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Practical Dietetics With Special Reference To Diet In Disease | by William Gilman Thompson



The subject of the dietetic treatment of disease has not received the attention in medical literature which it deserves, and it is to be regretted that in the curriculum of medical colleges it is usually either omitted or is disposed of in one or two brief lectures at the end of a course in general therapeutics. Upon examining the standard treatises upon the Theory and Practice of Medicine, as well as monographs upon important diseases, such as those of the circulation, nervous system, and skin, one cannot fail to be impressed with the meagre notice given to the necessity of feeding patients properly, and the subject is usually dismissed with such brief and indefinite phrases as "The value of nutritious diet requires mere mention," "A proper but restricted diet is recommended," and favourite, if not convincing, expressions are, "The patient should be carefully fed," and "General dietetic treatment is of primary importance." With such vague directions the dieting must indeed be very "general".

TitlePractical Dietetics With Special Reference To Diet In Disease
AuthorWilliam Gilman Thompson
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1905
Copyright1905, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonPractical Dietetics with Special Reference to Diet in Disease

By W. Gilman Thompson, M. D, Professor Of Medicine In The Cornell University Medical College In New York City Visiting Physician To The Presbyterian And Bellevue Hospitals

"Good Diet With Wisdom Best Comforteth Men "

Tusser (1520)

Third Edition, Enlarged And Thoroughly Revised

-Preface
Preface To The Third Edition The third edition of this work has been prepared to meet the demands of a constantly increasing interest in the practical application of dietetic principles. The book h...
-Part I. Foods And Food Preparations. Elementary Composition Of Foods
Of the eighty-two chemical elements, thirteen enter uniformly into the composition of the body and ten more are occasionally found. Of all these, several exist in very small proportion and their uses ...
-Food Classification
Foods may be classified in various ways, according to: 1. Their physical properties. 2. Their source. 3. Their composition. 4. The role which they perform in the animal body. Foods are ...
-Food Classification. Continued
Many vegetables, and, in fact, all starch granules, contain proteid material which is chiefly used in the formation of outside coverings to afford protection and firmness of resistance to a softer pul...
-Force Production. Energy From Food
The two ultimate uses of all food are to supply the body with materials for growth or renewal, and with energy or the capacity for doing work. The energy received in a latent form, stored in the vario...
-Force Production. Energy From Food. Part 2
A margin of 1 per cent of error is certainly very small in view of the difficulties of such complicated experiments. It is possible that some of the energy was permanently stored within the body, and ...
-Force Production. Energy From Food. Part 3
The following table of analyses, given by Major Charles E. Woodruff, M. D., Surgeon, United States Army, differs in some details from the preceding table by Parkes (p. 6), and adds several foods with ...
-Force Production. Energy From Food. Part 4. Standards For Daily Dietaries
(Compiled by Atwater). Weights of nutrients and calories of energy (heat units) in nutrients required in food per day. NUTRIE NTS. ...
-Force Production. Energy From Food. Part 5
Table Of Energy Estimated In Foot Tons Instead Of Calories (Yeo) Energy developed by one ounce of the following foods when oxidised in the body. Food Stuff. With usual per...
-Force-Producing Value Of The Different Classes Of Foods
I. Water Estimated as a force producer within the body, water may be said to have comparatively little value. Much of the water which is either drunk or ingested in combination with foods passes th...
-Nitrogen Balance
The nitrogen in the urine and feces may be regarded as an index of the proteid food assimilated, and when these two factors correspond, the body is said to be in nitrogen equilibrium, i. e., all the...
-Stimulating Foods
In the broadest sense all food is stimulating to the functional activities of the body; but when the digestive and assimilative powers are lowered, less variety and less quantity of food can be tolera...
-Economic Value Of Food
It is not within the scope of this work to discuss the details of the economic value of food, but brief reference to one or two facts will emphasise the importance of this topic. It is estimated th...
-Economic Value Of Food. Continued
Calculated Coefficients Of Digestibility Of Nutrients In Different Classes Of Foods Standards used in calculations by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Protein. ...
-Nutrition. Animal And Vegetable Foods Compared
The study of nutrition, or the problem of tracing the food products, after absorption from the alimentary canal, through the various changes which they undergo prior to elimination in the comparativel...
