This section is from the book "Practical Dietetics With Special Reference To Diet In Disease", by William Gilman Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Practical Dietetics with Special Reference to Diet in Disease.
Skin and chop up fine a small chicken or half a large fowl, and boil it, bones and all, with a blade of mace, a sprig of parsley, and a crust of bread, in a quart of water for an hour, skimming it from time to time. Strain through a coarse colander.
Chicken, veal, or mutton broth may be made like beef tea, substituting chicken, veal, or mutton for beef, boiling in a saucepan for two hours, and straining. For chicken broth the bones should be crushed and added. For veal broth the fleshy part of the knuckle should be used. Either may be thickened and their nutritive value increased by the addition of pearl barley, rice, vermicelli, or semolina.
Mince a pound of either chicken or mutton, freed from fat, put into a pint of cold water, and let stand in a cold jar on ice two to three hours. Then cook three hours over a slow fire, strain, cool, skim off fat, add salt, and serve hot or cold. Such broth is much better than any manufactured meat preparations. Good mutton broth is difficult to make on account of the meat containing so much fat.
Chicken, one; salt, two ounces; flour, two ounces.
Cut the chicken into pieces. Put it with the salt into the kettle with twelve pints of cold water. Let it simmer gently two or three hours, carefully and frequently skimming off the grease. Make a paste of the flour with some cold water; stir it in and boil ten minutes longer. It should measure ten pints when done.
Mutton, six pounds; salt, two ounces; rice, two ounces.
Break the bones without separating the meat. Put it into twelve pints of cold water, with the salt and rice or barley. Boil gently two hours and a half, carefully removing all the scum and fat. If the broth should boil away too much, add the requisite quantity of boiling water to make twelve pints, and let it boil fifteen minutes longer.
To one pound of chopped lean meat, either chicken, mutton, or beef, add one pint of cold water (or one pint and a half on ice for a young infant), let stand in a covered glass fruit jar for four to six hours, cook for three hours in a closed jar over a slow fire, strain, cool, skim off the fat, clear with egg, season, and feed warm or cold.
Raw meat, without bone, one kilogramme; fresh vegetables, four hundred grammes (about one pound); salt, ten grammes (about one hundred and fifty grains). Boil very slowly over a gentle fire.
Stew two ounces of the best well-washed sago in a pint of water till it is quite tender and very thick; then mix it with half a pint of good boiling cream and the yolks of two fresh eggs. Blend the whole carefully with one quart of essence of beef. The beef essence must be heated separately, and mixed while both mixtures are hot. A little of this may be warmed at a time.
Consomme may be flavoured with vegetable extracts or expressed juice of vegetables boiled in it. Thicken soups with arrowroot, ground rice, or cornflour.
This forms a very nutritious food. Take two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal and two of cold water and mix them thoroughly; then add a pint of good beef tea which has just been brought to the boiling point. Boil together for five minutes, stirring it well all the time, and strain through a hair sieve.