the substances from which it is obtained, Veratria appears to be locally irritant, and, in its general influence, sedative to the organic nervous centres and to the circulation; possessing at the...
-4. Therapeutic Application Of Veratria
Van Praag concludes, from his observations of the physiological action of Veratria, that it is indicated in febrile disease with augmented tonicity of the muscles; and in pneumonia, pleurisy, and infl...
-5. Administration Of Veratria
Internally, veratria is generally administered preferably in the pilular form, in consequence of its intensely acrimonious taste, which renders its use in solution disagreeable. The dose is from one-t...
-VII. Black Snakeroot. Cohosh. Cimicifuga. U.S
Syn. Cohosh. Origin Black Snakeroot is the root or rhizome of Cimicifuga race-mosa (Actaea racemosa, Willd., Sp. Plant), an indigenous, perennial, herbaceous plant, with very much divided leaves...
-Gelsemium. - Gelsemium. U. S - Gelseminum. - Yellow Jasmine
Gelsemium, which may now be received as the ordinary designation of the medicine, is the root of Gelsemium sempervirens, the yellow or Carolina jasmine of our Southern States. The medicine has been ad...
-Class III. Cerebral Sedatives
I have given this designation to a class of sedatives which act immediately upon the cerebral centres, or those of relation, as well as upon the organic nervous centres, including those which control ...
-Mental Influence As A Cerebral Sedative
As there are states of mind of a tonic character, such as hope, cheerfulness, etc., and others powerfully stimulant, as anger; so are there feelings of a depressing tendency, of which advantage may so...
-Mental Influence As A Cerebral Sedative. Continued
The methods employed to bring the system into this state are such as are calculated to fix the attention on some one object for a considerable time, so as to abstract the mind from all its other funct...
-I. Hydrocyanic Acid. Acidum Hydrocyanicum. Prussic Acid
Syn. Prussic Acid. As hydrocyanic acid is employed in a number of different forms, and obtained from different sources, it will be most convenient to treat first of its general effects on the syste...
-Hydrocyanic Acid. Acidum Hydrocyanicum. Prussic Acid. Part 2
After death, the odour of prussic acid sometimes exhales, from the body, and is often strongly perceived upon opening the stomach. it is said also to be occasionally discoverable in the blood, and the...
-Hydrocyanic Acid. Acidum Hydrocyanicum. Prussic Acid. Part 3
From the above facts, it may be inferred that the acid operates directly on the cerebral and spinal centres, and indirectly upon the lungs and heart, probably first suspending respiration through the ...
-Forms In Which Hydrocyanic Acid Is Used
Pure anhydrous hydrocyanic acid is so powerful, and so extremely dangerous if abused, and withal is so liable to spontaneous change, and therefore to uncertainty of strength, that it has been discarde...
-I. Bitter Almonds. - Amygdala Amara. U.S
These are the kernels of the fruit of Amygdalus communis, variety amara, or bitter almond tree, growing wild in Persia, Syria, and the north of Africa. They are brought chiefly from Mogadore, in the e...
-1. Oil Of Bitter Almonds. - Oleum Amygdalae Amarae U.S
This is obtained by distilling with water bitter almonds, previously deprived of their fixed oil by expression. it is of a yellowish colour, with a strong odour of the kernels, and a bitter, acrid, bu...
-2. Bitter Almond Water. - Aqua Amygdalae Amarae:. U. S
This may be prepared either by distilling water from bitter almonds, or, as directed in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by dissolving the volatile oil of bitter almonds in water, through the intervention of ...
-3. Amygdalin
This is procured from bitter almonds. For an account of the process the reader is referred to the U. S. Dispensatory. it is a white, crystallizable substance, inodorous, of a sweetish bitter taste, fr...
-II. Cherry-Laurel Leaves. - Lauro-Cerasus. Br
These are the leaves of Cerasus Lauro-cerasus, De Cand. (Prunus Lauro-cerasus, Linn.), or the common European cherry-laurel, a small evergreen tree, indigenous in Asia Minor, but naturalized throughou...
-III. Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid. - Acidum Hydrocy-Anicum Dilutum. U.S., Br
This is the form in which hydrocyanic acid is ordinarily used. it is procured in various methods. in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia two processes are given, one for procuring it on the large scale for keepin...
-IV. Cyanide Of Potassium. - Potassh Cyanidum. U. S
Preparation Cyanide of potassium is prepared by igniting together ferrocyanide of potassium and carbonate of potassa. The carbonic acid escapes; a portion of the cyanogen combines with a portion of...
-II. Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. - Chloroformum Venale. U. S
Purified Chloroform. Chloroformum Purificatum Chloroformum Purifica-tum. U. S. - Chloroformum. Br., U. S. 1850. Discovery. Chloroform was discovered, in the year 1831, by Mr. Samuel Guthrie, of ...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 2
1. Effects On The System Chloroform, in its local action, is first irritant and afterwards sedative; in its general influence is powerfully sedative, primarily to the nervous system, and secondaril...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 3
* Exceptional cases occasionally occur in which, after a very copious use of chloroform, a state of depression of certain functions continues for a considerable time, which appears to he a prolongatio...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 4
As to the heart, its condition is invariable. Death begins at the heart, and yet this organ continues to act after respiration has ceased; but it is only a feeble action of the right side, and there i...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 5
* Arch. Gén., Sept. 1858, from Assoc. Med. Journ. + See a record of this case by Dr. James Williams, in the Medical Examiner, Philadelphia, Nov. 1856, p. 659. London Lancet, April 16, 18...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 6
2. Mode Of Operation Enough has been said already of the local action of chloroform. in relation to its operation on the system, few, I presume, doubt that it produces its effects through absorptio...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 7
Such appear to be the regular successive stages in the action of chloroform; but sometimes this regularity is interrupted; and the influence of the poison extends to all the nervous centres conjointly...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 8
The reader must have been struck, in the preceding account of chloroform, with the remarkable difference, in the rapidity and degree of its action, as exhibited by the lungs and the stomach. in the la...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 9
* It is especially advisable not to administer the chloroform when there is any suspicion of fatty degeneration of the heart; as this affection has been found in several cases in which death resulted ...
-Chloroform. Commercial Chloroform. Part 10
Wakefulness and Delirium. To promote sleep, chloroform has been used with advantage in delirium tremens, in the violent paroxysms of chronic insanity, and in the extreme restlessness and delirium of t...
-4. As An Anaesthetic Agent, For The Prevention Of Pain
1. As an Anaesthetic in Surgery. To prevent pain in surgical operations, chloroform is now employed to a vast extent throughout Europe, where it is preferred for this purpose to ether, notwithstanding...
-As An Anaesthetic Agent, For The Prevention Of Pain. Part 2
* The preferable use of ether is not without advocates in Europe, and especially in France. The imperial Society of Medicine of Lyons, after a careful examination of the subject, came unanimously to t...
-As An Anaesthetic Agent, For The Prevention Of Pain. Part 3
1. The powdered leaves may be directed, in the commencing dose of three or four grains, twice or three times a day, to be gradually increased until some effect is produced; such as a little Giddiness,...
-As An Anaesthetic Agent, For The Prevention Of Pain. Part 4
* It is now stated that Sir J. Y. Simpson recommends preferably the method of Dr. Moir, which consists in placing a single layer of towel over the mouth and nostrils, and applying the chloroform drop ...
-III. Hemlock. Conium. U.S., Br
Hemlock is the product of Conium maculalum, an umbelliferous, herbaceous, biennial plant, indigenous in Europe and Asia, and naturalized in the United States, in some parts of which it grows in consid...
-Hemlock Fruit. - Conii Fructus. Br. - Hemlock Seeds. - Conii Semen. U. S. 1850
The fruit of the hemlock plant, commonly called seeds, is roundish-ovate, about one-eighth of an inch long by one-twelfth broad, and composed of two plano-convex parts, easily separable, and each of t...
-Hemlock Fruit Poisonous Effects
Very different accounts have been given of the poisonous operation of hemlock, and apparently upon equal authority. The effects usually observed have been disorder of vision, dilated pupil, difficult...
-Hemlock Fruit Mode of Operation
That hemlock is slightly irritant locally is inferrible from the warmth of stomach mentioned by Dr. Earle as produced by it when swallowed, and from the acrid properties of its active principle. There...
-Hemlock Fruit Therapeutic Application
Though known and employed by the ancients both as a poison and medicine, and famous as one of the instruments used by the Athenians for the execution of those condemned to death, it seems to have been...
-Hemlock Fruit Administration
In whatever form hemlock is administered, it will be necessary, in order to maintain a given effect, to increase the dose more rapidly than is requisite with most other narcotics; and there is scarcel...
-Hemlock Fruit. Continued
9. Conia. Conia is best obtained from the fruit, before it has become dry. it may be obtained by distilling a mixture of an alcoholic extract of the seeds with strong solution of potassa. The acid of ...
-IV. Lactucarium. U.S. Lettuce-opium
Syn. Lettuce-opium. Origin The name of lactucarium has been given to the concrete milky juice of Lactuca sativa, or common garden lettuce, and of other species of Lactuca, especially L. virosa a...
-Class IV. Spinal Sedatives
As there is but one agent which I could place strictly under the spinal stimulants; nux vomica, namely, and other vegetable products characterized by the presence of strychnia; so there is but one whi...
-Calabar Bean
This is the product of Physostigma venenosum of Balfour, a climbing leguminous plant, with a ligneous stem, rising upon trees, especially on the borders of streams, into which the fruit falls when rip...
-Calabar Bean. Part 2
The alkaloid has been extracted by Prof. F. Mayer, of New York, by a different process; and was the subject of experiment by Dr. Haigh, of Michigan, with results confirmatory of those obtained in Euro...
-Calabar Bean. Part 3
Therapeutic Application From the ascertained physiological properties of Calabar bean, it may be inferred to be therapeutically applicable to a considerable number of diseases. in the first place, ...
-Chapter III. Alteratives
These are medicines which, without essentially elevating or depressing the vital actions, nevertheless produce changes in the organization or functions, which render them available for remedial purpos...
-I. Mercury. Hydrargyrum. Quicksilver. Argentum Vivum. U. S., Br
Syn. Quicksilver. Argentum Vivum. Though known to the ancients, mercury does not appear to have been used by them as a medicine. The Arabian physicians employed it externally in cutaneous diseases;...
-A. Local Effects
In its pure, uncombined state, the metal is quite without topical effect, and any irritation that may seem to proceed from those of its preparations in which it exists mainly in minute division, as th...
-B. Insensible Operation
This is the genuine alterative operation of the medicine; as its remedial influence is exerted with little or no obvious disturbance of the healthy functions. Nevertheless, a close observation will so...
-C. Sialagogue Operation, Or Full Mercurialism
This may be induced in two methods; either rapidly, by large closes at once, or more gradually and safely, by small doses more or less frequently repeated. The effect is very complicated; the most pro...
-Sialagogue Operation, Or Full Mercurialism. Part 2
Absorption. That this process is promoted by the medicine, is inferrible from the obvious loss of flesh which takes place during the existence of mercurialism, amounting not unfrequently to great emac...
-Sialagogue Operation, Or Full Mercurialism. Part 3
Infants are remarkably insusceptible to the sialagogue operation of mercury. Nevertheless they are now and then even profusely salivated; and, where the salivary glands have not been affected, I have,...
-Sialagogue Operation, Or Full Mercurialism. Part 4
Excessive sweating is sometimes caused by the mercurials, and is accused of having produced dangerous exhaustion. As to the various chronic skin diseases, the pains in the bones with nodes, the chr...
-Sialagogue Operation, Or Full Mercurialism. Part 5
Admitting then that all the mercurial effects, except those strictly topical, result from its entrance into the circulation, the next inquiry which suggests itself is, in what method precisely it prod...
-Sialagogue Operation 3. Therapeutic Application
It will be most convenient to treat of the remedial uses of mercury, as its physiological effects have already been treated of, first in reference to its insensible or proper alterative action, and se...
-Uses In Reference To Its Insensible Operation. Continued
In the diarrhoea which precedes epidemic cholera, the same absence of bile in the passages may often be noticed, and should be treated, in the same way, with the minute doses of calomel and opium freq...
-1. Uses In Reference To The Sialagogue Effect
Mercury is now no longer given purposely for its effects on the mouth and salivary glands. These are considered only as signs of its influence on the system; and the aim is always to produce as little...
-2. Uses In Reference To The Stimulation Of The Secretions
This influence of the mercurials may often be taken advantage of therapeutically with great effect. A condition of the system not unfrequently exists in febrile diseases, in which the secretions gener...
-3. Uses In Reference To The Promotion Of Absorption
There is not, I think, any sufficient proof that mercury directly promotes the absorption of effused liquids. So far as it increases secretion, and thus lessens the volume of the blood, it may indirec...
-4. Uses In Reference To General Stimulation
It has been stated that the circulation is stimulated during mercurial-ization. The nervous centres are probably similarly excited. Even the disintegrating property is perhaps only the result of an ex...
-5. Uses Of Mercury As A Revolutionizing Agent
There is a wide circle of diseases, in which mercury has been proved by abundant experience to be useful, and in which its beneficial effects cannot be referred entirely to any of the obvious therapeu...
-Uses Of Mercury As A Revolutionizing Agent. Part 2
* Not less than eight cases of death are recorded in one of the London journals, as having occurred within a short time, in England, from the use of lobelia by a class of practitioners, who exclaim ag...
-Uses Of Mercury As A Revolutionizing Agent. Part 3
It would be superfluous to designate specially every inflammatory affection in which mercury may be used. So far as the mere inflammation is concerned, there is no exception to the general rule. There...
-Uses Of Mercury As A Revolutionizing Agent. Part 4
Nor can i, in any degree, coincide in that opinion which ascribes to mercury effects analogous to those of secondary syphilis. Glandular swellings, ulcerations similar to the venereal in the throat, v...
-Uses Of Mercury As A Revolutionizing Agent. Part 5
In enteric or typhoid fever, I habitually use mercury in the second stage, whenever a commencing dryness of the mouth calls for something more than the refrigerant and diaphoretic remedies applicable ...
-4. Contraindications To The Use Of Mercury
An agent so powerful for good is necessarily capable of doing mischief, if abused or improperly used. 1. When, from idiosyncrasy, mercury has been found to act injuriously, its use in the same indi...
-5. Modes Of Employing Mercury
The modes of employing mercury, both for its alterative effects on the digestive organs, and its operation on the system, have been already detailed, in connection with the accounts of its several the...
-6. Preparations Of Mercury
All the officinal preparations of mercury, including the metal itself, and excepting only the sulphurets, which appear to be quite inert, are capable of producing the peculiar effects of this medicine...
-1. Preparations In The Metallic State
In a state of minute division, it has been ascertained that, in the presence of an alkaline chloride and air, mercury is very slowly converted into corrosive sublimate; the metal probably being first ...
-I. Mercurial Pills. - Pllulae Hydrargyri. U.S
Pilula Hydrargyri. Br. - Pills of Mercury. - Blue Pills. - Pilulae Coeruleae. Mercurial pills are prepared by first rubbing mercury with confection of roses till the globules disappear, and then be...
-II. Mercury With Chalk. - Hydrargyrum Cum Creta. U.S., Br. - Gray Powder
This is made by rubbing together three parts by weight of mercury, and five of prepared chalk, till the metal is extinguished. The mercury is not so thoroughly divided in this preparation as in the bl...