-Nutrition. Animal And Vegetable Foods Compared. Continued
Whenever one kind of food is wanting in any particular constituent, we invariably associate it with another that contains an excess of it (Letheby). If a labouring man is allowed an ordinary meat...
-Vegetarianism
In regard to an exclusive or almost exclusive vegetable diet for man, the universal experience has been that while it may keep him in apparent health for some time, it eventually results in a loss of ...
-The Classes Of Foods. I. Water
It is estimated that water composes about 70 per cent of the entire body weight, and it is an almost universal solvent. Its importance to the system, therefore, cannot be overrated. The elasticity or ...
-The Classes Of Foods. Water. Part 2
Purity Of Water Of recent years the importance of insuring the purity of drinking water has become more and more appreciated, and an intelligent public is now aroused to the absolute necessity of p...
-The Classes Of Foods. Water. Part 3
Rain Water Next to clear mountain-spring water which has run through gravel and been well aerated, rain water at the close of a shower is the purest form of natural water, excepting where it has fa...
-The Classes Of Foods. Water. Part 4
Boiled Water Boiled water is antifermentative and antiseptic. The object of boiling the water which is to be used for drinking purposes, or in the preparation of food, is to free it from all org...
-Excess Of Water
There is a remarkable tendency on the part of the blood to maintain an equilibrium as regards its own composition, volume, and density. When a large supply of water is received in the alimentary canal...
-Deprivation Of Water. Water Starvation
When water is withheld from the system for a considerable length of time its absence is first apparent in the secretions and excretions, and next in the various tissues of the body, the last of all be...
-II. Salts
Varieties Of Salts The principal salts derived from the food are as follows: Chlorides of sodium and potassium; carbonates of sodium, potassium and magnesium; sulphates of sodium, potassium and ...
-Sodium Chloride
Sodium chloride, or common table salt, is by far the most important and valuable salt, and is used in the largest amount. It has long been a symbol of wisdom and hospitality in the East. It forms 60 p...
-Salts. Part 3
Potassium Salts Next in importance to sodium chloride ranks potassium chloride, which is the predominant salt of the muscles, and which, like sodium chloride, is a common ingredient of nearly all t...
-III. Animal Foods
Animal foods contain much nutritive matter in a more or less concentrated form which exists in practically the same chemical combination with the body itself. They leave comparatively little residue, ...
-Milk
The milk of several animals, such as cows, goats, asses, mares, and camels, may be used for food, but in this country very little other than cows' milk is employed. The varieties of milk differ slight...
-Milk. Part 2
Milk Cure The milk cure has been carried out successfully by Pecholier, Weir Mitchell, Karell, and others for the treatment of obstinate hysteria, hepatic congestion, dropsy, and various anomal...
-Milk. Part 3
Fat And Cream Milk fat is mainly formed of glycerides of palmitic and oleic acid (Warington), the latter constituting about 50 per cent (Ruppel), with five or six other fatty acids, such as myristi...
-Milk. Part 4
Solids Other Than Fat These are as follows: Wanklyn. Leeds. E. W. Stewart. Ash................................... 0.60 ...
-Milk. Part 5
Varieties Of Milk Cow's milk differs much in quality according to the breed and condition of the animal, quality of its food, and care bestowed upon feeding and hygienic surroundings. The chief var...
-Milk. Part 6
It requires more acid to precipitate the proteid from woman's milk than from cow's milk. Giving a nursing woman an excess of nitrogenous food does not increase the albuminoid elements of her milk so m...
-Milk. Part 7
Milk Analysis An accurate analysis of milk requires much skill and the equipment of a well-organised laboratory, but it is often important for physicians to be able to judge for themselves of the q...
-Milk. Part 8
L. Emmet Holt furnishes the following table of variations in specific gravity of human milk and their causes, as determined by a lactometer of his own device: Human Milk (Holt) ...
-Milk Adulteration And Impurities
Of recent years it has been discovered that a very large proportion of infant mortality is traceable to the use of impure milk, and that many diseases, especially diarrhoeal disorders of summer, are p...
-Milk Adulteration And Impurities. Part 2
1. The colour of milk is affected by various substances ingested by the cow; thus madder turns it saffron, rhubarb makes it red or yellow (Mosler), and it is coloured blue by some drugs. The colour is...
