For these reasons, present-day Hygienists prefer to call this system the Hygienic System and refrain from attempting to restore the original meaning to the Greek term therapia. Inasmuch as a spurious system of hygiene is promoted by the medical profession--one that accepts processed and refined foods, haphazard eating, so-called moderation in tea, coffee, alcohol, tobacco, etc.--and rejects most of the genuine program of Hygiene, we prefixed, several years ago, the descriptive adjective, natural, to the name, thus giving us Natural Hygiene. Today most Hygienists prefer to be known as Natural Hygienists in order to distinguish them from the spurious hygienists who accept the make-believe hygiene promoted by the drugging system.

As further evidence of the determination of the early Hygienists to be known as such and to escape from the designation hydropathists, I point out that Dr. Trall's Hydropathic Encyclopedia, published in 1851, carried as its sub-title these words, A Complete System of Hydropathy and Hygiene. The book was published by Fowler and Wells of New York, who also published the Journal. In the first advertisement they ran of the book, they carried pictures of Sylvester Graham, Andrew Combe and Vincent Priessnitz. Above the head of Graham was a banner inscribed "Science of Human Life;" above that of Combe was a banner inscribed "Constitution of Man;" above the head of Priessnitz there was no banner, but just the phrase water-cure.

Dr. Trall's cyclopedia

The foregoing is a reproduction of the title page of the
Hydropathic Encyclopedia by Dr. Trall.

Dr. Trall's cyclopedia 2

Water Cure Journal

The foregoing is a reproduction of the mast-head of the
Water-Cure Journal and points up the emphasis upon physiology
and the laws of life, which belonged not to hydropathy but to Grahamism.

The Water-Cure Journal and Herald of Reforms had been founded by Dr. Joel Shew, but was taken over by Fowler and Wells and Dr. Trall was made editor. On its title page it stated that it was devoted to "Physiology, Hydropathy and the Laws of Life."

At the same time that it was recognized that a new name was needed for the system of practice, it became recognized that a new name was required for the Journal. Writing in the March 1861 issue of the Journal, Trall said: "We have for some years contemplated a change in the title of the Water-Cure Journal--The Herald of Health, the subtitle, Journal of Hygienic Medication, provided no more suitable rechristening should be proposed." Such titles as the Journal of Hygiene and the Hygienic Teacher were proposed. Editorially Trall said, December 1861: "So soon as we can select a title which will be acceptable to our readers, as enduring as time and precisely expressive of the system we advocate, we shall adopt it. Of all the names thus far propounded, that of 'Hygienic Teacher' seems to be the favorite and next in order is 'Herald of Health.' " With the July 1862 issue the name of the journal was changed to Hygienic Teacher. Writing editorially in this same issue, Trall said: "In unfurling our new banner to the breeze, we do not disclaim, retract, nor recede from any principle we have ever advocated in any book or journal. We have always contended and explained that our system--The True Healing Art--is Hygienic, not Hydropathic, although water always was and always will be, prominent among its remedial appliances."

After a year the name of the Hygienic Teacher was changed to The Herald of Health. The magazine was acquired by Dr. Trall, who after about three years relinquished control to two of his graduates. Trouble arose between Trall and the new owners and Trall issued for a period of about three years a new magazine entitled The Gospel of Health. Later, Fowler and Wells started a new magazine under the title of The Science of Health, of which Trall was the active editor. The new magazine placed greatest stress upon Hygiene and less and less upon water. Hygienists did not totally abandon their use of water applications, but reduced them to a subordinate place.

Dr. Walter

Other evidences of the emphasis upon Hygiene and the trek away from hydropathy are found in the titles as well as the subject matter of other Hygienic magazines of the time. Dr. Jackson called his magazine The Laws of Life. Mrs. White, leader of the Seventh Day Adventists, who embraced Hygiene and propogated it among her religious followers, entitled her magazine Health Reform. Dr. Walter entitled his magazine The Laws of Health; later the title was changed to Health. Dr. Dodds published a magazine under the title of The Sanitarian. Mr. Albert Turner, who was for years with the Fowler and Wells Publishing Company and associated with Trall on the staff of The Science of Health, founded and published Health Culture Magazine, which, during the first 30 years of its existence, at least, was a Hygienic publication. Tilden's magazine, at first known as The Stuffed Club, then changed to Philosophy of Health and later to Dr. Tilden's Health Review and Critique, was published as a Hygienic magazine. Everywhere the trend was away from hydropathy and the emphasis was placed upon Hygiene and health.

Albert Turner

  Albert Turner

J H Tilden

The argument has been offered that Dr. Trall was a hydropath and that his Encyclopedia proves it. The argument is quite true if we permit Dr. Trall to die in 1851. But as he lived some 26 years longer and his philosophy and practice underwent considerable evolution during that period, it is as inaccurate to judge him by the title of the Encyclopedia as it would be to judge him by his degree, Doctor of Medicine. Such an argument would cause one to say that Martin Luther was a catholic priest, for he certainly was before he became the leader of the German reformation movement. Just as Luther became a protestant, so Trall became a Hygienist.