-III. Mercurial Ointment. - Unguentum Hydrargyri. U.S., Br
Mercurial ointment is prepared by rubbing together equal weights of mercury and fat, the latter consisting of equal weights of lard and suet. The trituration is to be continued until the globules disa...
-IV. Mercurial Plaster. - Emplastrum Hydrargyri. U.S., Br
This is prepared by first melting olive oil and resin together, then rubbing them, after cooling, with mercury until the globules disappear, and, lastly, incorporating the mixture with melted lead pla...
-2. Officinal Oxides Of Mercury
There are only two of these preparations medically used, representing the two chemical oxides, the protoxide, namely, and the deutoxide or peroxide. Some chemists consider the latter as the true proto...
-I. Black Oxide Of Mercury. - Hydrargyri Oxidum Nigrum. U.S.1850
Though discarded from the Pharmacopoeia, and now little used, this preparation demands notice from its former reputation, and real efficiency. Various modes of making it have been employed; but perhap...
-II. Red Oxide Of Mercury. - Hydrargyri Oxidum Rubrum. U.S., Br
Hydrargyri Nitrico-Oxidum. Lond. - Deutoxide of Mercury. - Binoxide of Mercury. - Peroxide of Mercury. - Red Precipitate. This is made by dissolving mercury in nitric acid, evaporating the solution...
-3. Officinal Chlorides Of Mercury
Under this head are placed calomel or the protochloride, corrosive sublimate or the deutochloride, and white precipitate, which may be considered as a chloro-amidide of mercury. ...
-I. Mild Chloride Of Mercury Or Calomel. - Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite. U.S. - Calomelas. Br
Protochloride Of Mercury Subchloride of Mercury. Calomel is prepared by first forming a sulphate of the deutoxide of mercury, by boiling sulphuric acid and the metal together to dryness. This is...
-Mild Chloride Of Mercury Or Calomel. - Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite. U.S. - Calomelas. Br. Continued
Therapeutic Application So far as concerns the alterative and sialagogue effects, enough has been said on this subject already. I would, however, urge on the young practitioner, the importance of a...
-II. Corrosive Chloride Of Mercury Or Corrosive Sublimate. - Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum. U.S
- Hydrargyrum Corrosivum Sublimatum. Br. - Hydrar-Gyri Bichloridum. Lond. - Deutochloride of Mercury. - Bichloride of Mercury. - Perchloride of Mercury. - Chloride of Mercury. Corrosive sublimate i...
-Corrosive Chloride Of Mercury Or Corrosive Sublimate. - Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum. U.S. Continued
On examination after death, the usual marks are discovered of inflammation or corrosion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels. The internal surface is often found of a slate-gray colour, an...
-III. Ammoniated Mercury Or White Precipitate
- Hydrargyrum Ammoniatum. U. S., Br. - Hydrargyri Ammonio-Chloridum. Lond. - Hydrargyri Precipitatum Album. Ed. - Chloro-amidide of Mercury. - Amido-chlo-ride of Mercury. This is made by simply pre...
-4. Officinal Iodides Of Mercury
Of these there are only two, the iodide and deutiodide, which are distinguished in the U S. Pharmacopoeia as the green iodide and red iodide, in order to avoid the confusion of changing nomenclature, ...
-I. Green Iodide Of Mercury. - Hydrargyri Iodidum Viride. U. S., Br
Iodide Of Mercury Protiodide Of Mercury. - Subiodide Of Mercury. This may be made by simply rubbing iodine and mercury together in proper proportions, a little alcohol being added to facilitate ...
-II. Red Iodide Of Mercury. - Hydrargyri Iodidum Rubrum. U.S., Br. - Deatiodide Of Mercury. - Biniodide Of Mercury. - Periodide Of Mercury
This is prepared by precipitating a solution of corrosive sublimate, by means of another of iodide of potassium. The reaction, which takes place between one equivalent of the bichloride and two eqs. o...
-5. Officinal Sulphurets Of Mercury. I. Red Sulphuret Of Mercury Or Cinnabar. - Hydrargyri Sulphuretum Rubrum. U. S. - Hydrargyri Blsulphuretum. Lond
Cinnabaris. Ed. - Deutosulphuret of Mercury. - Bisulphuret of Mercury. - Persulphuret of Mercury. Though formerly recognized by the London and Edinburgh Colleges, this has been abandoned in the Bri...
-II. Black Sulphuret Of Mercury Or Ethiops Mineral. - Hydrargyri Sulphuretum Nigrum. U. S. 1850
Ethiops mineral has ceased to be officinal, and probably deservedly so. it is prepared by simply rubbing mercury and sulphur together. A chemical union takes place, and a black powder results. At one ...
-6. Officinal Salts Of Mercury
The proper salts of mercury are at present scarcely used except for topical purposes. The nitrate and acetate were at one time given internally, but have been generally abandoned. Of the salts in use,...
-Ointment Of Nitrate Of Mercury. - Unguentum Hydrargyri Nltratis. U. S., Br. - Unguentum Citrinum. Ed. - Citrine Ointment
According to the directions of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, citrine ointment is made by dissolving mercury in nitric acid, adding the solution to a mixture of neat's foot oil and lard heated together to 2...
-II. Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S
i shall treat first of the effects and uses of arsenic as a medicine, and then of its several preparations. it will be understood that, in the following observations, it is not the metal in its uncomb...
-Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S. Part 2
Curious accounts have been given of the use of arsenic as an habitual stimulant by the peasants of Styria, in the Austrian dominions, who are said to be invigorated by it, improving in appetite, colou...
-Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S. Part 3
These facts may tend, in some measure, to remove any existing fears as to the safety of arsenic, used with due caution as a medicine; but they should not render the practitioner careless. if the dose ...
-Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S. Part 4
Slow Poisoning. When arsenic is taken in small quantities, repeated at intervals, for a long time, a condition of slow poisoning is induced, which may eventuate fatally. This method has sometimes been...
-Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S. Part 5
The best efforts will often fail to relieve poisoning from arsenic; and patients not unfrequently die, when there is no reason to think that any of the poison remains in the primae viae. This may happ...
-Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S. Part 6
The most important remedial uses of arsenic are those connected with its antiperiodic power, and its alterative influence in chronic skin diseases, chronic rheumatism, and certain nervous affections. ...
-Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S. Part 7
2 Use in Reference to its Alterative Properties. Chronic cutaneous eruptions are the affections in which arsenic exercises its most valuable powers; and, so far as my observation has gone, there is no...
-Arsenic. Arsenicum. U.S. Part 8
In another variety of the disease, known commonly as rheumatic gout or nodose rheumatism, it is spoken of as peculiarly efficacious. it is the form in which the joints of the fingers are affected with...
-4. Preparations Of Arsenic
The metal itself is not used in medicine. Though capable of producing poisonous effects from its facility of oxidizement, it is too uncertain to be relied on.* Realgar and orpiment, the former called ...
-I. Arsenious Acid. - Acidum Arsenic-Sum. U. S., Br. - Arsenicum Album. - White Oxide Of Arsenic. - White Arsenic
This is obtained in roasting the ores of other metals containing arsenic. it is condensed in the flues, collected, and refined by sublimation. Properties As first procured, it is in beautifully ...
-II. Solution Of Arsenite Of Potassa. - Llquor Potassae Arsenitis. U. S. - Liquor Arsenicalis. Br. - Arsenical Solution. - Fowler's Solution
This excellent preparation of arsenic is made, according to the directions of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by boiling sixty-four grains of arsenious acid, and the same quantity of pure carbonate of potass...
-III. Arseniate Of Soda. - Som; Arsenias. Br
This is prepared, according to the process of the British Pharmacopoeia, by heating to redness in a crucible a mixture of arsenious acid, nitrate of soda, and carbonate of soda, pouring the melted mas...
-IV. Iodide Of Arsenic. - Arsenici Iodidum. U.S
The iodide of arsenic was introduced into our national Pharmacopoeia for the preparation of the solution of iodide of arsenic and mercury described below. it is made by first rubbing together one part...
-V. Solution Of Iodide Of Arsenic And Mercury
- Liquor Arsenici et Hydrargyri iodidi. U.S. - Donovan's Solution. This preparation, originally suggested by Mr. Donovan, of Dublin, has been officinally recognized in the United States and Ireland...
-III. Iodine. Iodinium. U.S. - Iodum. Br
i shall treat first of the effects of iodine and its preparations on the system, and of their therapeutic uses, and afterwards of the different forms in which the medicine is administered. in the outs...
-Iodine. Iodinium. U.S. - Iodum. Br. Part 2
Sometimes the irritant action of iodine appears to be directed peculiarly to the brain, and the phenomena of nervous disorder predominate; such as neuralgic pains, headache particularly frontal, pains...
-Iodine. Iodinium. U.S. - Iodum. Br. Part 3
The remedies for iodic poisoning are to wash out the stomach by the copious use of demulcent drinks; to administer freely of starch either pure, or in the form of flour mingled with large quantities o...
-3. Free Iodine Therapeutic Application
It is but a few years since this most valuable medicine first became known to the profession. Dr. Coindet, of Geneva, in Switzerland, has inseparably associated his name with the medical history of io...
-Free Iodine Therapeutic Application. Part 2
Scrofula. So far as concerns the dispersion of scrofulous swellings, whether in the glands, or elsewhere, if there has been no deposition of tubercle, and no acuteness of inflammatory action remain, i...
-Free Iodine Therapeutic Application. Part 3
Syphilis. in the advanced stage of this affection, iodine is undoubtedly often very serviceable. it is peculiarly useful in that special condition of the disease, characterized by vague pains in the l...
-Free Iodine Therapeutic Application. Part 4
Fibrinous Exudation. iodine is supposed by some to have an anti-plastic effect upon the blood, and therefore to be useful in that kind of inflammation which tends to the formation of false membrane. B...
-B. Use Of Iodine As A Stimulant To The Secretions
Dropsy has been treated with the preparations of iodine, under the impression of its power of promoting at the same time secretion and absorption; but, in neither of these respects is it sufficiently ...
-C. Local Use Of Iodine
In all the local affections above enumerated, as requiring the constitutional impression of iodine, it may also be applied topically, in some one of the various forms which will be described among its...
-4. Preparations Of Iodine
iodine itself, in the solid state, is now seldom if ever prescribed, and never ought to be. Some acquaintance, however, with its physical properties and chemical relations is essential to the physicia...
-A. Preparations Containing Free Iodine. I. Tincture Of Iodine. - Tlnctura Iodinii. U.S
This is prepared by dissolving a troyounce of iodine in a pint of alcohol. it is not quite saturated; and it is best, perhaps, as an officinal preparation, that it should not be so; for the least expo...
-II. Compound Tincture Of Iodine. - Tlnctura Iodinii Composita. U. S. - Tinctura Iodi. Br
As directed by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, this is made by dissolving half a troyounce of iodine and a troyounce of iodide of potassium in a pint of alcohol. This preparation is, at least theoreticall...
-III. Compound Solution Of Iodine. - Llquor Iodinii Compositus. U.S
The U. S. officinal solution is made by dissolving six drachms of iodine and a troyounce and a half of iodide of potassium in a pint of distilled water. it will be perceived that it differs from the p...
-IV. Ointment Of Iodine. - Unguentum Iodinii. U.S
The U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs this to be made by incorporating twenty grains of iodine and four of iodide of potassium with a troyounce of lard; the iodine and iodide being first rubbed with six min...
-V. Compound Ointment Of Iodine. - Unguentum Iob
Preparations In Which Iodine Is Chemically Combined. ...
-Dinii Compositum. U.S. - Unguentum Iodi Compositum. Br
This is made, according to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by rubbing half a drachm of iodine and a drachm of iodide of potassium, first with a fluidrachm of alcohol, and then with two ounces of lard. The...
-I. Diluted Hydriodic Acid. - Acidum Hydriodicum Dllutum. U.S
This is an officinal newly introduced into the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. it is prepared by passing hydrosulphuric acid gas (sulphuretted hydrogen) through iodine suspended in distilled water, until the who...
-II. Iodide Of Potassium. - Potassii Iodidum. U.S., Br. - Hydriodate Of Potassa
This is made according to different processes. Our officinal code directs that iodine and potassa should be dissolved together in water, the solution evaporated, charcoal incorporated towards the clos...
-Iodide Of Potassium. - Potassii Iodidum. U.S., Br. - Hydriodate Of Potassa. Continued
The unpleasant symptoms which have sometimes followed the rather free use of iodide of potassium may be explained in two ways. in the first place, it sometimes contains injurious impurities, particula...
-III. Ointment Of Iodide Of Sulphur
Unguentum it is one of the most effectual alterative applications in old and obstinate skin diseases; and is peculiarly adapted to psoriasis, lepra, pityriasis, and porrigo, and to the very advanced s...
-IV. Iodide Of Starch. - Amyli Iodidum
This, though not an officinal preparation, is based upon sound principles, and has been found practically useful. in all probability it is the first compound formed, when iodine is taken with, or imme...
-IV. Chlorine. Chlorinium
Chlorine, in its various compounds, seems to have a certain controlling influence in their operation upon the system, giving them, in some degree, a similarity of character in this respect, though muc...
-I. Gaseous Chlorine
Effects on the System This gas is extremely irritant, inflaming the skin if allowed to remain in contact with it, and, even when diluted with air or watery vapour, at a somewhat elevated temperatur...
-II. Chlorine Water. - Aqua Chlorinii. U.S. - Llquor Chlori. Br. - Solution Of Chlorine
Preparation This is prepared officinally by passing chlorine gas through water; the gas being obtained from the reaction between black oxide of manganese and muriatic acid gently heated with water....
-III. Chlorinated Lime. - Calx Chlorinata. U.S. - Calx Chlorata. Br. - Chloride Of Lime. - Hypochlorite Of Lime
Preparation and Properties. Chlorinated lime is made by exposing hydrated or slaked lime to the action of chlorine, continued until the lime will absorb no more. it is a whitish powder, of an odour re...
-IV. Solution Of Chlorinated Soda. - Llquor Sodae Chlorinate. U.S. - Liquor Sodae Chloratae. Br. - Labar-Raque's Disinfecting Liquid
According to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, this is made by mixing solutions, of definite strength, of carbonate of soda and chlorinated lime. An interchange of principles takes place, by which the lime tak...
-V. Solution Of Chloride Of Calcium. - Llquor Calcii Chloridi. U.S. - Calcis Muriatis Solutio. Ed. - Solution Of Muriate Of Lime
Preparation This is prepared by treating marble with muriatic acid, evaporating the resulting solution to dryness, dissolving the residue in its weight and a half of water, and filtering. Marble is...
-VI. Solution Of Chloride Of Barium. - Llquor Barii Chloridi. U.S. - Solutio Baryta Muriatis. Ed. - Solution Of Muriate Of Baryta
This is made from carbonate of baryta in the same method as the preceding preparation from carbonate of lime. The solution is inodorous, has a disagreeable bitter taste, and is precipitated by the ...
-VII. Chloride Of Sodium. - Sodii Chloridum. U.S., Br. - Common Salt. - Muriate Of Soda
Common salt is too well known to require description. I proceed, therefore, immediately to treat of its effects and remedial uses. Effects on the System Common salt is essential to health. The i...