-Milk Adulteration And Impurities. Part 3
William H. Park and L. Emmett Holt analysed the milk bought in stores in the tenement districts in New York city, and its effect upon infant feeding. Some of their conclusions follow: In winter the av...
-Prophylaxis Against Milk Infection
As prophylaxis against milk infection certain precautions are necessary, and it should be the duty of physicians to educate public sentiment in regard to their importance as a means of restricting the...
-Uses Of Milk
The following are the more important uses of milk: 1. As an infant food. 2. As a food for adults. 3. As a source of special food products and derivatives, such as koumiss, cream, butter, and che...
-Milk Digestion
Normal Digestion Milk is not altered in the mouth, but on reaching the stomach the casein is precipitated by a curdling ferment, called rennin. The curds, or coagulae, vary in size and toughness ac...
-Abnormal Milk Digestion
In cases of indigestion from various causes the curds may remain undissolved in the stomach, eventually irritating it and causing vomiting, or they may pass along the intestine and be voided unaltered...
-Adaptation Of Milk For The Sick
When patients object to the taste of milk alone, they can be often induced to take large quantities by using it in various combinations or preparations, or by disguising its taste. Many patients when ...
-I. Methods Of Altering The Taste Of Milk
When patients object to the taste of raw milk or tire of it, it may be flavoured in a variety of ways. When there is no objection on the score of the nervous system, a teaspoonful or two of black coff...
-II. Methods Of Improving The Digestibility Of Milk
1. Skimming. 2. Boiling. 3. Dilution with water. 4. Dilution with alkaline and aerated waters. 5. Dilution with amylaceous foods. 6. Addition of alkalies, acid and other substances. ...
-II. Methods Of Improving The Digestibility Of Milk. Part 2
3. Dilution With Water The dilution of milk is accomplished by adding plain water, either hot or cold, in the proportion of one part to two or three of milk. If the milk is exceptionally rich in cr...
-II. Methods Of Improving The Digestibility Of Milk. Part 3
6. Addition Of Alkalies, Acid And Other Substances The addition of alkalies to milk renders it much more digestible for some persons. In hyperacidity of the stomach or in the presence of abnormal f...
-III. Methods Of Milk Predigestion
1. Peptonised milk. 2. Pancreatinised milk. 3. Koumiss, kefir, matzoon, etc. 1. Peptonised Milk The object of peptonising milk is to complete a portion of the digestive process outside of the bo...
-2. Pancreatinised Milk
Of recent years the use of pepsin for predigestion of milk has been gradually superseded by that of pan-creatin, which acts best in an alkaline medium. This ferment, like pepsin, may be preserved almo...
-3. Koumiss
Koumiss (spelled also koumys and kumyss) is milk artificially prepared by simultaneous lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. It was originally made by the natives in the steppes of southeastern Russ...
-Koumiss Cure
The koumiss cure consists in taking a large quantity of koumiss - in some cases 15 to 20 tumblerfuls a day - in combination with nourishing albuminous food. If perfectly fresh it may be drunk warm,...
-Kefir
Kefir is another form of fermented milk which resembles koumiss, and has long been used in the Caucasus. Kefir contains three varieties of ferments which produce complex fermentation processes resu...
-Zoolak. Matzoon
Zoolak, formerly called Matzoon, is a form of milk in which lactic-acid fermentation has been produced by a ferment much used in Syria. It has the same general properties and effects with koumiss, and...
-IV. Methods Of Milk Sterilisation And Preservation
1. Sterilisation. 2. Pasteurisation. 3. Humanised milk. 4. Modified milk. Milk laboratories. 1. Sterilised Milk The sterilisation of milk is accomplished by heating it up to the boiling point,...
-IV. Methods Of Milk Sterilisation And Preservation. Part 2
Pasteurised Milk Pasteurised milk is similarly prepared to sterilised milk, and is, in fact, sterile, but the temperature is only raised for twenty minutes to 1670 F., instead of the boiling point,...
-IV. Methods Of Milk Sterilisation And Preservation. Part 3
3. Humanised Milk Humanised milk is really Pasteurised milk but with a permanent alkaline reaction and partial predigestion. Leeds claims the credit for the origin of the idea of this form of mi...
