This preparation has been used some years by the writer in preference to any "tincture" of cochineal. The fat in cochineal causes such preparations to putrefy in warm weather; and to extract the fat by means of ether from the powdered cochineal, previous to tincturing it, is expensive and tedious. The term "tincture of cochineal" is scarcely appropriate as applied to the aqueous solutions made of cochineal, cream of tartar, and alum, and, as the object is simply to secure a coloring matter, the term might with equal propriety be applied to our solution of carmine, made as follows:

Carmine, No. 40, 60 grains.

Distilled water, glycerin, of each 4 ounces.

Ammonia water, a sufficient quantity.

Powder the carmine and triturate with the water, gradually adding ammonia water until the carmine disappears and a dark red liquid, free from insoluble matter, remains. To this add the glycerin and mix. Should this solution ever become murky, a little ammonia water will restore its transparency.

Solution of carmine is necessarily alkaline and cannot be employed to color acid liquids. For all neutral or alkaline solutions it is admirable, and for soda-water syrups is far preferable to aniline red.

S-65. Curcuma [Turmeric] (Yellow).

Macerate four ounces of good curcuma in a pint of alcohol, shaking occasionally for seven days, then filter.

S-66. Caramel [Burnt Sugar] (Brown).

In a capacious iron kettle, over a direct fire, melt a pound of sugar, and increase the temperature until empty reumatic vapors have been freely driven off and the residue has acquired a deep black color. Then remove from this fire, allow to partially cool, and gradually and cautiously stir two pints of hot water into it.

This operation must be performed in the open air or over a good flue, for the vapors are very irritating when inhaled. Caution must also be employed in pouring the water into the hot mass, for if it be very hot the material will be thrown violently from the kettle by the sudden expansion of steam. If caramel is only wanted in small amount, it is best to purchase it.