-Chloride Of Sodium. - Sodii Chloridum. U.S., Br. - Common Salt. - Muriate Of Soda. Continued
In gangrenous conditions of disease, as suggested by Dr. Probart, attention should be directed to the previous habits of the patient, in relation to the use of salt; and the employment of it, without ...
-VIII. Muriate Of Ammonia. - Ammoniae Murias. U.S. - Ammoniae Hydrochloras. Br.- Sal Ammoniac.- Chloride Of Ammonium
Sal ammoniac is procured from several sources, but is at present prepared chiefly, on a large scale, from the impure ammonia obtained in the manufacture of coal gas, and in the destructive distillatio...
-Muriate Of Ammonia. - Ammoniae Murias. U.S. - Ammoniae Hydrochloras. Br.- Sal Ammoniac.- Chloride Of Ammonium. Continued
It is considered to be still more applicable to chronic inflammations than to the acute. in chronic rheumatism, in bronchitis with thickening of the mucous membrane or copious mucous secretion, in pye...
-IX. Chlorate Of Potassa. - Potassae Chloras. U.S., Br
Preparation This salt is prepared in several methods, the simplest of which is to pass chlorine through solution of potassa to complete saturation. Two salts are ultimately formed, chloride of pota...
-V. Bromine. Brominium. U.S
At the period when the second edition of this Treatise was prepared for the press, bromine and its compounds, though employed to a certain extent in medicine, had not obtained an importance which, in ...
-I. Bromine. - Brominium. U. S
Origin Bromine is an elementary substance, discovered in 1826 by M. Balard, of Montpellier, who obtained it from the bittern of salt-works, remaining after the crystallization of common salt from c...
-Bromine. - Brominium. U. S. Continued
At an early period, Andral experimented with bromine upon man and animals; and the following statement of the results of its exhibition to the human subject was published by M. Fournet. in the first p...
-II. Bromide Of Potassium. - Potassii Bromidum. U. S., Br
Preparation in preparing bromide of potassium, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia first mixes iron filings and bromine together with water so as to form the bromide of iron in solution, and then adds a soluti...
-Bromide Of Potassium. Potassii Bromidum. Part 2
The foregoing statement of the results obtained by M. Puche was given by MM. Rames and Huette, in a thesis upon the subject, and is contained in the Traite de Therapeutique et de Matiere Medicate of M...
-Bromide Of Potassium. Potassii Bromidum. Part 3
Epilepsy is one of the complaints in which it has been much employed. Attention was first called to it as a remedy in this disease by Sir Charles Locock, who was very successful with it in a number of...
-Bromide Of Potassium. Potassii Bromidum. Part 4
In neuralgic affections, though uncertain, it often operates very happily, and sometimes puts an immediate end to very severe attacks, and such as had long resisted other remedies. Good might be expec...
-III. Bromide Of Ammonium
Though not officinal, this salt has attracted considerable attention of late as a remedy in hooping cough. it is made by dissolving bromine in water of ammonia. The liquid becomes heated with the reac...
-VI. Sulphur. Washed Sulphur. - Sulphur Lotum. U.S. Sublimed Sulphur. - Sulphur Sublimatum. U S., Br
Origin Sulphur is obtained for medical use from volcanic districts, where the ground is in many places richly impregnated with this substance, sublimed from the interior of the earth. it is separat...
-Sulphur. Washed Sulphur. - Sulphur Lotum. U.S. Sublimed Sulphur. - Sulphur Sublimatum. U S., Br. Continued
Therapeutic Application Sulphur has been used as a medicine both internally and outwardly from ancient times. it was formerly supposed to act favourably in phthisis; but the notion of its usefulnes...
-I. Precipitated Sulphur. - Sulphur Praecipitatum. U.S., Br. - Milk Of Sulphur. - Lac Sulphuris
Precipitated sulphur is made by boiling sulphur and lime together in water, filtering, and then precipitating with muriatic acid. Certain chemical reactions between the lime and sulphur, through which...
-II. Sulphurous Acid. - Acidum Sulphurosum. U. S., Br
This has but recently become officinal. The name is applied by the Pharmacopoeia to the liquid resulting from the passage of sulphurous acid gas through distilled water, by which it is absorbed. This ...
-III. Hydrosulphuric Acid Or Sulphuretted Hydrogen. - Acidum Hydrosulphuricum
This does not hold a place in the U. S. or British officinal catalogues; but, being an efficient remedy, under certain circumstances, requires notice. At ordinary temperatures it is gaseous, extremely...
-IV. Sulphuret Of Potassium. - Potassii Sulphuretum. U.S. - Potassa Sulphurata. Br. - Hepar Sulphuris. - Liver Of Sulphur
Origin and Properties This is prepared by melting together sulphur and carbonate of potassa. The carbonic acid escapes, and the sulphur and potassa mutually react so as to produce sulphuret of pota...
-VII. Colchicum. Colchicum Root. - Colchici Radix. U. S. - Colchici Cormus. Br. Colchicum Seed. - Colchici Semen. U. S., Br
Origin Colchicum is the product of Colchicum autumnale, a beautiful little plant commonly called meadow saffron, which grows wild in Europe, where it is also cultivated for medical use. The root, o...
-Colchicum. Colchicum Root. Colchicum Seed. Part 2
* Professor Schroff, of Vienna, has communicated the following results of experiments made by M. Heinrich, on his own person, with colchicia. One-hundredth of a grain soon produced nausea, which laste...
-Colchicum. Colchicum Root. Colchicum Seed. Part 3
The absence of symptoms of proper nervous disorder proves that the medicine does not act directly on the cerebral centres, or those of animal life, and that it cannot, therefore, rank with the narcoti...
-Colchicum. Colchicum Root. Colchicum Seed. Part 4
soon found, as originally stated by M. Husson, to be of vegetable origin; and, so early as 1782, MM. Cadet and Parmentier announced that it was a vinous infusion. The claim was advanced, in favour of ...
-Colchicum. Colchicum Root. Colchicum Seed. Part 5
It is not only in the regular gouty paroxysm that colchicum is useful. it is probably not less efficacious in the various other morbid affections in which the diathesis occasionally explodes, whether ...
-Colchicum. Colchicum Root. Colchicum Seed. Part 6
Finally, colchicum has been employed against the tapeworm, and not without supposed success. There is one great rule, in the application of this remedy, which will often be of practical advantage; ...
-VIII. Sarsaparilla. U.S. Sarsa. Br
Origin Sarsaparilla consists of the roots of different plants belonging to the genus Smilax. it was formerly referred to Smilax Sarsaparilla, which is indigenous in this country; but it is now beli...
-Sarsaparilla. U.S. Sarsa. Br. Continued
Therapeutic Application Few medicines have suffered such vicissitudes of popularity as sarsaparilla; at one time being in high repute, at another almost entirely neglected, then again revived, to b...
-IX. Guaiacum. Guaiacum Wood. - Guaiaci Lignum. U. S., Br. Guaiac. - Guaiaci Resina. U. S., Br
Origin There are two products of Guaiacum officinale, a large tree growing in the West indies, which are employed in medicine; namely, the wood, and a resinous substance obtained in various methods...
-X. Mezereon. Mezereum. U. S., Br
Origin As directed by our officinal code, and as found in the shops of this country, mezereon is the bark of two species of Daphne, namely, D. Mezereum, and D. Gnidium, both small shrubs, growing i...
-XI. Bark Of Sassafras Root. Sassafras Radicis Cortex. U. S
Origin This is the product of Sassafras officinale (Nees), Laurus Sassafras (Linn.), a tree of medium size, growing in all parts of the United States, and said to extend also into Mexico. The U. S ...
-XII. Bittersweet. Dulcamara. U. S., Br
Dulcamara consists of the twigs or stems of Solanun Dulcamara, or woody nightshade, a half-climbing shrub, indigenous in the United States, and growing wild also in Europe. From its botanical relation...
-1. Stillingia. U.S. - Queen's-Root
Stillingia has been adopted both as the officinal and vernacular name of the root of the Stillingia sylvatica, or Queen's delight, an indigenous perennial herb, growing in the pine-woods of our South-...
-2. False Sarsaparilla. - Aralia Nudicaulis. U. S
By these titles is recognized the root of Aralia nudicaulis, an indigenous perennial herb, having one compound leaf and one flower-stem, and growing in shady places, throughout the United States, at l...
-3. Hemidesmus. Br. - Indian Sarsaparilla
This is the root of Hemidesmus indica, a perennial climbing plant, with woody stems, a native of India, and growing throughout the Peninsula of Hindostan. it is long, slender, twisting, and cylindrica...
-Subdivision 2. Local Remedies. Chapter I. Local Remedies Affecting The Functions. Class I. Emetics
Emetics are medicines which cause vomiting, in certain doses, as an ordinary result, and in the healthy state of the stomach. A large quantity of almost any liquid may provoke vomiting by over-distens...
-1. Operation Of Emetics
Symptoms. The vomiting does not immediately follow the administration of the emetic. At first, no unusual sensation is experienced, except that which may be occasioned by the disagreeable taste of the...
-Operation Of Emetics. Part 2
Mechanism of Vomiting. Different opinions have been held as to the precise agency concerned in the act of vomiting. Some have maintained that it is effected exclusively by the contraction of the stom...
-Operation Of Emetics. Part 3
There is another interesting point of inquiry in relation to this subject. How is it that the impression upon the stomach is conveyed to the nervous centres concerned ? I think there can be no doubt t...
-2. Emetics Therapeutic Effects, Or Indications
1. Evacuation of the Stomach. This is an obvious and important indication for the use of emetics. indigestible food, irritant or poisonous substances from without, acid and acrid accumulations resulti...
-2. Emetics Therapeutic Effects, Or Indications. Part 2
In congestions of the spleen, this property of emetics will sometimes answer a good purpose; and they are among the remedies which may be resorted to in enlargements of that organ, supposed to be of a...
-2. Emetics Therapeutic Effects, Or Indications. Part 3
This general increase of the secretions renders emetics useful in various conditions of disease; whenever, indeed, there may be deficiency of action in any one of the surfaces or glands upon which the...
-2. Emetics Therapeutic Effects, Or Indications. Part 4
Emetics have been used in the collapse of miasmatic pernicious fever, and seem to have sometimes done good by rousing the system into reaction. It is possible that, in the same way, they may have b...
-4. Auxiliary Emetic Measures
Various means are employed to facilitate or hasten the operation of the ordinary emetics; and not unfrequently these means are sufficient of themselves to provoke vomiting, when there is a strong disp...
-1. Vegetable Emetics. I. Ipecacuanha. U. S., Br
Origin Ipecacuanha consists of the roots of a small shrubby plant, growing in the forests of Brazil, where it is said to be collected chiefly by the aborigines. The same plant grows also in New Gra...
-Vegetable Emetics. I. Ipecacuanha. U. S., Br. Continued
In consequence of its general efficiency, comparative mildness, and entire safety, ipecacuanha is admirably adapted for those cases in which an emetic is called for, with the object of simply evacuati...
-II. Gillenia. Indian Physic. American Ipecacuanha. U. S
Syn. Indian Physic. American ipecacuanha. Origin Two species of Gillenia, G. trifoliata and G. stipulacea, are recognized by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia as the source of this medicine. They are both...
-III. Bloodroot. Sanguinaria. U. S
Origin This is another indigenous medicine; being the root or rhizome of Sanguinaria Canadensis, a small herbaceous perennial, growing in woods throughout the United States, and sending up a pretty...
-IV. Euphorbia. Ipecacuanha Spurge. - Euphorbia Ipecacuanha. U.S. Large-Flowering Spurge. - Euphorbia Corollata. U. S
Origin Our national standard recognizes as officinal, under the above titles, the roots of two species of Euphorbia; E. ipecacuanha and E. corollata, the former often called American ipecacuanha, t...
-V. Lobelia. U.S.,Br
Lobelia has already been sufficiently treated of, in all its relations, except as an emetic. (See page 135.) it will be necessary to say but a few words of it in this capacity. in its emetic operation...
-1. Mustard. - Sinapis. Br. - White Mustard. Sinapis Alba. U. S. Black Mustard. Sinapis Nigra. U. S
Of the origin, sensible and chemical properties, and various effects and applications of this valuable medicine, there will be occasion to treat under the rubefacients. it is only the emetic property ...
-2. Squill. - Scilla. U.S., Br
Squill is to be considered hereafter as a diuretic and expectorant, in which capacities it is almost exclusively used. it is only necessary here to state that, in the dose of from six to twelve grains...
-3. Tobacco. - Tabacum. U.S., Br
This has been fully considered elsewhere. (See page 125.) I introduce it here simply to say that, in the dose of about six grains, in persons unaccustomed to its use, it will generally vomit, and may ...
-2. Mineral Emetics. I. Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Tartar Emetic. Tartarated Antimony. Tartarized Antimony. Antimonii Et Potassae Tartras. U. S. - Antimonium Tartaratum. Br. - Antimonii Potassio-Tartras. Lond. - Antimonium Tartarizatum. Ed., Bub
Syn. Tartar Emetic. Tartarated Antimony. Tartarized Antimony. Tartar emetic is here to be considered only as an emetic. in its other relations it has already been fully treated of (see page 56), or...
-II. Sulphate Of Zinc. Zinci Sulphas. White Vitriol. U.S., Br
Syn. White Vitriol. For an account of the properties, effects, and general uses of this medicine, see page 412 of the first volume. At present we are to consider it solely as an emetic. In this ...
-III. Sulphate Of Copper. Cupri Sulphas. Blue Vitriol. U.S., Br
Syn. Blue Vitriol. See volume i. page 406, for a general account of this medicine. As an emetic, it possesses properties closely analogous to those of sulphate of zinc, so that what has been said a...
-IV. Yellow Sulphate Of Mercury. Hydrargyri Sulphas Flava. Turpeth Mineral. U. S
Syn. Turpeth Mineral. Preparation This is prepared by boiling mercury and sulphuric acid together to dryness, and throwing the resulting mass into boiling water. The sulphate of deutoxide of mer...
-Class II. Cathartics
Cathartics are medicines which evacuate the bowels downwards, increasing either the number or the quantity of the stools. They produce this effect in several distinct methods. 1. Mode Of Operat...
-Cathartics Mode Of Operation And Effects. Part 2
The character of the discharges varies with the mode in which the cathartic acts. Medicines which operate exclusively on the large intestines produce fecal evacuation more or less consistent, Such is ...
-2. Cathartics Therapeutic Indications
Cathartics answer a number of very important therapeutic purposes, and are certainly among the most valuable of the classes of medicines. There can be no doubt, however, that they have been greatly ab...
-2. Cathartics Therapeutic Indications. Part 2
Thirdly, indigestible matters of various kinds taken into the stomach, such as food of very difficult solubility, and the rind, seeds, and stones of fruits; insoluble medicines in excess; various inor...
-2. Cathartics Therapeutic Indications. Part 3
In very low cases of fever, it may be altogether improper to employ any brisk, or energetic, or actively depletory cathartic; but there are articles of the class, such as rhubarb and aloes, which, ins...
-3. Cathartics Administration
I need not suggest the importance, in the use of this class of medicines, possessed as they are of such diversified qualities, of selecting, on every occasion, the one best adapted to the particular d...