-IV. Methods Of Milk Sterilisation And Preservation. Part 4
Directions For Formula 6. Sugar In formula 6 granulated sugar should be used instead of milk sugar. Introduce the same into the vessel to the line thus marked. Barley Gruel In formula 6 barle...
-Milk Derivatives. 1. Condensed Milk
The principal foods derived from milk which are in common use are: 1. Condensed milk. 2. Cream. 3. Butter. 4. Buttermilk. 5. Cheese. 6. Whey. 1. Condensed Milk Condensed milk is prepared by s...
-2. Cream
Cream is the fat of milk, which, by virtue of its light specific gravity, floats to the top of vessels in which milk is allowed to stand for some hours. The globules collect in a yellow layer of varyi...
-3. Butter
Butter is made from cream by the mechanical rupture of the albuminous envelopes which inclose the fat globules. The globules then adhere together in small masses. The rupture is accomplished by churni...
-4. Buttermilk
Buttermilk is the residual milk left after churning and removing the fat. It is wholesome and diuretic, and makes a capital beverage for those patients who fancy its peculiar sour taste. It contains a...
-5. Cheese
Cheese is the casein of milk separated by rennet, which includes some of the fat and salts, but the potassium salts are removed by the rennet. There are many varieties, prepared in different ways, but...
-6. Whey
Whey is the residuum of milk from which the casein and fat have been removed as cheese by the action of rennin or otherwise. It contains, in addition to water, salts, especially of potassium, a little...
-Eggs
About nine billion eggs are produced annually in the United States (Clark). Eggs contain all the ingredients necessary to support life and develop the organism. Like milk, they constitute a complete f...
-Raw Eggs
Whole raw eggs are very popular in dietetics at present, and they are often prescribed when a nutritious, highly concentrated diet is desired, and in cases of tuberculosis, some forms of anaemia, and ...
-The Cooking Of Eggs
Albumin, or the white of an egg, is altered physically but not chemically by processes of\cooking. At about 1340 F. delicate fibrillar of coagulated albuminous material begin to stretch through the...
-Preservation Of Eggs
Eggs decompose from the admission of germs through their porous shells. To prevent this occurrence it is necessary to protect the eggs from contact with air. When first laid, eggs have a protective mu...
-Meats. The Consumption Of Meat
The universal consumption of meat by civilised man is of more recent origin than is generally supposed. McCulloch states (Statistical Account of the British Empire, vol. ii, p. 502) that so late as ...
-Composition Of Meats
Meat from any animal is composed of muscular fibres, but it necessarily contains those structures which were intimately associated with them, such as connective tissues, blood vessels, nerves, and lym...
-Raw Meats
There is a prevalent fashion of prescribing raw meat, and in some diseases, such as dysentery or chronic gastritis, it is useful, but it should not be given with the idea that it possesses any special...
-Digestibility Of Meats
Among the circumstances which affect the digestibility and nutrient power of meats are the age at which the animals eaten were killed, and the care bestowed upon them in feeding, shelter, and transpor...
-Beef
The composition of beef varies with the feeding of the animal. A young steer from two and a half to five years old furnishes the best meat. If the animal is lean the meat may yield from 70 to 75 per c...
-How To Prepare Solid Meat
Scraped meat is best made from tender beefsteak, broiled for a few minutes over a brisk fire, but rare roast beef or mutton chops may be used. With a dull knife or an iron spoon the pulp is scraped ou...
-Beef Blood
Dried beef blood, powdered, has been recommended by Regnard and others for use by addition to soups and various forms of foods. The taste and odour of dried blood is disagreeable, and the idea of eati...
-Fluid Meat Preparations
Beef juice contains serum, lymph, and blood. It is prepared as follows: A tender, thick, juicy beefsteak is broiled for several minutes over a quick fire so as to coagulate the outside and retain the ...
-Beef Tea
The nutritive strength of beef tea has formed a subject for much discussion. The assertion is often made that it is a comparatively useless preparation, and it is said that a pint of it contains scarc...
-Beef Peptones
There are innumerable fluid preparations of pep-tonised beef which are recommended for invalid consumption; but, as a rule, they are not so good as those which are freshly made by the addition of panc...
-Various Meats
Beef tongue is a tender form of meat, but it contains rather too much fat to agree well with delicate stomachs. Veal Veal, especially when obtained from animals killed too young, is usually toug...
