Under this heading we have manual rubbing, stroking, kneading and vibration, as well as ultra-sonic, electrical vibration and concussion of the spine. Massage and vibration can best be described as external pushing. The effect is purely palliative and has been much over-rated. Massage does not produce any permanent beneficial change in the structure or chemical composition of the body. Some massage methods have value in that they relieve pain by breaking up congestion and dispersing toxins. They do not aid the body to remove the cause of disease so cannot be claimed as having any healing value. Massage should be used for relief of pain and even then only for as long as is necessary and until the body has been able to remove the cause of the pain.