-1. Laxatives
These have already been defined. They are indicated generally whenever the object, in the administration of cathartics, is simply to keep the bowels open, so as to imitate the healthful condition as n...
-1. White Mustard Seed. - Sinapis Alba
These are the seeds of Sinapis alba, and will be more particularly described hereafter. They are noticed here merely in reference to their laxative property. They are of a roundish-elliptical shape, a...
-2. Wheat Bran
This is, under certain circumstances, an excellent laxative, operating in all probability, mainly, if not exclusively, by the slight irritation occasioned by the coarseness and angularity of its parti...
-3. Metallic Mercury - Hydrargyrum
Mercury, swallowed in the fluid state, often rapidly passes through the bowels, operating as a laxative by its weight in the manner above referred to. it has been given in cases of ileus arising from ...
-B. Laxatives Operating Dynamically
Of the substances belonging to this subdivision there are several, which, being generally considered rather as articles of diet than as medicines, will require only a few general observations. They ma...
-1. Sugar. - Brown Sugar. - Molasses. - Treacle
It is very doubtful whether perfectly pure sugar is laxative; at least it can be but very slightly so; but, in the impure state in which we receive it from the cane, and in the form of molasses, it ce...
-2. Saccharine And Acidulous Fruits
Most of our ordinary edible fruits are laxative, as the peach, apple, pear, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, etc.; and, during the season when they prevail, persons at other times habitually costive...
-I. Manna. U.S., Br
Origin Manna is the concrete exuded juice of Ornus Europaea, or flowering ash, and of Ornus rotundifolia, growing wild in the South of Italy, and in Sicily, where also one or both trees are cultiva...
-II. Purging Cassia. Cassia Fistula. U. S. - Cassia. Br
Origin and Sensible Properties. Purging cassia consists of the fruit of Cassia Fistula (Cathartocarpus Fistula, Persoon), a large tree, indigenous in India and Upper Egypt, and introduced into the Wes...
-III. Sulphur. Sulphur Lotum. U. S. - Washed Sulphur
Sulphur has already been sufficiently treated of on all points, except in relation to its effects and uses as a cathartic, to which, therefore, our attention will be exclusively confined in this place...
-IV. Carbonate Of Magnesia. Magnesiae Carbonas. U. Ft; Br
Preparation Carbonate of magnesia is prepared by precipitating a solution of sulphate of magesia by another of carbonate of soda. Mutual decomposition takes place, with the formation of sulphate of...
-V. Magnesia. U.S. Magnesia, From The Heavy Carbonate; Calcined Magnesia. Magnesia Levis, From The Light Carbonate. Br
Syn. Calcined Magnesia. Preparation Magnesia is prepared by exposing carbonate of magnesia to a red heat, which drives off the carbonic acid and water. Various circumstances influence more or l...
-2. Purgatives
The purgatives may be arranged in three subdivisions, the vegetable, the saline, and the mercurial. In this subdivision I include castor oil, rhubarb, aloes, butternut, senna, American senna, jalap...
-I. Castor Oil. Oleum Ricini. U.S., Br
Origin Castor oil is obtained by expression from the seeds of Rici-nus communis, or palma Christi, a plant which, in its native climate of the East indies and Northern Africa, has the character of ...
-Castor Oil. Oleum Ricini. U.S., Br. Continued
The peculiar character of castor oil as a cathartic suggests its therapeutic application. it may be used in all cases where the indication is simply to evacuate the contents of the bowels, and to effe...
-II. Rhubarb. Rheum. U. S., Br
Origin Rhubarb is the prepared root of different species of Rheum, herbaceous perennial plants, natives of the interior of Asia, several of which have been introduced into Europe, where they are cu...
-Rhubarb Effects on the System
Rhubarb combines purgative with tonic and astringent properties. in very small doses, insufficient to operate on the bowels, it acts like the simple bitters, increasing the appetite, and promoting dig...
-Rhubarb Therapeutic Application
Rhubarb was known as a medicine so early as the times of the Emperor Justinian, and probably long before. its practical uses are such as might be inferred from the account above given of its propertie...
-Rhubarb Administration
The dose of rhubarb as a laxative is from three to ten grains. Five grains of good Russia rhubarb will generally operate decidedly in this way; and the best Chinese is but little inferior. For full pu...
-III. Butternut. Juglans. U. S
Under the name of Juglans or Butternut, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia recognizes the inner bark of the root of Juglans cinerea, or common white walnut tree of this country, which grows in Canada, and throug...
-IV. Aloes. Aloe Barbadensis. U.S., Br. - Barbadoes Aloes. Aloe Capensis. U. S. - Cape Aloes. Aloe Socotrina. U. S., Br. - Socotrine Aloes
Origin All the aloes of commerce is derived from plants belonging to the genus Aloe, the leaves of which, on being wounded, yield a bitter purgative juice. The more prominent species from which the...
-Aloes. Barbadoes Aloes. Cape Aloes. Socotrine Aloes. Part 2
Under the name of fetid, caballine, or horse aloes, inferior varieties of the drug have been brought into commerce from various sources; but, not being used in medicine, they need not be described her...
-Aloes. Barbadoes Aloes. Cape Aloes. Socotrine Aloes. Part 3
Therapeutic Application Aloes was used as a purgative by the ancient Greek and Roman physicians, and is among those most employed by the moderns. it is indeed a highly important remedy, producing e...
-Aloes. Barbadoes Aloes. Cape Aloes. Socotrine Aloes. Part 4
Administration The laxative dose of aloes is from two to six grains, the full purgative dose from ten to twenty grains. It is most agreeably given in the form of pill. As the alkalies, alkaline car...
-V. Senna. U.S
Origin Senna consists of the leaflets of several species of Cassia, among which those which yield it most largely are C. acutifolia of Upper Egypt and Nubia, C. obovata of Lower Egypt, Syria, etc.,...
-Senna. U.S. Part 2
Whether it operates by contact with the inner surface of the alimentary canal, or through the medium of absorption, has not been certainly determined; but it is not improbable that it conjoins both mo...
-Senna. U.S. Part 3
Infusion is perhaps the most frequent form in which senna is exhibited. This may be prepared in the proportion of a troyounce of senna, with one or two drachms of fennel-seed, cardamom, or coriander,...
-American Senna. - Cassia Marilandica. U. S. - Wild Senna
This consists of the leaflets of Cassia Marilandica, an indigenous herbaceous perennial plant, sending up annually several erect simple stems, which rise usually three or four feet, and are furnished ...
-VI. Jalap. Jalapa. U. S., Br
Origin Jalap is the root or tuber of Ipomaea Jalapa {Ipomaea Purga, Hayne; Exogonium Purga, Balfour), a climbing plant, with long, slender, twisting stems, cordate-hastate leaves, and beautiful blu...
-VII. May-Apple. Podophyllum. U. S
Origin Podophyllum is the officinal name adopted for the root of Podophyllum peltatum, commonly called may-apple, or mandrake, an indigenous perennial herbaceous plant, growing in woods, newly clea...
-B. Saline Purgatives
Most of the salts of the alkalies, and the soluble salts of the alkaline earths act as cathartics, when given in quantities sufficiently large. Some of them, however, have other properties which forbi...
-I. Sulphate Of Magnesia. Epsom Salt. Magnesia Sulphas. U. S., Br
Syn. Epsom Salt. Preparation Sulphate of magnesia exists in nature as an ingredient of sea water and the water of certain springs, and is occasionally found in caves, and efflorescing on the sur...
-II. Sulphate Of Soda. Glauber's Salt. Sodae Sulphas. U.S
Syn. Glauber's Salt. Preparation Though sulphate of soda exists in nature, in certain springs and ponds, it is always obtained for use artificially, being usually the residue, or an incidental p...
-III. Sulphate Of Potassa. Potassae Sulphas. Vitriolated Tartar. U. S., Br
Syn. Vitriolated Tartar. Preparation This is usually a secondary product of chemical processes, intended for the preparation of other substances. One of these is the process for procuring nitric...
-IV. Bitartrate Of Potassa. Cream of Tartar. Crystals of Tartar. Supertartrate of Potassa. Acid Tartrate of Potassa. Potassae Bitartras. U. S. - Potassa Tartras Acida. Br
Syn. Cream of Tartar. Crystals of Tartar. Supertartrate of Potassa. Acid Tartrate of Potassa. Preparation The juice of the grape contains a considerable proportion of bitartrate of potassa. When...
-V. Tartrate Of Potassa And Soda. Potassae Et Sodae Tartras. Rochelle Salt. Salt of Seignette. Tartarized Soda. U. S. - Soda Et Potassa Tartras. Br., U. S. 1850. - Soda Potassio-Tartras. Lond
Syn. Rochelle Salt. Salt of Seignette. Tartarized Soda. Preparation and Composition. The salt is prepared by saturating the excess of tartaric acid of bitartrate of potassa by means of carbonate of...
-VI. Tartrate Of Potassa. Soluble Tartar. Potassae Tartras. U. S., Br
Syn. Soluble Tartar. Preparation and Composition. Soluble tartar is made by saturating the excess of tartaric acid in bitartrate of potassa, by means of carbonate of potassa; the same plan of proce...
-VII. Phosphate Of Soda. Sodae Phosphas. U. S., Br
Preparation and Composition. in the preparation of this salt, bones are first calcined, and then treated with sulphuric acid and a little water. The acid takes the greater part of the lime of the phos...
-VIII. Solution Of Citrate Of Magnesia. Liquor Magnesia Citratis. U.S
Preparation Though the solid citrate of magnesia may be prepared without difficulty by a direct combination of its constituents, yet it has not been introduced into our officinal code, nor indeed i...
-C. Mercurial Purgatives
Most of the mercurial preparations will occasionally act on the bowels; but only two are habitually used for the purpose, namely, calomel and the mercurial pill; and of these, only the former can be s...
-Mild Chloride Of Mercury, Or Calomel. Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite. U. S. - Calomelas. Br
Effects In a dose varying from five to twenty grains, calomel generally operates briskly as a cathartic, producing copious bilious stools, which, when the dose has been somewhat large, are usually ...
-Calomel Mode Of Operating
In itself, calomel can scarcely be considered as irritant. This would seem to be a necessary consequence of its insolubility. Hence its want of acrid taste, and the absence of all evidence of irritati...
-Calomel Poisonous Effects
Much has been said of the poisonous effects of calomel. in numerous instances, even in moderate doses, it is asserted by some writers to have produced the most alarming symptoms, and sometimes to have...
-Calomel Therapeutic Application
Calomel is peculiarly called for as a purgative, whenever, in connection with any other demand for cathartic medicine, there is an indication for stimulating the secretory function of the liver. This ...
-Calomel Therapeutic Application. Continued
Employment as a Supposed Sedative. in epidemic cholera, dysentery, yellow fever, etc., it has been recommended in large doses as a sedative agent. it is asserted that, when given very largely in these...
-3. Drastics, Or Drastic Purges. I. Scammony. Scammonium. U. S. Scammony Root. - Scammonia Radix. Br
Origin Scammony is the concrete milky juice of the root of Convolvulus Scammonia, a climbing perennial plant of Syria and Asia Minor, with a long tapering root, and numerous slender, twining stems....
-II. Colocynth. Colocynthis. U. S., Br
Origin Colocynth is the prepared fruit of Citrullus Colocynthis (Cucumis Colocynthis, Linn.), or bitter cucumber, an annual plant, with trailing stems, bearing considerable resemblance to the water...
-III. Black Hellebore. Melampodium. Helleborus. U. S
Syn. Melampodium. Origin Black hellebore is the root (rhizome and fibres) of Helleborus niger, a small, herbaceous, perennial plant, sometimes, from its period of inflorescence, and the aspect o...
-IV. Gamboge. Gambogia. U. S. - Cambogia. Br
Origin Gamboge is the concrete juice of a tree, growing in the Siamese province of Cambodia, and in Cochin China, and long since supposed to be a species of Garcinia, from the close resemblance of ...
-Compound Cathartic Pills. - Pilula Cathartics Composita. U. S
These pills are made by mixing together compound extract of colocynth, extract of jalap, mild chloride of .mercury or calomel, and gamboge, then forming them into a mass with water, and dividing the m...
-V. Elaterium. U. S, Br
Origin Elaterium is a substance deposited by the juice of the fruit of Momordica Elalerium (Ecbalium officinarum, Ecbalium agresle, Ec-balium Elaterium), the wild or squirting cucumber, a trailing,...
-VI. Croton Oil. Oleum Tiglii. U. S. - Crotonis Oleum. Br.,
Origin Croton oil is obtained from the seeds of Croton Tiglium, a shrub or small tree, growing in different parts of the East indies. The fruit is a three-celled capsule, with a seed in each cell. ...
-Cathartic Enemata
In relation to the general subject of enemata, enough has been said in the first part of this work. (See vol. i. pp. 66 and 67.) We have here only to consider them in reference to the evacuation of th...
-1. Common Enema
A purgative injection in common use, and of which the materials are at hand in every family, consists of molasses, olive oil or lard, and common salt, of each a tablespoonful, and a pint of warm water...
-2. Oleaginous Enemata
in irritated states of the mucous membrane of the rectum, in which, nevertheless, there may be an indication for an evacuating injection, one of the fixed oils may be used with great propriety. The oi...
-3. Saline Enemata
When somewhat greater activity is required, and especially in febrile conditions, the neutral salts are indicated. Of these, sulphate of soda, sulphate of magnesia, or common salt may be used, in the ...
-4. Enema Of Senna
Rising in the scale of activity, we come to senna, the infusion of which acts with much energy, and is well calculated for cases of obstinate constipation. An ounce of it may be given infused in a pin...
-5. Enemata Of Jalap, Scammony, And Colocynth
One of these cathartics may be selected, when the milder have failed, and it is highly important that the bowels should be evacuated. A drachm or two of jalap may be given, suspended in mucilage; or a...
-6. Enema Of Aloes
Enema Aloes. Br., Lond. - This is usually employed with one of two views, either to destroy ascarides, or to stimulate the uterus in amenorrhoea. it may be used, also, when the object is to produce a ...
-7. Turpentine Enema
Enema Terebinthina. Br. - This is used specially in tympanites, or flatulence of the bowels; and is one of the most effectual remedies in that condition. it also sometimes answers a good purpose in sp...
-8. Assafetida Enema
Enema Asscetidae. Br.- Like the preceding, this enema is useful in flatulence and tympanites, and especially when occurring in hysterical females. To prepare it, a drachm of assafetida may be rubbed w...
-9. Mucilaginous And Aqueous Enemata
These operate mainly by distension. They are applicable when there is special reason to avoid irritating the rectum; and should be used habitually in preference to more active substances, when they ar...
-Class III. Diuretics
Diuretics arc medicines which promote the secretion of urine. They may be supposed to operate in one of two methods; either by a sympathetic impression extended from the stomach or other surface of ap...
-1. Cold As Diuretic
Every one is familiar with the fact that cold has a tendency to increase the secretion of urine. Whether applied to the stomach, the rectum, or the surface of the body, the effect is the same. More ur...
-2. Vascular Fulness As Diuretic
Excess of liquid in the blood-vessels is an abnormal condition, which seeks relief either through the skin or kidneys. if one outlet is closed, the other must in some degree supply its place. Therefor...
-3. Arterial Stimulation As Diuretic
The more rapidly the blood is carried through a secreting structure, the greater of course is the amount which comes, within a given time, in contact with that surface, and the more copious must be th...