-Ham And Bacon
Bacon is much more digestible than pork, and ham occupies an intermediate position. On an average, 100 grammes of ham give 30 of albuminates and 32 of fat; the salt ranges between 7 and 10 per cent ...
-Fowl
Chicken is among the most digestible of meats for invalids, whether cooked by broiling, roasting, or boiling. The white meat is more easily digested than the dark, although it differs but slightly in ...
-Animal Viscera
Animal viscera are eaten to some extent in this country, and some of them are digestible, although none are as nutritious as good meat, and they contain but little nitrogen. With the exception of swee...
-Isinglass - Gelatin
Isinglass is derived from the membrane of the swimming bladder of the sturgeon, but that of other fishes is occasionally used. It is not very soluble in the crude state, but is hygroscopic and swells ...
-Crustaceans and Shellfish
Lobsters, crabs, and shrimps, although they constitute a wholesome food, when absolutely fresh, for those in health, should never be admitted to an invalid dietary. They are all scavengers of the sea,...
-IV. Vegetable Foods. Sugars
Sugars are crystallisable carbohydrates in which oxygen and hydrogen exist in proportion to form water. There are many varieties, of which the commoner contained in food or used as an adjunct to diet ...
-Sugars. Part 2
Sugars And The Urine Grape sugar and fruit sugar or levulose, when eaten in large quantity in health, reappear unaltered in the urine, but the latter sugar in diabetes is said by Moritz to be consu...
-Sugars. Part 3
Caramel By the application of heat, at 4000 F., refined cane sugar is melted, browned, and converted into a non-crystallisable fluid substance called caramel, having a slightly bitter but agreeable...
-Sugars. Part 4
Molasses, Treacle, And Sirup Molasses and treacle are products incidentally formed in the process of crystallising and purifying cane sugar. Treacle is the waste drained from moulds used in the ref...
-Sugars. Part 5
Mannite Mannite is obtained from the sweet juice of the stems of the ash tree. It is also contained in beet roots and some other vegetables. Like sucrose, it crystallises, and is white and free fro...
-Cereals And Other Starchy Foods
Starchy Foods In General The cereals in commonest use as food products are wheat, corn, rice, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat. From these are manufactured a variety of flours and meals. PLATE III. ...
-Cereals And Other Starchy Foods. Continued
Farinaceous foods are composed of flour of different kinds, and constitute a subdivision of starchy foods. The different starchy and farinaceous foods are derived from a variety of plant structures, i...
-Bread-Making
It has been well said that the quality of the bread used by the inhabitants of any country is a fair measure of their civilisation. Flour is prepared from various grains by crushing and grinding proce...
-Bread-Making. Continued
Gluten Gluten is separated in the process of making starch from wheat and other grains. It is a valuable nitrogenous food product, consisting of (a) 60 to 70 per cent gliadin and (b) 30 to 40 per c...
-I And II. Bread Made By Yeast Or Leaven
When bread is made by yeast or leaven the process, which may be divided into three stages, is as follows: (1) The wheat or other flour, finely ground, is mixed into a thick paste with water, which ...
-III. Baking Powders
Carbonic-acid gas may be developed in bread by the action of baking powders. These powders are very extensively employed, and a conservative estimate of the quantity of baking powder used in the Unit...
-IV. Aerated Bread
The process of aërating bread consists in the forcing of carbonic-acid gas into the dough under pressure. The gas is generated by the action of sulphuric acid upon lime, and while there are several me...
-Spoiled Bread
Bread may be unfit for use from being made of adulterated or too old flour, from turning sour from bad flour developing excess of lactic acid, from becoming bitter from yeast, from becoming sodden fro...
-Varieties Of Breadstuffs
Bread of different kinds constitutes the staple starchy food for Americans, as the potato does for the Irish peasantry and macaroni for the Italians. The quantity of bread consumed varies somewhat ...
-Wheaten Flour And Bread
In the average composition of wheaten bread nitrogen exists in the proportion of 1 part to 21 of carbon (Yeo). Besides the deficiency in nitrogen, there is but a trace of fat in refined flour, a trace...
