nicotine: In time of stress, embarrassment, weariness, etc., there is only one logical thing for any man or woman to do--light a cigarette. Take a poison and handicap yourself.

Prussic acid is the deadliest poison known to science; nicotine approaches it in poisonousness, and often "acts" as rapidly. Eleven milligrams (about one-sixth of a drop) of nicotine will kill a cat or a rabbit. From one-half to two drops placed on the tongue of a dog kills almost instantly; a drop placed on the eye of a sparrow or a white rabbit kills at once. Eight drops will kill a good stout horse in four minutes. The amount required to kill a man ranges from sixty to one hundred and twenty milligrams, (one to two drops), depending on the age and condition of the individual.

One ordinary cigar contains enough nicotine to kill two full-grown men if extracted and injected internally. Only a very small amount of the nicotine of a cigarette or cigar enters the body with each smoke or chew, too little to kill, else would nobody live to smoke or chew more than once.

Much nicotine is burned up in smoking, but not all. Tobacco smoke always contains nicotine--how much depends on the original nicotine content of the tobacco (different, tobacco leaves vary greatly in their nicotine content, ranging from two per cent. to eight per cent., by weight), and how much of the nicotine is destroyed by burning. The drier the tobacco, the more nicotine is destroyed by burning.

Not all the nicotine contained in tobacco smoke is taken into the body, but some is, and the greater the area of the mucous membrane coming in contact with the smoke, the more nicotine is absorbed. Just as the chewer cannot help swallowing some of the juice of the tobacco, so the smoker inevitably inhales some of the fumes, even when he does not deliberately do so. Indeed, non smokers, in a smoke-filled room, are forced to inhale the irritating and annoying fumes and are injured by them. . Many have the vulgar habit of smoking in the. house. The walls, curtains, rugs, carpets, bedding, closets, etc., become saturated with tobacco poisoning and those who live in the. house, the wife, mother, or children, are forced to breathe day and night, air laden with tobacco fumes. Their health suffers as a result.

A man smoking ten cigarettes on end, will certainly absorb twenty to thirty milligrams ,of nicotine--enough to produce marked symptoms of poisoning, even in the habitual smoker, though much less than a lethal dose.

The use of poisons does not fortify against their effects. Tolerance does not mean immunity. When nicotine reaches the nerve-cells it always produces its effects upon them. "No. length of practice," says Oswald, "will ever save the poison-slave from the penalties of his sin against Nature. Each full indulgence is followed by a full measure of woeful retributions, while a half-indulgence results in half-depression on the verge of world-weary despondency, or fails to satisfy the lingering thirst after a larger dose of the same stimulant."

Dcnicotinized tobacco is like decaffeinized coffee--it is not denicotinized. Analyses made by the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station chemists showed ordinary tobacco products give a percentage of nicotine varying from 2.89, the highest, to 1.06, the lowest, while the so-called denicotinized tobacco products contained a nicotine percentage varying from 2.51, the highest, to 0.67, the lowest. Some of the "denicotinized" tobaccos actually contain more nicotine than some of the ordinary tobaccos on the market. How words deceive!

Those who smoke tobaccos with a reduced nicotine content merely smoke more often to receive the "desired" effect. The same is true of those who employ the "strainer" now in use. The nicotine addict is not satisfied without his accustomed dose.

The effects of nicotine are first upon the nervous system, and through this, upon all the organs and processes of the body. Its first effect is stimulation (excitement), followed, immediately, by depression. Nicotine differs from cocaine, heroin, morphine, and other strong drugs, in that it affects every nerve in the body, while these drugs affect the central nervous system only. Nicotine affects, not only the brain and spinal cord, but the autonomic nervous system and hence, depresses all the vital functions.

The commonest effect of nicotine is upon the digestive system. Careful X-ray observations made on both smokers, and non-smokers, show that nicotine at once causes the muscles of the alimentary canal to cease working; that within fifteen minutes after one smokes a cigar the normal automatic movements of the stomach cease, and these movements are not resumed until about three minutes after smoking has ceased. There is an immediately increased flow of fluid into the stomach, followed by depressed secretion. Hyperacidity is a common trouble with tobacco users--they call it "heart burn." Contrary to the advertising of a certain tobacco company, smoking depresses and does not aid digestion. Indeed, under certain conditions, nicotine absorption results in serious gastric "disease"--stomach and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, dyspepsia, loss of appetite and intestinal catarrh, diarrhea, constipation.

All athletes and trainers and most physicians know that the heart of even the moderate smoker is less efficient in periods of strain. It increases the pulse rate from five to ten beats a minute and in the man who is continually smoking this rate becomes permanent. Depressed circulation and respiration, degeneration of the heart muscle, tobacco angina pectoris, extra systole (extra beat of the heart), palpitation of the heart, arrythmia, and "heart block," are among the conditions tobacco helps to produce.

Upon the arteries, nicotine works much damage. Arterio-sclerosis, liver hemorrhages, atheroma of the aorta, aneurism of the aorta, increased blood pressure, and apoplexy are among its effects on the blood-vascular system.

Upon the liver falls the burden of detoxifying nicotine and. many liver troubles have been attributed to this poison such as, elementary glycosuria of the liver, and fatty and sclerotic changes in the liver. That nicotine interferes with the functions of the liver is certain.

Nicotine is carried to the kidneys for elimination and the tissues of these organs are damaged. Bright's "disease" and kidney degeneration are among its effects.

Nicotine's effects upon the ductless glands result in endocrine gland affections, genital gland affections, a tendency towards goitre, and an aggravation of the diabetic tendency.

Upon the respiratory organs, especially of the smoker, such affections as ronchi (irritation) of the lungs, chronic bronchitis, asthmatic paroxysms, and a tendency to tuberculosis results.

Pronounced anemia is one of its effects on the blood. Locally, there is produced a predisposition to mucous plaques, smoker's sore throat, gingivitis and cancer of the lip, tongue, cheeks, throat. Acne is a frequent effect on the skin.

Coming, finally, to its effects on the central nervous system, where it "acts" chiefly as a sedative (depressant) it lowers mental efficiency, blunts the sensibility of the nerves of taste and smell, produces amblyopia--a dimness of vision, even loss of sight--, color-blindness, amaurosis (optic atrophy), tobacco "deafness," neurasthenia, and tobacco epilepsy.

Premature senility is one of the effects of tobacco using. It stunts growth in the young and unsteadies the nerves. Tobacco causes the limbs to shake, the legs to grow weak, and a blunting of the moral sensibilities. Smoking especially builds selfishness and a disregard for the rights and welfare of others. The smoker does not hesitate to annoy and poison others with the fumes of his cigar, cigarette, or pipe.

The old as well as the young are injured by tobacco. Many physicians advise their patients that "moderate smoking and drinking will do no harm." Such physicians always neglect to supply their patients with a valid standard of moderation. Because of the false teachings of medicine, physicians and laymen alike, are inclined to think that their many small habits have nothing to do with their sicknesses. When told that they must give up tea, coffee, tobacco, alcoholics, and other enervating habits, they point to others who practice these habits and who are older than they; and reason that these things cannot be responsible for their ills.

Anything is a handicap that uses up nerve energy and if physicians will stop their own smoking long enough to figure out the causes of the irritable heart, and hard arteries in their patients, they will realize that living in violation of law produces a succession of scars, which, by their accumulative effects, result in physical discomforts and illnesses of various types and degrees. They will discern that when tissue endurance and patient nature give way under the strain, one law breaker will die of cancer, another of heart "disease," another of hardened arteries, etc.