-4. Mental Emotion As Diuretic
The passions and emotions have considerable influence over the renal function. Those of a depressing, yet somewhat agitating nature, are peculiarly disposed to act upon the kidneys. Among these is anx...
-Therapeutic Indications And Uses Of Diuretics
The obvious effect of diuretics is to diminish the quantity of liquid in the circulation. it is true that the portion of the blood evacuated by them is chiefly the water; but some of the saline matter...
-I. Digitalis. U. S., Br
Digitalis has already been treated of generally with the nervous sedatives (II. 103). it is here to be considered only as a diuretic. in this capacity, it is certainly one of the most efficient medici...
-II. Squill. Scilla. U.S., Br
Origin Squill is the bulb of Scilla maritima, an herbaceous perennial plant, sending up numerous leaves from its bulbous root, in the midst of which an erect flower-stem rises, two or three feet hi...
-I. Broom. - Scoparius. U. S., Br
Origin Broom, officinally speaking, consists of the tops of Cytisus Scoparius {Spartium Scoparium, Linn.), or the common broom plant, a European shrub, with long, slender, bright-green terminal bra...
-II. Juniper. - Juniperus. U. S
Origin As directed in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, juniper consists of the fruit of Juniperus communis, or common juniper, a well-known evergreen shrub, indigenous in Europe, but introduced into this c...
-III. Parsley Root. - Petroselinum. U.S
Origin This is the root of Petroselinum sativum (Apium Petroselinum, Linn.), a biennial, umbelliferous, herbaceous plant, indigenous in the South of Europe, but cultivated everywhere in gardens for...
-IV. Dandelion. - Taraxacum. U.S., Br
Origin This is the root of Leontodon Taraxacum (Taraxacum Dens-leonis, De Cand.), or common dandelion, a small herbaceous plant, growing in almost all parts of the globe, and everywhere well known ...
-V. Fleabane. - Erigeron. U.S
Origin Of the different Erigerons, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia recognizes two by the above title; namely, E. Philadelphicum, or Philadelphia fleabane, and E. heterophyllum, or various-leaved fleabane. ...
-VI. Carrot Seed. - Carota. U.S
Origin it is the fruit of Daucus Carota, or the common wild carrot of Europe and this country, which is designated by the name at the head of this article. The plant is biennial, herbaceous, and um...
-1. Refrigerant Diuretics. I. Bitartrate Of Potassa. Cream of Tartar. Potassae Bitartras. U. S. - Potassa Tartras Acida. Br
Syn. Cream of Tartar. Having been particularly described under the cathartics, this salt requires here no further consideration than in relation to its properties and uses as a diuretic. Judging fr...
-II. Nitrate Of Potassa. Nitre. Potassae Nitras. U. S., Br
Syn. Nitre. It is only as a diuretic that nitre is to be considered in this place, having been treated of, in its other relations, along with the arterial sedatives (II. 83). if taken in small a...
-III. Acetate Of Potassa. Potassae Acetas. U. S., Br. Syn. Sal Diureticus
Preparation Acetate of potassa is prepared by treating bicarbonate of potassa (U. S.) or carbonate of potassa (Br.) with acetic acid more or less diluted, and evaporating the solution either to dry...
-IV. Spirit Of Nitrous Ether. Spiritus aetheris Nitrosi. Sweet Spirit of Nitre. Spiritus Nitri Dulcis. U.S., Br. - Spiritus aetheris Nitrici. U. S. 1850
Syn. Sweet Spirit of Nitre. Spiritus Nitri Dulcis. Preparation This is an alcoholic solution of nitrous (hyponitrous) ether, formerly called nitric ether, which is a compound of nitrous (hyponit...
-2. Stimulating Diuretics
These are characterized by an excitant influence over the general circulation, but more especially by escaping with the urine, and stimulating the whole track of the urinary passages. They are employe...
-I. Turpentine. Terebinthina. U. S
The word turpentine, in its general acceptation, is used to signify an oleo-resinous juice, obtained from different trees belonging to the family of pines, and has been extended so as to embrace juice...
-1. Oil Of Turpentine. - Oleum Terebinthina. U. S., Br
Effects on the Urinary Passages. The oil is to be considered here only in its relations to the urinary organs. When taken in small doses, frequently repeated, it soon shows its tendency, after having ...
-2. Tar. - Pix Liquida. U. S., Br
Preparation Tar is procured by the slow combustion of pine wood, so covered with earth as to admit but a scanty supply of atmospheric air. The heat caused by the burning of a portion of the wood se...
-3. Creasote. - Creasotum. U.S., Br
Preparation Creasote is one of the products of the destructive distillation of wood. it exists, therefore, in smoke, which owes its preservative property to this ingredient, and it enters into the ...
-II. Copaiba. Copaiva Balsam. Dub. U. S., Br
Syn. Copaiva Balsam. Dub. Origin Copaiba is the juice of Copaifera officinalis, G. multijuga, and other species of the same genus, handsome trees, growing in the W. indies, Brazil, Venezuela, an...
-Copaiba. Copaiva Balsam. Dub. U. S., Br. Continued
Its use has been extended to gleet, leucorrhoea, and chronic cystir-rhoea, in all of which it is occasionally serviceable. it may also be employed, like oil of turpentine, in chronic pyelitis, especia...
-III. Buchu. U.S. Bucco. Br
Origin Buchu consists of the leaves of several small shrubs of Southern Africa, belonging to the genus Barosma, of which B. crenata, B. cre-nulata, and B. serratifolia are particularly designated a...
-IV. Pareira Brava. Pareira. U. S., Br
Origin and Properties Pareira brava is supposed to be the root of Gissampelos Pareira, a climbing plant of the West Indies and South America. It is in cylindrical pieces, sometimes branched or contort...
-V. Cantharides. Spanish Flies. Cantharis. U. S., Br
Syn. Spanish Flies. The proper place for considering the subject of cantharides generally, will be among the epispastics. I shall here confine myself to its effects and uses as an internal medicine...
-I. Horse-Radish. - Armoracia. U.S. 1850, Br
Horse-radish is the root of Cochlearia Armoracia, an herbaceous perennial plant, indigenous in Europe, but everywhere cultivated in gardens for culinary purposes. Though formerly recognized in our Pha...
-II. Mustard. - Sinapis. Br. - Sinapis Alba, U. S., White Mustard; Sinapis Nigra, U. S., Black Mustard
Of mustard I shall treat at large with the rubefacients. I have already considered it as emetic and laxative. (See pages 475 and 499.) its general effects on the system are closely analogous to those ...
-III. Garlic- Allium. U.S
This has already been considered as a nervous stimulant. When its oil is absorbed, it passes out by the kidneys, as well as other emunc-tories, and sometimes operates with considerable activity as a d...
-Garlic- Allium. U.S. Continued
if, with the relaxed condition of the capillaries or small blood-vessels just referred to, there be a more rapid current of blood through the vessels, or a greater distension of them, the transpiratio...
-2. Therapeutic Effects
1. Diaphoretics are often useful by relieving the heat and dryness of the surface, which are so common in febrile diseases, whether idiopathic or symptomatic, and which operate injuriously upon the di...
-Heat And Water As Diaphoretics
The reader is already familiar with the effect of heat in promoting perspiration. Why this power should have been given to it, will be rendered obvious by a moment's consideration. Heat above the norm...
-1. Nauseating Diaphoretics
All emetic substances, which have the nauseating property in any considerable degree, are capable of operating as diaphoretics. in the condition of nausea, as explained in the preceding general observ...
-I. Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Tartar Emetic. Antimonii Et Potassae Tartras. U. S. - Antimonium Tartaratum. Br. - Tartarated Antimony
Syn. Tartar Emetic. The mode of preparing this substance, its properties, effects on the system, and therapeutic applications as an arterial sedative, have been already fully considered (ii. 56). I...
-II. Ipecacuanha. U. S., Br
For a general account of ipecacuanha, the reader is referred to the emetics (II. 465). As a diaphoretic it is very seldom given alone, and, when thus given, is not capable of producing any considerabl...
-Powder Of Ipecacuanha And Opium. Compound Powder of Ipecacuanha. Pulvis Ipecacuanhae Et Opii. U.S. 1850. - Pulvis Ipecacuanha Cum Opio. Br
- Pulvis ipecacuanha Compositus. U.S. - Compound Powder of Ipecacuanha. - Dover's Powder. This is made by rubbing together one part of opium, one of ipecacuanha, and eight of sulphate of potassa. T...
-2. Refrigerant Diaphoretics
In addition to their diaphoretic powers, these medicines are sedative or refrigerant in their influence on the system. Most of the alkaline salts, capable of absorption, have more or less of these pro...
-I. Citrate Of Potassa. Potassae Citras. U.S., Br
Preparation and Properties. This salt is prepared by saturating a solution of citric acid with bicarbonate of potassa, and evaporating to dryness. The bicarbonate of potassa is preferred to the carbon...
-1. Solution Of Citrate Of Potassa, Ok Neutral Mixture. - Liquor Potassae Citratis. U. 8. - Mistura Potassa Citratis. U. S
This is prepared by saturating fresh lemon-juice with carbonate or bicarbonate of potassa. Four fluidounces of the juice are a convenient quantity. The salt is to be slowly added until effervescence c...
-2. Effervescing Draught. - Liquor Potassae Citratis Effervescens
This is by far the most agreeable method of exhibiting citrate of potassa, and is particularly adapted to cases in which the stomach is irritable. independently of its diaphoretic and refrigerant prop...
-II: Solution Of Acetate Of Ammonia. Spirit of Mindererus. Spiritus Mindereri. Liquor Ammoniae Acetatis. U. S., Br
Syn. Spirit of Mindererus. Spiritus Mindereri. Preparation This solution is prepared by saturating diluted acetic acid with carbonate of ammonia. The latter is gradually added to the former, unt...
-III. Nitrate Of Potassa. Nitre. Potassae Nitras. U. S., Br
Syn. Nitre. This has already been considered among the arterial sedatives, and diuretics (II. 83 and 619). it certainly has, under ordinary circumstances, a much greater tendency to act on the kidn...
-IV. Spirit Of Nitrous Ether. Spiritus aetheris Nitrosi. U. S., Br. - Spiritus aetheris. Nitrici. U. S. 1850
Syn. Sweet Spirit of Nitre. Spiritus Nitri Dulcis. This preparation has been treated of among the diuretics (II. 622), with which, probably, like the preceding medicine, it has a greater affinity t...
-3. The Stimulant Diaphoretics
Medical writers have generally treated of various substances as stimulating diaphoretics, which, though they undoubtedly will occasionally promote the perspiratory function, when aided by warm dilutio...
-Asclepias. U. S. - Pleurisy Root. - Butterfly-Weed
The Asclepias tuberosa is a herbaceous, perennial plant, growing in most parts of the United States east of the Mississippi, and conspicuous in the summer by its large clusters of beautiful orange-red...
-Class V. Expectorants
These are medicines which cause or facilitate the discharge of secreted liquids from the lungs, including the larynx, trachea, bronchia, and pulmonary air-vesicles. They operate in several distinct me...
-1. Modes Of Operation
1. There are medicines which appear to have the property of directly stimulating the true bronchial secretion, by contact with the secreting structure, to which they are brought with the blood, having...
-3. Administration Of Expectorants
Under this head very little remains to be stated. An important rule, it will be remembered, is to graduate the remedy, in relation to its want or possession in various degrees of stimulant power, to t...
-1. Nauseating Or Depressing Expectorants
All emetic substances, with nauseating properties, may be employed as expectorants. I shall content myself with considering specially ipecacuanha and tartar emetic. Lobelia and sanguinaria are used fo...
-II. Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Tartar Emetic. Antimonii Et Potassae Tartras. U. S. - Antimonium. Tartaratum. Br
Syn. Tartar Emetic. For a full account of this antimonial, the reader is referred to page 56 of this volume. As an expectorant, it is on the whole the most efficient belonging to this subdivision. ...
-2. Stimulant Expectorants. I. Squill. Scilla. U. S., Br
For a general account of squill, see page 605 of this volume, where it is described among the diuretics. Though but slightly stimulant to the system at large, it is decidedly so to any part upon which...
-II. Seneka. Senega. Seneka Snakeroot. U. S, Br
Syn. Seneka Snakeroot. Origin Seneka is the root of Polygala Senega, a small, indigenous,.her-baceous perennial, from nine inches to a foot in height, growing in woods in different parts of the ...
-III. Ammoniac. Ammoniacum. U. S., Br
Origin Ammoniac is the concrete juice of an umbelliferous plant, denominated Dorema Ammoniacum, six or seven feet in height, growing in Persia and Afghanistan. All parts of the plant contain a milk...
-IV. Assafetida. Assafoetida. U. S., Br
This has already been fully described under the nervous stimulants (i. 597). Among its important properties is that of stimulating the bronchial secretion, for which it is often and very usefully empl...
-V. Garlic. Allium
This has already been described in reference to its origin, sensible and chemical properties, and effects and uses as a nervous stimulant in the first volume (page 609), and as a diuretic at page 648 ...
-VI. The Balsams
Balsams arc vegetable juices, liquid, semiliquid, or concrete, which are characterized by containing, along with resin and volatile oil, either the cinnamic or benzoic acid. The balsam of Tolu, that o...
-I. Balsam Of Tolu. - Balsamum Tolutanum. U.S.,Br
Origin This is obtained from Myrospermum Toluiferum, a large tree growing in the northern region of South America, especially in the vicinity of Tolu, in New Granada, sixty or seventy miles south o...
-II. Balsam Of Peru. - Balsamum Peruvianum. U.S., Br
Origin The balsam of Peru is obtained from a species of Myro-spermum, for which the name of Myrospermum Poreirae has been proposed, in honour of the late Dr. Pereira. This is a large tree growing i...
-III. Benzoin. - Benzoinum. U.S., Br
Benzoin is the concrete juice of Styrax Benzoin, a stately tree, growing in Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Siam, and other parts of the East Indies. It is obtained by wounding the bark, and collecting the jui...
-Benzoic Acid - Acidum Benzoicum. U.S., Br
Preparation Benzoic acid is by both Pharmacopoeias directed to be procured by sublimation. it is the odorous product obtained in this way that is intended, and not the chemically pure benzoic acid,...
-IV. Storax. - Styrax. U.S. - Styrax Praeparatus.Br
Until quite recently, storax has generally been supposed to be the juice of Styrax officinale, a small tree, indigenous in Syria and other parts of the Levant, and naturalized in the South of Europe; ...
-VII. Copaiba And The Turpentines
I place these together, because, so far as concerns their operation on the air-passages of the lungs, they are almost identical in their effects. Elsewhere it has been stated that these substances are...
-1. Tar. - Pix Liquida
This is sometimes, though rarely, administered in substance, in the form either of pill, or of electuary made with sugar. The dose is the same as that of the turpentines. But the form in which tar is ...
-2. Creasote. - Creasotum
Creasote has properties, so far as regards the chest, very similar to those of the turpentines, and may be tried under similar circumstances. The dose is from one to three drops, which may be repeated...
-3. Resin. - Resina
This is the residue left after the evaporation of the volatile oil from common white turpentine. When resin is burned, it emits copious visible fumes, which may be breathed with impunity, and sometime...