-Whole-Meal Bread
For some flours the whole of the wheat is used, the gluten nitrates and phosphates being all retained. They are more delicate than oatmeal, and more digestible. Wheat yields soluble matter, such as...
-Graham Bread
Graham Bread - so called after Sylvester Graham, who advocated its use - differs from white wheat bread by containing the outer coatings of the wheat kernel, called bran, which contain a larger percen...
-Gluten Bread
Bread made from gluten flour is useful where there is a tendency to obesity, and is given to diabetics. It may be toasted like ordinary bread. The best bread of this kind is made in Paris, and contain...
-Rye Bread
Next to wheat, rye is the most important bread-making flour, although it is less digestible for invalids, and it may be mixed with wheat flour in the proportion of two parts of the former to oneflfrth...
-Biscuits, Pastry, Puddings, Etc
In addition to bread an almost innumerable variety of biscuits, cakes, pastry, tarts, pies, etc., are prepared by the addition, in various proportions, of flour, milk, cream, butter, or other fat, sug...
-Prepared Farinaceous Foods
(Often called Infant Foods or Prepared Baby Foods ) Prepared farinaceous foods are made by the following methods: 1. Application of heat alone. 2. Digestion with malt or diastase combined wit...
-1. Farinaceous Foods Prepared By Heat Alone
Flour ball, Ridge's Food, Blair's Wheat Food, Schumacher's Food, Imperial Granum, and Robinson's Patent Barley are examples of this class. Wheat and oats are sometimes prepared by roasting (not ste...
-2. Farinaceous Foods Digested With Malt Or Diastase With Heat
2. Farinaceous Foods Digested With Malt Or Diastase With Heat are often called Liebig's Foods. Liebig's foods are made of equal quantities of wheat flour and barley malt, with bran, and i per cen...
-3. Foods Which Are Dextrinised And Then Evaporated With Milk Or Cream
These are sometimes called milk foods. Such are Lac-tated Food, Malted Milk, Loeflund's Cream Emulsion, Nestle's Food, Gerber's Food. The general process by which foods of this class are made is...
-Bread Jelly
A bread jelly may be made to add to milk for invalids and for use while weaning infants who are old enough to digest a little starch - i. e., over one year of age. The crumb of stale bread is broken i...
-Crackers
All kinds of crackers enter more into the dietary in America and England (where they are called biscuits) than in any other country. The lighter forms of wafers and rusk are nutritious and very easi...
-Buckwheat
Buckwheat, or blackwheat as it is sometimes called, is indigenous to temperate climates, and in some parts of the world, notably in Russia, Siberia, and Brittany, it constitutes a staple of diet, but ...
-Rye
Rye may be said to stand very close to wheat in importance as a food. In Europe it is more in use for bread-making than in this country, where it is mainly eaten by the Germans. In Germany the rye pro...
-Corn
Maize, or Indian corn, is very extensively grown in temperate and warm climates all over the world. It may be dried, parched, and roasted whole, or ground into meal of various degrees of fineness. ...
-Rice
Although less eaten in this country than wheat, corn, and rye, except in the Southern States, rice constitutes the staple food of a majority of the world's inhabitants. Asia produces most of the rice ...
-Barley
Barley ranks very close to wheat in nutritive power, and cooked barley meal, like wheaten flour, contains gum, albuminoids, starch, and dextrin. As compared with wheat, barley contains more fat, salts...
-Oatmeal
Oats contain considerable fat, protein, salts, and indigestible cellulose, in addition to a large percentage of starch. They have been eaten in Germany for over a thousand years, and constituted the o...
-Arrowroot
Arrowroot is derived from the rhizomata or root stocks of several kinds of tropical plants grown in both the East and West Indies. The roots are washed, reduced to a pulp, strained, dried, and pulveri...
-Tapioca, Cassava
Tapioca and cassava are made from the rhizomata of the Manioc utilissima or Manihot, a common plant in temperate and tropical regions. It is extensively grown in South and Central America, Africa, and...
-Sago
Sago is an easily digestible form of starch derived from the pith found in the stem of different varieties of palm from Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. It is commonly sold in market in a granular form, and...
-Iceland Moss
Iceland Moss (Cetraria Islandica) is a lichen sometimes employed as food after purifying it by washing. It contains at first various bitter principles, which must be eliminated. It can be made into br...