-Class VI. Cholagogues
These are medicines which increase the flow of bile. In this broadest acceptation of the term, it does not necessarily follow that they increase the secretion; for, as bile collects normally in the ga...
-Cholagogues. Part 2
It follows, from what has been said above, that we are to treat here as cholagogues only substances which are known to increase the secretion of bile, as measured by the augmented quantity of the colo...
-Cholagogues. Part 3
Nitromuriatic Acid is probably next to the mercurials, in Cholagogue power, of all the medicines which operate by a special influence on the secretory function. The same remark, as to the greater Chol...
-Class VII. Emmenagogues
These are medicines which have the special property of promoting the menstrual discharge. Difference of opinion has existed in regard to the nature of this evacuation, whether it is to be considered a...
-1. Tonic Emmenagogues. I. Iron. Ferrum
The preparations of iron are, I believe, among the most effective em-menagogues. They were employed in this capacity at the earliest period of medical history, and have enjoyed a scarcely interrupted ...
-II. Myrrh. Myrrha. U. S., Br
Myrrh has been fully described among the tonics. (See vol. i. p. 304.) Though I confess that I cannot bear a strong personal testimony to the emmenagogue properties of this medicine; yet the general m...
-III. Tansy. Tanacetum. U.S
This is much more employed in domestic than in regular medical practice. The extent to which it has been long used, and continues to be used in families, with a view to its effects upon the uterine fu...
-2. Purgative Emmenagogues
Most of the drastic purgatives sometimes prove emmenagogue, through their irritant action upon the lower bowels, extended probably by sympathy to the uterine system. But there are two cathartics to wh...
-I. Aloes. Aloe
For a particular account of aloes as a purgative, see volume II. page 523. That this medicine has a powerful influence in promoting menstruation, we have sufficient proof in the united testimony of ag...
-II. Black Hellebore. Helleborus. U.S
This, or an analogous species of Helleborus, was employed as an emmenagogue in the earliest times. Among the moderns, its reputation in this capacity is due mainly to Dr. Mead, who strongly recommende...
-3. Stimulant Diuretic Emmenagogues. Cantharides. Cantharis. U. S., Br
In relation to its effects on the system, when internally administered, and its special tendency to the urinary and genital organs, this medicine has already been treated of, among the stimulant diure...
-4. Special Emmenagogues
I by no means feel confident that the following medicines all deserve the title here given them. But they have more or less reputation as direct emmenagogues, and some of them are much used, under thi...
-I. Savine. Sabina. U. S., Br
Origin Savine consists of the tops of Juniperus Sabina, an evergreen shrub, from three to fifteen feet high, indigenous in the South of Europe, and, in the character of its foliage, bearing a close...
-II. Rue. Ruta. U. S
Origin This consists of the leaves of Ruta graveolens, or common rue, an undershrub, two or three feet high, indigenous in the South of Europe, but now generally cultivated in gardens. Propertie...
-I. Seneka. - Senega. U. S., Br
This has been treated of among the expectorants. (See page 619.) It is there stated that it is somewhat stimulating to the secretory functions generally. With other more special tendencies, it has bee...
-II. Guaiac. - Guaiaci Resina. U.S., Br. - Guaiacum. Lond.,Ed
This has already been treated of among the alteratives. (See vol. II. p. 437.) With its influence on the secretions generally, guaiac was believed, by the late Dr. Dewees, to combine a peculiar influe...
-Class VIII. Uterine Motor-Stimulants. Oxytocics
These are medicines which have the special property of promoting uterine contraction. I object to the terms abortives (abortiva) and ecbolica (ecbolica), implying the power of producing abortion, as s...
-I. Ergot. Ergota. U. S., Br. Syn. Spurred Bye. Secale Cornutum
Origin Ergot is the diseased seed of Secale cereale or common rye, irritated into morbid growth by the existence in and about its germ of a microscopic fungus, which is developed along with it, and...
-Ergot. Ergota. U. S., Br. Syn. Spurred Bye. Secale Cornutum. Continued
Dry gangrene seems to have been traced to the habitual use of ergot, without any reasonable possibility of doubt. it has occurred in individual cases, and in communities where ergotted rye has been la...
-3. Effects And Use Of Ergot As A Motor-Stimulant
I have hitherto said little on this subject, because it seems to be isolated by its nature, and the remarks upon it come most conveniently under a separate head. Ergot has been long used, in various p...
-4. Therapeutic Applications Independently Of Uterine Contraction
The successful use of ergot in hemorrhage from the uterus led to its employment in the same affection of other organs. it has accordingly been used in haemoptysis, hematuria, epistaxis, etc., and in m...
-1. Extract Of Hemp. - Extractum Cannabis. U. S. - Extractum Cannabis Indicae. Br
if the reader will recur to pages 714 and 715 of the first volume, he will find that, according to Sir J. Y. Simpson and Dr. Alexander Christi-son, of Edinburgh, the extract of hemp possesses an extra...
-2. Tansy. - Tanacetum. U.S
This has been already noticed both among the tonics and emmen-agogues (i. 311 and ii. 101). Without having any personal knowledge of the powers of tansy, in the relation in which it is here considered...
-3. Root Of The Cotton Plant. - Gossypii Radix. U.S
This is the root of Gossypium herbaceum, or the common cotton plant of our Southern States. it is said to be much employed by the slaves of the South for producing abortion, and Dr. Bouchelle, of Miss...
-Class IX. Sialagogues
Sialagogues are medicines which increase the secretion of saliva, and of the mucus of the mouth and fauces. There are two divisions of them; one operating through the system, the other by direct conta...
-Pellitory. - Pyrethrum. U.S
This is the root of Anacyclus Pyrethrum {Anthemis Pyrethrum, Linn.), a small, herbaceous, perennial plant, growing in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. The medicine is sometimes called, fr...
-Class X. Errhines
These are medicines calculated to produce an increased secretion from the mucous membrane of the nostrils. As all of them are apt to cause sneezing, they are also called sternutatories. No medicines a...
-Chapter II. Local Remedies Affecting The Organization
These act by inflaming or destroying the part affected. They are all external remedies. Medicines may sometimes cause inflammation, or even gangrene, when taken internally; but they are not given for ...
-Class I. Epispastics
These are sometimes called vesicatories, and not unfrequently, by an elliptical mode of expression, blisters. They are characterized by the special property of blistering; that is, of producing an ext...
-Epispastics. Continued
a. Of the nervous irritations in which they may be usefully employed we have examples in internal neuralgia, and spasm of internal organs, as of the stomach, bowels, gall-ducts, bronchial tubes, and l...
-Heat As A Vesicating Agent
For this purpose, heat is usually employed in the form of boiling-hot water. This has the recommendation of acting with great rapidity. Rubefaction is speedily produced, followed almost immediately by...
-I. Cantharides. Spanish Flies. Cantharis. U. S., Br
Syn. Spanish Flies. Origin The Spanish Fly, or Cantharis vesicatoria, is a coleopterous insect, inhabiting the southern and middle portions of Europe, and abundant in Spain, Italy, Sicily, the S...
-1. Cerate Of Cantharides. - Ceratum Cantharidis. U. S
- Emplastrum Cantharidis. Br. - Emplastrum Epispasticum. - Blistering Plaster. Preparation Though commonly designated as a plaster, and so designated in the British Pharmacopoeia, this preparati...
-Cerate Of Cantharides. - Ceratum Cantharidis. U. S. Part 2
Effects of the Cerate. For a short time after the application, no perceptible effect is produced. Soon, however, a slight sense of warmth and perhaps of tingling is experienced, which is probably coin...
-Cerate Of Cantharides. - Ceratum Cantharidis. U. S. Part 3
When the cerate is withdrawn, the subsequent treatment depends on the object aimed at. if the intention be that the blister shall heal as quickly as possible, the cuticle should be cut in the most dep...
-2. Cantharidal Collodion. - Collodium Cum Cantharide, U.S. - Collodion With Cantharides
This was adopted at the late revision of the XL S. Pharmacopoeia. it is an excellent vesicating preparation, and now much employed as a substitute for the cerate. it consists essentially of mixed ethe...
-3. Plaster Op Pitch With Spanish Flies. - Emplas-Trum Picis Cum Cantharide. U.S. - Emplastrum Calefaciens. Br. - Warming Plaster
This is a preparation of the cerate of cantharides just treated of, made, according to our national code, by melting together one part of the cerate and twelve parts of Burgundy pitch. It is intend...
-4. Ointment Of Cantharides - Unguentum Cantharidis. U. S. 1850, Br. - Ointment Of Spanish Flies
This was formerly prepared by incorporating a concentrated decoction of cantharides with melted resin cerate, or basilicon ointment. The British Pharmacopoeia now prepares it by exhausting cantharides...
-5. Liniment Of Cantharides. - Linimentum Cantharidis. U.S., Br
According to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, this is made by digesting cantharides in oil of turpentine. it is a powerfully stimulating and also vesicating lotion, which was first prepared by the late Dr. Jo...
-6. Tincture Of Cantharides. - Tinctura Cantharidis. U.S., Br
The U. S. preparation contains the virtues of a troyounce of the flies in two pints of diluted alcohol. The British tincture is much weaker. This preparation is chiefly employed internally. (See vol. ...
-II. Stronger Water Of Ammonia
Aqua Ammoniae Fortior. U. S. - Liquor Ammonio Fortior. U. S. 1850, Br. Preparation and Properties. This is prepared by receiving gaseous ammonia in water, until it becomes nearly saturated. As d...
-Class II. Rubefacients
Rubefacients are characterized by producing inflammation of the skin, without vesication. Though most of the more active substances belonging to the class will blister, if allowed to remain long in co...
-1. Heat As A Rubefacient
Heat applied to the skin, in the modes treated of under diffusible stimulation (i. 490), cannot be regarded as rubefacient. it acts on the whole system directly, by means of the blood, which conveys e...
-2. Electricity As A Rubefacient
Few agents are more speedy or powerful in producing excitement of the skin than electricity in its dynamic forms; and the excitement may be made sensational merely, or inflammatory, according to the m...
-3. Friction As A Rubefacient
This is a most valuable remedy. independently of its effect in restoring the functions of the torpid surface by direct excitation, it operates revulsively With considerable energy. it may be questiona...
-4. Acupuncture
This measure was unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans, but appears to have been in use from time immemorial in China and Japan, whence it was introduced into Europe. Though noticed so early as 168...
-I. Mustard. Sinapis
White Mustard Sinapis Alba. U. S. - Sinapis. Br. Black Mustard. - Sinapis Nigra. U. S. - Sinapis. Br. Origin Under these titles are included the two species of Sinapis, the Sinapis nigra and ...
-Mustard. Sinapis. Continued
If, however, the application is continued too long, the cuticle separates, and an imperfect vesication takes place, which leaves behind a denuded and most painful surface, indisposed to heal kindly, a...
-II. Cayenne Pepper. Capsicum. U. S., Br
Cayenne pepper has been treated of so fully among the arterial stimulants (i. 548), that nothing is now required but a few observations upon its rubefacient properties and uses. Applied to the surf...
-III. Terebinthinate Substances
A considerable number of substances, of a terebinthinate character, are used as external irritants or alteratives, which can be considered in no place more conveniently than the present. They have all...
-I. Oil Of Turpentine. - Oleum Terebinthina. U.S., Br
This is an excellent rubefacient, acting rapidly and efficiently on the skin, especially when applied hot. There is, however, extraordinary difference of susceptibility, in different individuals, to t...
-II. Burgundy Pitch. - Pix Burgundica. U.S., Br
Origin This is the product of at least two different species of Abies, the Abies excelsa or Norway spruce, and Abies picea or European silver fir; both lofty and beautiful trees, growing in the mid...
-III. Canada Pitch. - Pix Canadensis. U.S. - Hemlock Pitch. - Hemlock Gum
Origin This is obtained from Abies Canadensis, or the common hemlock spruce of this country, inhabiting the British Provinces, our own Northern States, and the hilly regions of the interior further...
-IV. Tar. - Pix Liquida. U.S., Br
Of this I have already treated in reference to its origin, properties, effects when internally administered, and those of its vapour when inhaled. (See pages 630 and 694.) Applied to the skin, it is s...
-V. Creasote. - Creasotum. U.S., Br
This is probably more valuable as an external than as an internal remedy. in the latter capacity, it has been considered among the stimulant diuretics (II. 632). it depends for its topical efficiency ...
-VI. Resin. - Resina. U.S.,Br
Origin and Properties This is the substance left after the distillation of the volatile oil from turpentine. it is commonly called rosin in this country, and colophony in Europe. There are two vari...
-Resin Cerate. - Ceratum Resinae. U. S. - Unguentum Resinae. Br
- Basilicon Ointment This consists of resin, lard, and yellow wax melted together. Whatever positive dynamic effects it produces, if made of pure materials, may be ascribed to the resin. it is slig...
-IV. Ammoniacal Rubefacients. I. Water Of Ammonia. - Aqua Ammoniae. U.S. - Liquor Ammoniae. Br., U. S. 1850. - Solution Of Ammonia
This is prepared by receiving into a certain measure of water, contained in a bottle, the gaseous ammonia proceeding from a mixture of fixed quantities of muriate of ammonia and lime, exposed to heat....
-II. Compound Liniment Of Ammonia. - Linimentum Ammonio Compositum. Ed
This is a former officinal of the Edinburgh College, intended to afford the means of obtaining, at pleasure, a powerful rubefactive, vesicatory, or even caustic effect from ammonia, or a mild rubefact...
-III. Carbonate Of Ammonia. Ammoniae Carbonas
This has been already treated of, in reference to its effects on the system generally (i. 561). As a rubefacient it has considerable energy, and is sometimes though rarely employed; the liquid prepara...
-2. Pustulating Rubefacients. I. Tartrate Of Antimony And Potassa. Antimonii Et Potassae Tartras. U. S
Antimonium if the application now cease, the vesicles dry up, and, in the large pustules, the central crust gradually extends till it covers the whole surface, and at length falls off, leaving the ski...
-II. Croton Oil. Oleum Tiglii. U. S. - Oleum Crotonis.Br
For an account of the source, properties, composition, and cathartic effects of croton oil, see page 587. We are here to consider it as an external remedy. Local Effects When croton oil is rubbe...
-Class III. Escharotics
These are agents which, applied to any portion of the body, destroy the life of the part with which they are in contact, and produce a slough. They operate either dynamically, by an influence direc...
-Heat As An Escharotics
Heat, in a certain degree of intensity and duration, destroys the life of the part on which it acts. When it produces this effect directly, as it almost always does, it operates by altering the chemic...
-1. The Actual Cautery
This term is applied to a metallic body, heated sufficiently to enable it to destroy the life of the part with which it may be brought into contact. iron or steel is usually employed. The metallic ins...
-2. Moxa
This name is given to small bodies composed of very combustible matter, which are burned in contact with the skin. The remedy has been in use from time immemorial in China and Japan, whence it was car...
-3. Electrical Or Galvanic Cauterization"
The continued current from a galvanic pile or battery, with large plates, is capable of producing a high degree of heat more rapidly, perhaps, than any other agency; bringing, for example, a platinum ...