-Starchy Foods For Children
The best cereals and other starches for children are rice, hominy, Indian meal, barley, oatmeal, cracked wheat or wheaten grits, farina, cornstarch, and sago. When the cereal grains are used instea...
-Diastase, Malt Extracts, Etc
Diastase is a vegetable ferment which has the property of converting starchy foods into a soluble material called maltose. It is soluble in water and weak alcohol, insoluble in stronger alcohol. Its a...
-Vegetable Food
Nearly all the great divisions of the vegetable kingdom afford wholesome food for man. Vegetable food eaten in large quantity increases the elimination of carbon dioxide from the lungs. It also mak...
-Legumes. Peas, Beans, Lentils, Peanuts
Legumes rank next to cereals in importance as vegetable food. In middle and northern Europe among legumes peas are preferred, but in Mediterranean countries the use of beans and lentils predominates. ...
-Legumes. Peas, Beans, Lentils, Peanuts. Continued
Lentils Lentils are much cultivated in the south of France, and also near Paris. They are usually dried and split, in which condition they make a nutritious soup. They are used more on the Continen...
-Roots And Tubers
Roots and tubers constitute a very important class of vegetable foods. They contain both starch and sugar as well as a little pectin and potash salts. They have much less albuminous material than is t...
-Potatoes
The potato ranks first in importance among the class of tubers which serve man for food, both on account of its easy cultivation in a great variety of soils and on account of its digestibility when pr...
-Succulent Tubers
There is a group of succulent roots which contain considerable watery juice, and on this account are usually eaten fresh, for if kept long they become dry and less palatable, or are apt to decay; with...
-Green Vegetables
Composition Green vegetables do not contain much nutriment in comparison with the cereals and tubers, and they are mainly useful for furnishing a pleasing variation in diet and for supplying a larg...
-Cabbages
The cabbage family, which belongs to the natural order Cruciferce, furnishes many examples of green vegetables, some of which are of value for their leaves, and others for their modified flowers. Ther...
-Lettuce, Etc
There is a group of vegetables of which lettuce is the chief type, the leaves of which are eaten raw. They are useful for their flavour and for the variety which they furnish in the course of a meal. ...
-Tomatoes
The tomato is a vegetable which was introduced into this country about sixty years ago, the value of which is becoming more and more appreciated. In Germany it is still sold as a fruit of luxury rathe...
-Fruits
Composition The varieties of fruits which are consumed in all countries are innumerable, and their uses are various. Sweet fruits no doubt largely composed the diet of primordial man, as they do of...
-Fruits. Part 3
Fruit Soups In Germany fruit soups are more in vogue for general use than in this country, and they are often prescribed in fevers when diarrhoea does not exist. Uffelmann directs that for making a...
-Fruit Uses And Properties
The uses of the different fruits may be summed up as follows: 1. To furnish nutriment. 2. To convey water to the system and relieve thirst. 3. To introduce various salts and organic acids whi...
-Fruit Ripening
As fruit ripens it absorbs more and more oxygen, and the tannin and vegetable acids which it originally contained are altered, so that it becomes less astringent and acid. The starch is more or less c...
-Fruit Poisoning
While fruits eaten daily and in proper moderation are very wholesome, if they are eaten too freely, or if they are either insufficiently ripe or overripe, soft, and decomposing, they undergo malfermen...
-When To Eat Fruit
Cooked fruits may be eaten with any meal, but usually when fruit is eaten for special dietetic purposes its effect is always more pronounced if taken alone, either at the commencement of meals or, bet...
-Varieties Of Fruits
Lemons, limes, and shaddocks may be considered together as possessing the same general properties. Owing to the potash and other salts and abundant vegetable acids which they contain, they are the mos...
-Varieties Of Fruits. Part 2
Oranges Oranges are an exceedingly useful article of invalid diet. The juice of ripe oranges allays thirst, and it is well borne in cases where there is considerable gastric irritation and tendency...
-Varieties Of Fruits. Part 3
Bananas The banana is really a variety of the plantain, or Plan-tago musa, but the fruit is not so large or so hard as that commonly called plantain, and the flavour is far more delicate. The botan...
-Varieties Of Fruits. Part 4
Grapes Grapes are universally grown and enjoyed on account of their delicious flavour and aroma as well as their general whole-someness, and they constitute an important article of diet. Perfectly ...