-I. Potassa. U. S. Potassa Caustica. Common Caustic. Caustic Potassa. Br. - Potassa Hydras. Lond. - Hydrate Of Potassa
Syn. Common Caustic. Caustic Potassa. Preparation and Properties. For use as an escharotic, potassa is prepared by evaporating the officinal Solution of Potassa (Liquor Potassae, U. S., Br.) until ...
-Potassa With Lime. - Potassa Cum Calce. U. S., Lond., Ed
- Potassa Caustica cum Calce. Dub. - Weaker Common Caustic. - Vienna Caustic. Though formerly recognized by all the British Colleges, this has been omitted in the existing British Pharmacopoeia. it...
-II. Fused Nitrate Of Silver. Lunar Caustic. Argenti Nitras Fusa. U. S. - Argenti Nitras. Br
Syn. Lunar Caustic. Preparations and Properties. Nitrate of silver, for escharotic purposes, is prepared simply by melting the dry nitrate (i. 390) in a crucible, continuing the heat till ebullitio...
-Fused Nitrate Of Silver. Lunar Caustic. Part 2
2. As a Caustic, Alterative, etc., jointly. The number of affections in which nitrate of silver is employed, with these complex objects, is very large. They are, however, generally ulcerous in their c...
-Fused Nitrate Of Silver. Lunar Caustic. Part 3
The following are some of the special applications of the remedy. In pseudomembranous inflammation of the mouth and fauces, it is almost a specific, so far as the local disease is concerned. Even i...
-Fused Nitrate Of Silver. Lunar Caustic. Part 4
When injected into one of the cavities, a silver or glass syringe should be preferred. For application to an ulcer on the cornea, I have usually employed a fine-pointed camel's-hair pencil, which is f...
-III. Sulphate Of Copper. Cupri Sulphas. U. S., Br. Syn. Blue Vitriol
Sulphate of copper has been so fully treated of among the tonics (i. 406), and emetics (ii. 481), that we have here to consider it only as an external remedy. Locally applied, it is stimulant, astring...
-IV. Arsenious Acid. White Arsenic. White Oxide of Arsenic. Acidum Arseniosum. U.S., Br. - Arsenicum Album. Ed
Syn. White Arsenic. White Oxide of Arsenic. Effects. For a general account of arsenic, including arsenious acid, see pages 318 and 335 of the present volume. As an escharotic, it is somewhat peculi...
-V. Chloride Of Zinc. Zinci Chloridum. U. S., Br
Preparation Chloride of zinc is best prepared by dissolving zinc in muriatic acid, filtering the solution, evaporating it to dryness, melting the residue in a crucible, and pouring the liquid upon ...
-VI. Sulphate Of Zinc. Zinci Sulphas. U. S., Br
This has been already treated of in reference to all other uses, except simply those of an escharotic. (See vol. i. page 412, and II. 480.) in the latter capacity, attention has been called to it by P...
-VII. Corrosive Chloride Of Mercury. Corrosive Sublimate. Bichloride of Mercury. Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum. U. S. - Hydrargyrum Corrosivum Sublimatum. Br. - Hydrargyri Bichloridum
Lond Bichloride of Mercury. Syn. Corrosive Sublimate. This has been described among the preparations of mercury (ii. 307). Locally, it is irritant, and, in a concentrated state, moderately ca...
-VIII. Solution Of Nitrate Of Mercury. Liquor Hydrargyri Nitratis. U. S. - Liquor Hydrargyri Nitratis Acidus. Br. - Acid Solution Of Nitrate Of Mercury. - Solution Of Pernitrate Of Mercury
This is prepared, according to the directions of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, by dissolving three troyounces of mercury in five troyounces of nitric acid, diluted with six fluidrachms of distilled water, ...
-IX. Cadmium. Cadmium. U. S
This metal first became officinal in the present edition of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, having been introduced into the primary catalogue of that work, as the source of sulphate of cadmium. Cadmium is a ...
-I. Sulphate Of Cadmium.- Cadmii Sulphas. U.S
This is prepared by first forming a nitrate by the direct action of nitric acid on the metal; obtaining from this, by double decomposition with carbonate of soda, the insoluble carbonate of cadmium, w...
-II. Iodide Of Cadmium
This may be made by the direct union of its constituents, iodine and cadmium. it is a white or colourless crystallizable compound, and soluble in water and in alcohol. it has been used externally by D...
-X. Dried Alum. Alumen Exsiccatum. U. S., Br. Syn. Burnt Alum. Alumen Ustum
This is prepared by exposing crystallized alum (i. 136) to a moderate beat, until the water of crystallization is driven off, and then rubbing it to powder. it is necessary not to urge the heat too fa...
-XI. The Mineral Acids
Though differing much in power, most of these acids act in a similar manner as escharotics. They rapidly destroy the cuticle, and then act with great energy on the parts beneath, decomposing them thro...
-I. Sulphuric Acid. - Acidum Sulphuricum
The concentrated acid acts with vast energy as an escharotic. in its first operation, it whitens the parts by forming a compound with the albumen, but in the progress of its action blackens them, prob...
-II. Nitric Acid. - Acidum Nltricum
This is also powerfully escharotic, though less so than the sulphuric acid. It stains the cuticle yellow before destroying it, and imparts the same hue to other tissues. It operates no doubt in some m...
-III. Muriatic Acid. - Acidum Muriaticum
Muriatic acid is an energetic caustic, but les9 so than either of the preceding, as its chemical reactions with the tissues are not so powerful. It has been used to denude the cuticle, and as an appli...
-IV. Chromic Acid. - Acidum Chromicum. U.S
This has been introduced into notice by Mr. Marshall, of London, as an excellent application to warts on the genital organs, whether of syphilitic origin, or from other causes. It may also be used for...
-Chapter III. Local Remedies Acting Mechanically
These may be distributed into the four classes of diluents, demulcents, emollients, and Protectives. Compressing agents might be added; as also the measures employed to regulate position; but it is th...
-Class I. Diluents
These are drinks which simply dilute the various liquids of the body, without dynamically modifying its condition or functions. Water is really the only diluent; for, however it may be qualified in re...
-Class II. Demulcents
These are substances of a bland unirritating character, soluble in water, and capable of imparting to that fluid more or less viscidity or adhesiveness. They generally consist of gummy, saccharine, or...
-1. Mucilaginous Substances
By the term mucilage is here meant a solution, or an apparently liquid state of gummy matter. There are two sets of substances belonging to this category; one, those in which the gummy matter has been...
-I. Gum Arabic. - Acacia. U.S.,Br. - Gummi Acaclae.Ed
Origin This is the concrete exuded juice of different species of Acacia, thorny shrubs or trees, growing in various parts of Africa and Arabia. Acacia vera and A. Arabica have been usually consider...
-II. Gum Mesquite
Under this name, a product was a few years since introduced to the notice of the public, which promises, at some future time, to become an important article of commerce, and a useful medicine. it was ...
-III. Tragacanth. - Tragacantha. U.S., Br
This is a concrete exudation from Astragalus verus, and perhaps other species of Astragalus, small prickly shrubs, growing in Anatolia, in Asia Minor, where the drug is collected. It is in pieces o...
-IV. Flaxseed. - Linum. U.S. - Lini Semen. Br
It is scarcely necessary to state that this is the product of the common fax plant, or Linum usitatissimum. The appearance of the seeds is too well known to require description. I shall content myself...
-V. Quince Seed. - Cydonium. U.S
The fruit of Cydonia vulgaris, or the common quince tree, yields seeds, the coriaceous envelope of which abounds in mucilage, which they yield with great facility to boiling water. When the infusion i...
-VI. Slippery Elm Bark. - Ulmus Fulva. U.S
Origin and Properties This is the inner bark of Ulmus fulva, the slippery elm or red elm of this country, a large and handsome tree, growing throughout the Middle and Northern States. The bark is u...
-VII. Sassafras Pith. - Sassafras Medulla. U.S
Origin and Properties This is the pith of the small terminal branches of our indigenous Sassafras officinale, or common sassafras tree. it is in very slender cylindrical pieces, of various lengths,...
-VIII. Benne Leaf. - Sesami Folium. U.S
Origin and Properties This consists of the leaves of Sesamum indi-cum, and possibly of Sesamum orientate, annual plants, natives of the E. indies and probably of Africa, and cultivated to a conside...
-IX. Marshmallow. - Althaea. U.S
The marshmallow, Althaea officinalis, is an herbaceous perennial plant, growing in low grounds, and on the borders of salt marshes, in Europe and the United States. The U.S. Pharmacopoeia of 1850 reco...
-2. Saccharine Demulcents
In employing the term saccharine here, I consider it simply as implying sweetness, in connection with substances of vegetable origin, without reference to the property of undergoing the vinous ferment...
-I. Sugar. - Saccharum. U. S. - Saccharum Album. Br
By the term sugar, is here meant the ordinary refined sugar, or loaf sugar of the table, which requires no description. it is dissolved in half its weight of cold, and in all proportions of hot water;...
-II. Molasses. - Syrupus Fuscus. U. S. - Theriaca. Br
In relation to the two forms of molasses, and their laxative effects, see page 501. I allude to it here, merely to say, that, like sugar, from which it differs not only by its impurities, but in being...
-III. Liquorice Root. - Glycyrrhiza. U.S., Br
Origin and Properties Glycyrrhiza glabra, which is officinally recognized as the source of this root, is an herbaceous perennial, inhabiting the South of Europe, and in general the countries border...
-IV. Glycerin. - Glycerina. U. S. - Glycerinhm. Br
Origin In the process of saponification, when a fixed oil and salifiable base react together, the oil is resolved into certain fatty acids, which combine with the base to form soaps, and into a sub...
-3. Amylaceous Demulcents
The substances belonging to this division are less demulcent than the preceding; but are occasionally used for this effect, and very much for nutritive purposes. They require attention, therefore; and...
-I. Wheat Starch. - Amylum. U.S., Br
The reader is referred to the U. S. Dispensatory for an account of the mode of preparing this substance, and of its peculiar sensible and chemical properties. in decoction, it is used chiefly as a veh...
-II. Arrow-Root. - Maranta. U.S., Lond., Ed. - Maranta Arundinacea. Dub
Origin and Properties Though formerly recognized by all the British Colleges, this has been omitted in the British Pharmacopoeia of 1864. it is obtained from the root or rhizome of Maranta arundina...
-III. Sago. U. S., Lond., Ed., Bub
Origin and Properties Like the preceding, this has been omitted in the British Pharmacopoeia. Sago is prepared from the pith of the stem of an East India palm, called Sagus Rumphii, and probably ot...
-IV. Tapioca. U. S., Ed., Dub
Origin and Properties The British Pharmacopoeia has omitted this with the two preceding articles. it is the product of Janipha Manihot, the mandioca or cassava plant, a shrubby plant, indigenous in...
-V. Pearl Barley. - Hordeum. U. S., Br
Origin and Properties Pearl barley consists of the grains of common barley, or fruit of Hordeum vulgare and H. distichon, deprived of their exterior coating, and smoothed and polished in a mill. Th...
-VI. Iceland Moss. - Cetraria. U. S., Br. - Lichen Is-Landicus. Dub
Origin and Properties Cetraria Islandica, or Iceland moss, is a small plant, from two to four inches high, growing in the northern regions of Asia, Europe, and America, and abundant in some parts o...
-VII. Irish Moss Or Carrageen. - Chondrus. U.S
Origin and Properties This is the Chondrus crispus (Fucus crispus, Linn.), which grows on rocks and stones on the sea coasts of Europe, and in peculiar abundance on the Atlantic shore of Ireland, w...
-VIII. Sweet Almonds. - Amygdala Dulcis. U.S. - Amygdala. Br
These are too well known to require description. I introduce them here, as an excellent demulcent, well calculated for pectoral and bowel affections, in which this class of medicines is indicated. Tho...
-IX. Wheat Bran. - Tritici Furfur
Bran contains a little starch, albumen, and probably gum, which it yields to water, forming a mucilaginous infusion, which may be advantageously used for general baths, in cutaneous affections. I have...
-Class III. Emollients
Emollients, as here considered, are substances capable of forming a soft, slightly adhesive mass, perfectly bland and unirritating, which, when applied to the skin, has the effect of softening and rel...
-Emollients. Continued
But these emollient cataplasms may be continued too long. They should always be discontinued, when the sedative effect becomes the prominent evil; and sometimes, in such cases, a stimulant application...
-Class IV. Protectives
This name I give to remedies which, applied to a diseased surface, protect it from the contact of the air, and of irritant agents generally. I do not insist upon the name, but know no other word in ou...
-1. Direct Protectives
This division includes all substances, themselves inert, which are employed to cover exposed surfaces, so as to guard them against irritating agents. it is obvious that they must be themselves wholly ...
-I. Oleaginous Substances
Under this head, I include both liquid oils and fats, together with wax, as of closely analogous nature. Of the origin, preparation, and physical and chemical properties of these bodies, I shall say l...
-1. Olive Oil. - Oleum Olivae. U. S., Br. Oil Of Sweet Almond. - Oleum Amygdala Dulcis. U. S. - Oleum Amygdalae. Br
These oils, of which the former is procured by expression from olives, the latter in the same manner from sweet almonds, may be considered, in their protective capacity, as identical in their properti...
-2. Lard. - Adeps. U. S. - Adeps Praeparatus. Br. - Axungia. Ed., Dub
This is the prepared fat of the hog. When used as a protective, it should contain no common salt, and must be perfectly free from ran-cidity. it need scarcely be stated that lard taken internally is h...
-3. Suet. - Sevum. U. S. - Sevum Praeparatum. Br
Suet is the prepared fat of the sheep. it has the same properties as lard, from which it differs mainly in being of a firmer consistence. The only objection to its use is its liability to become ranci...
-4. Spermaceti. - Cetaceum. U.S., Br
This is obtained from the fat in the head of the spermaceti whale. For use in medicine it should be of the finest quality, white, pearly, translucent, without unpleasant odour, and quite destitute of ...
-5. Yellow Wax. - Cera Flava. U. S., Br. White Wax. - Cera Alba. U S., Br
These are varieties of beeswax (cera); the yellow being the crude wax as prepared from the comb; the white, the same purified by a bleaching process, which deprives it of colouring and odorous matter....
-II. Plasters. Emplastra
Plasters are in themselves essentially protective; and, though very often purposely medicated in such a way as to irritate or inflame, or with a view to a general impression on the system through abso...
-III. Collodion. Collodium. U. S., Br
This name has been given to a solution of gun cotton in ether, which was brought to the notice of the profession, in the year 1841, by Dr. J. P. Maynard, then a student of medicine in Boston. For the ...
-2. Indirect Protectives
These operate, in the sound state of the skin, by so altering the epidermis as probably to render it impermeable to the air, and prevent the influence of oxygen on the parts beneath. Applied to the mu...
-I. Nitrate Of Silver. Argenti Nitras
This, I believe, operates as an antiphlogistic remedy most efficiently through the protection it affords to the subjacent tissue. The cuticle, blackened under its operation, loses the peculiar organiz...
-II. Iodine. Iodinium
This is another agent which has proved very efficacious in numerous superficial disorders, of a nature to be benefited through the protective agency. The tincture of iodine is the preparation usually ...
-III. Creasote. Creasotum
This is another of the remedies that operate indirectly on the protective principle. Though a powerful irritant itself, it often proves useful in ulcerative affections. When applied undiluted to a sur...
-Division II. Non-Systemic Remedies
These are remedies acting, not essentially and directly on the functions or organs, but on some extraneous body or bodies incidentally present in the system, and operating injuriously upon it. The div...
-Class I. Antacids
These are medicines which correct acidity in whatever part of the body they may encounter it. it must be recollected, however, that, in some parts of the system, the presence of a certain proportion o...
-3. Effects And Uses Of Alkalies As Dynamic Agents
1. Effects. Hitherto I have been treating of alkaline substance-merely as antacids. When themselves in excess, they become real dynamic agents, producing important modifications in the condition of th...
-I. Potassa And Its Carbonates. I. Solution Of Potassa. - Liquor Potassa. U.S.,Br
- Potassae Aqua. Ed. - Potassae Causticae Liquor. Dub. - Water of Potassa. Preparation and Properties. The officinal solution of potassa is prepared by boiling caustic lime with a solution of bi...
-II. Carbonate Of Potassa. - Potassae Carbonas. U. S., Br. - Salt Of Tartar
Preparation As the carbonate of potassa is kept in the shops, it is usually prepared from pearlash, which is an impure carbonate, obtained from the common potash of commerce by exposing it to the f...
-III. Bicarbonate Of Potassa. - Potassae Blcarbo-Nas. U. S., Br
Preparation This is prepared by passing carbonic acid through a solution of carbonate of potassa until it ceases to be absorbed, then filtering, and evaporating at a temperature not exceeding 160&d...
-II. Preparations Of Soda. I. Carbonate Of Soda. - Sodae Carbonas. U.S., Br
This is now always made, on a large scale, by the manufacturer. Formerly it was prepared from the ashes of sea-weeds, usually called kelp, or from that of plants growing by the sea-side and cultivated...
-II. Bicarbonate Of Soda. - Sodae Blcarbonas. U. S., Br
Preparation Bicarbonate of soda is prepared by exposing the crystals of the carbonate to an atmosphere of carbonic acid, in a close box, under pressure. The carbonic acid is absorbed, and the water...
-III. Borax. Br. - Sodae Boras. U. S. - Borate Of Soda. - Biborate Of Soda
Origin and Composition. Though with two equivalents of acid in its composition, borax has still alkaline properties, and probably owes whatever medical virtues it may possess mainly to the predominanc...
-III. Preparations Of Lithia
There are two officinal salts of the alkali Lithia; one, the carbonate, recognized by both the U. S. and Br. Pharmacopoeias; the other, the citrate, only by the British. As it is only the former of th...
-I. Carbonate Of Lithia. - Lithiae Carbonas. U.S.,Br
Preparation For an account of the sources whence lithia is obtained, and of its characteristic sensible and chemical properties, the reader is referred to the U.S. Dispensatory (12th ed., p. 516). ...
-II. Citrate Of Lithia. - Lithiae Citras. Br
This is a British officinal, prepared from carbonate of lithia by adding it, in successive portions, to a solution of citric acid, and carefully evaporating to dryness. As it is a deliquescent salt, i...
-IV. Preparations Of Ammonia. I. Water Of Ammonia. - Aqua Ammoniae. U.S. - Li-Quor Ammoniae. Br., U.S. 1850. - Solution Of Ammonia
This is a solution of gaseous ammonia in water. it has already been considered in relation to its preparation, properties, and external use (ii. 774). in its general operation, it is an arterial stimu...
-II. Spirit Of Ammonia. - Spiritus Ammoniae. U.S
This differs from the preceding simply in the circumstance, that alcohol is used as the menstruum instead of water. it is prepared in the same manner, and is intended to be of the same ammoniacal stre...
-III. Aromatic Spirit Of Ammonia. - Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus. U. S. ,Br
According to the directions of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, this is prepared by dissolving a troyounce of carbonate of ammonia in three fluidounces of water of ammonia previously diluted with four fluidou...
-IV. Carbonate Of Ammonia. - Ammoniae Carbonas. V. S., Br
This has been so fully treated of among the arterial stimulants, that it is unnecessary to say more, in this place, than that it may be given as a stimulant antacid, under circumstances similar to tho...
-V. Preparations Of Lime. I. Lime-Water. - Liquor Calcis. U. S., Br. - Aqua Calcis. Ed
Preparation and Properties. Lime-water is prepared by first slaking lime with a little water, then pouring upon it, in a large bottle, a convol. ii.-56 venient quantity of water, and shaking occasiona...
-II. Carbonate Of Lime. - Calcis Carbonas
Three forms of carbonate of lime are officinal, all used mainly for antacid purposes. ...
-1. Precipitated Carbonate Of Lime. - Calcis Carbonas Praecipitata. U. S., Br
This is made by mixing heated solutions of chloride of calcium and carbonate of soda. Chloride of sodium forms, remaining in solution; and carbonate of lime is precipitated. A soft white powder is thu...
-2. Prepared Chalk. - Creta Praeparata. U.S., Br
Crude chalk is prepared for use by the processes of levigation and elutriation, by which it is reduced to the state of an impalpable powder. in the pasty state in which it is deposited by the water, i...
-3. Prepared Oyster-Shell. - Testa Praeparata. U. S
This is prepared from oyster-shells, by first cleansing, then powdering, and lastly treating them by the processes of levigation and elutriation, as in the instance of chalk. The preparation is usuall...
-VI. Preparations Of Magnesia
Of these, magnesia itself, its carbonate, and sometimes its bicarbonate in solution, are used as antacids; but they have been already considered so fully that little else remains than simply to indica...
-Class II. Absorbents
These are medicines which, through their cohesive affinity, absorb certain acid, irritant, and poisonous substances which may happen to be present in the alimentary canal; and so hold them attached th...
-Charcoal. Carbo Ligni. U. S., Br. Animal Charcoal. Carbo Animalis. U.S
1. Charcoal. This is prepared by exposing wood, protected from the air, to a decomposing heat, by which the volatilizable matters are driven on0, and the carbon with a small proportion of saline and o...
-Class III. Solvents
These are substances taken internally with the view, through their chemical agency, of promoting the solution of indigestible food in the stomach. it is now, I believe, universally admitted that a flu...
-I. Gastric Juice. Rennet. Pepsin
These are the three forms of matter through which the fermentative agency, referred to in the preceding general observations, is remedially exercised. I shall consider each of them separately. I. G...
-II. Lactic Acid. Acidum Lacticum. U. S
During the fermentation of milk a large proportion of a peculiar acid is generated, which from this circumstance has received the name of lactic acid. This is separated by treating sour whey with lime...
-III. Yeast. Fermentum. U. S. - Cerevisiae Fermentum. Br
This is the flocculent, frothy, semiliquid substance, generated during the fermentation of saccharine liquids. For use it is obtained chiefly from brewers, being largely produced in the preparation of...
-Class IV. Disinfectants
In the amplest sense of the term, Disinfectants embrace all agencies which are available for the destruction or prevention of offensive or noxious effluvia, and other influences injurious to health, w...
-I. Agents Operating Mechanically
Of these the most important is probably cleanliness. To remove entirely from the sphere of injurious operation all the decomposing organic substances which serve as the source of noxious or offensive ...
-II. Agents Operating Chemically
These operate either by oxidizing, deoxidizing, or neutralizing by combination, and may be arranged in three categories upon this basis. ...
-1. Oxidizing Disinfectants
The oxidizing disinfectants destroy the offensive or noxious products of organic decomposition, in the same way as all organic substances are destroyed by fire. They actually burn them up; simply the ...
-I. Ozone
Discovery. This remarkable, I might almost say, mysterious principle is probably the most effective of all disinfectants, and, so far as concerns the mere destruction of noxious effluvia, might supers...
-Ozone. Part 2
The slow combustion of phosphorus and the vapour of ether produces it; and the same result takes place when oil of turpentine, in a partially filled bottle, is exposed to the direct rays of the sun. i...
-Ozone. Part 3
Tests of Ozone. Several tests of ozone have been contrived; but the one most employed consists of strips of unsized paper, impregnated with mucilage of starch and a solution of iodide of potassium. A ...
-II. Chlorine, Bromine, And Iodine
I place these in one category, because they act as disinfectants upon the same principle; and, as all of them have been already fully treated of elsewhere in this work, little more will be required he...
-III. Permanganate Of Potassa. Potassae Permanganas. U. S., Br
This is a very important salt, which has but recently gained the reputation which it merits. I am acquainted with no non-volatile disinfecting agent which equals it at once in the efficiency and facil...
-Permanganate Of Potassa. Potassae Permanganas. U. S., Br. Continued
Medical Uses Theory would suggest the internal employment of permanganate of potassa in all the diseases which are supposed to be connected with deficient oxidation, or with putrefactive tendencies...
-IV. Peroxide Of Hydrogen. Oxygenated Water
This substance, though known to chemists so early as 1818, when it was discovered by Thenard, was recently, for the first time, brought prominently before the notice of the medical profession, through...
-V. Mineral Acids And Their Salts
Most of the highly oxidized mineral acids and their salts have disinfecting and preservative powers, through their oxidizing property. Losing one or more equivalents of oxygen, they are reduced to aci...
-2. Deoxidizing Disinfectants
This is a less numerous division of disinfectants than the oxidizers. it nevertheless contains at least one article which, in its efficiency and the extent of its application, is scarcely inferior to ...
-3. Neutralizing Disinfectants
There are several substances much used as disinfectants, which probably act, so far as they are mere chemical agents, by combining with and neutralizing the products of organic change; though this can...
-Class V. Parasiticides
This term, signifying from its origin destroyers of parasites, is here employed precisely in its etymological meaning. The human system is infested, both within and upon the surface, with numerous liv...
-Sub-Class I. Anthelmintics
These are medicines calculated to remove worms from the alimentary canal. The term might be so extended as to embrace also measures fitted for the destruction of those parasitic entozoa which reside i...
-I. Pinkroot. Spigelia. U. S
Origin Though this anthelmintic is little used abroad, yet, in this country, it stands at the very head of the medicines employed against the common roundworm. it is the root of Spigelia Marilandic...
-II. Wormseed. Chenopodium. U.S
Origin All parts of the Chenopodium anthelminticum, wormseed or Jerusalem oak, abound in a highly odorous, volatile oil, upon which the anthelmintic virtues of the plant depend, and all, therefore,...
-III. Azedarach. U.S
This is the bark of the root of Melia Azedarach, pride of China, or pride of India, a large and beautiful tree, indigenous in Asia, but naturalized in the southern parts of the United States, where it...
-IV. Levant Or European Wormseed, Or Santonica. Santonica. U. S., Br
Origin and Properties This is the product of different species of Artemisia, growing in Asia and the North of Africa. There are at least two varieties, corresponding with the commercial sources fro...
-V. Cowhage. Mucuna. U. S
Though formerly recognized by the London and Edinburgh Colleges, mucuna has been discarded in the preparation of the British Pharmacopoeia. It consists of the bristles of the pods of Mucuna pruriens (...
-VI. Male Fern. Filix Mas. U. S. - Filix. Br
Origin Aspidium Filix mas, or male fern, is a European plant, with a horizontal root or rhizome, from which numerous fronds or leaves rise, to the height sometimes of three or four feet. it has bee...
-VII. Pomegranate Root. Granati Radicis Cortex. U. S. - Granati Radix. Br
Origin The remedy here referred to is the bark of the root of Punica Granatum, or the pomegranate-tree, which is almost universally diffused throughout tropical regions, and grows wild in so many p...
-VIII. Oil Of Turpentine. Oleum Terebinthinae
Oil of turpentine has been so fully considered in all its medicinal relations, that nothing more is necessary here than to treat of its character as a vermifuge. Until the introduction of koosso into ...
-IX. Koosso. Brayera. U. S. - Cusso. Br. - Kousso. Br
Origin and Properties I adopt this spelling of the word, because it properly represents the sound. The medicine consists of the flowers of Brayera anthelmintica, a small tree, growing in the high g...
-X. Pumpkin Seeds. Pepo. U.S
Much attention was a few years since drawn to the seeds of the common pumpkin, Cucurbila Pepo, as a remedy in tapeworm. Something had been long known of the presumed efficacy of these seeds; but it wa...
-XI. Calomel
We have so often repeated the officinal title of this medicine, that we may be excused for adopting here, at the close, the simple name which preceded all the others, and will probably survive them. T...
-Sub-Class II. Antizymotics
As here used, this term is intended to apply to substances which prevent, destroy, or render inoperative all microscopic living things which are hostile to human health. There are two distinct sets of...
-Antizymotics. Continued
In this relation, the remarkable experiments of Dr. G. Polli, of Milan, merit particular notice. They were made on dogs. into the veins of one he injected pus, which was followed by symptoms of pyaemi...
-I. Sulphur
Before considering the compounds of sulphur, which hold so high a rank among the antizymotics, it may not be out of place to treat of that element uncombined, in its relation to the present subject. T...
-II. Sulphurous Acid
This has been treated of in reference to its preparation, sensible and chemical properties, and medical uses, at page 412 of the present volume.* We have to consider it here chiefly in its relations t...
-III. Sulphites
These are compounds of sulphurous acid and salifiable bases, and are emplo37ed, almost to the exclusion of sulphur itself and sulphurous acid, as internal remedies or prophylactics, in diseases suppos...
-Sulphites. Part 2
Effects on the System The influence of the sulphites and hyposulphites upon the system in health is inconsiderable. No poisonous effects have been produced by the largest quantity of them which has...
-Sulphites. Part 3
Among those who have given favourable accounts of their experience, may be mentioned Prof. Burgraeve of Ghent, in Belgium; Dr. De Ricci, of Dublin, who published two papers on the subject; Dr. Constan...
-IV. Carbolic Acid
As an antizymotic, this is among the most efficient substances in our possession, scarcely less so than sulphurous acid, while less disagreeable and offensive than that in its gaseous form. There appe...
-Carbolic Acid. Continued
Wood and Coal Tar. impure Pyroligneous Acid. Petroleum. Smoke. Of these it is necessary to say little else than that they appear to have more or less of the preservative property in animal putrefactio...
-V. Saccharine Liquids
There is one other set of substances which require a brief notice, among those having the power of destroying the lower forms of organic life. The various substances of vegetable origin, which from th...
-Appendix
As the existing British Pharmacopoeia, which is the second edition of that work, did not come into the possession of the author, though ordered from England at its first appearance, until he was appro...
-I.. New And Old Names, The Former Occupying The Left Hand Column, The Latter The Right
Present Names, ad. 1867. Former Names, a.d. 1864. Present Names, a.d. 1867. Former Names, a.d. 1864. Acaciae Gummi Acacia. ...
-II. New Medicines And Preparations
Acetum Cantharidis, Lond. Acetum Scillae, Lond., Ed., Dub. Acidum Carbolicum. Adeps Benzoatus. Ammonii Bromidum. Amygdala Amara, Ed. Atropiae Sulphas, Lond. Atropiae Sulphatis Liquor. Bismuthi C...
-Thomas's Pronouncing Medical Dictionary. A Comprehensive Medical Dictionary
Containing the Pronunciation, Etymology, and Signification of tho Terms made use of in Medicine and the Kindred S s a Appendix, comprising a Complete List of all the more important Articles of the Mat...







TOP
previous page: A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Vol1 | by George B. Wood
  
page up: Materia Medica Books
  
next page: British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia | by The British Homoeopathic Society