-Varieties Of Fruits. Part 5
Plums Plums and greengages are wholesome fruits when they are wholly ripe; but they remain fresh for only a short time, and are often on that account picked and sent to market in an unripe conditio...
-Berries
The strawberry, on account of its exceptionally agreeable flavour, and also from the fact that it is one of the first fruits of the spring season in the eastern part of this country, is enjoyed by alm...
-Melons
Melons are of little service for nutrition, but they are so agreeable to the palate that they are in very general use. The varieties commonly obtainable in this country are the cantaloupe, or muskmelo...
-Figs And Dates
Figs and dates are chiefly eaten in the United States in the dry form, although in California and elsewhere they may be obtained fresh. These fruits hold large quantities of sugar, especially in their...
-Fungi
There are many species of fungi, some of which are available for food, while others are irritating, and still others produce violent gastro-intestinal disorder, and by their absorption give rise to sy...
-Mushrooms
Mushrooms, on account of their nitrogenous matter, are of some slight use as food; but if eaten in sufficient quantity to yield much nutriment, they always disagree. Bauer says: Judging from their ch...
-Truffles
The truffle is a subterranean vegetable of the order of Thecaphore. It is an expensive luxury, and is used to add flavour in cooking and as an ingredient of rich meat sauces, pates, etc. It contains n...
-Poisonous Fungi
Most poisonous fungi are distinguished from the non-poisonous by a warty cap. They are often viscid and have other peculiarities of structure, colour, etc. They are acrid or astringent, and have a pun...
-Lichen
Iceland moss is used extensively as a food by dwellers in the arctic regions. König gives the percentage composition of the dried moss as follows: Water, 15.96; nitrogenous matter, 2.19; fat, 1.41;...
-Nuts
Nuts contain protein, with some starch and more or less fat, and very little water. From 50 to 65 per cent of the common nuts is shell. With the exception of the cocoanut, chestnut, almond, and Englis...
-V. Fats And Oils
Fats and oils contain but three elements - namely, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. In the starches and sugars the proportion of oxygen and hydrogen is such as to form water, H20, when their molecules ar...
-V. Fats And Oils. Part 2
Digestibility Of Fats There is some difference of opinion as to what extent fat may aid or retard the process of digestion, but it is a matter of very common experience that those persons whose dig...
-V. Fats And Oils. Part 3
Animal Fats The principal animal fats and fatty foods are butter, cream, suet, lard, oleomargarine, the fat of beef, mutton, pork and bacon, bone marrow, pemmican, fish, and cod-liver oil. Fat is a...
-V. Fats And Oils. Part 4
Bone Marrow Bone marrow is an easily digestible and wholesome fat which has long been used as a food. The long bones of the ox are cut crosswise in pieces about two inches in length and cooked with...
-Vegetable Fats And Oils
The principal vegetable fats or oils and fatty foods are derived from seeds. Such foods are olives, olive oil, cotton-seed oil, and nuts. Traces of fat are found in the legumes. Olive Oil Olives...
-Dietetic Uses Of Fats And Oils
Since fats are essential for growth and nutrition as well as force production, fatty food is indicated for convalescence from severe acute diseases, and for patients suffering from chronic wasting dis...
-Diseases In Which Fats Are Particularly Beneficial
Tuberculosis, pulmonary as well as other forms; anaemia; chronic wasting diseases with secretion of pus, as empyema, chronic abscesses, etc.; marasmus; rickets; chronic bronchitis; many chronic diseas...
-Glycerin
Glycerin plays an inconspicuous role as a food. It is mainly useful for its sweetish taste as a substitute for sugar in the diet of diabetics, but to many persons the taste of glycerin itself is nause...
-Cod-Liver Oil
The best cod-liver oil is known as cold-drawn oil, and is prepared from the raw fresh livers of the codfish by subjecting them to heavy pressure, by which the oil is squeezed out. Chemical And Ph...
-Cod-Liver Oil. Part 2
Methods Of Administration Many patients can take perfectly pure, well-clarified cod-liver oil better than the emulsions and preparations in which it is offered in the market, while others prefer it...
-Cod-Liver Oil. Part 3
Substitutes Many substitutes for cod-liver oil have been proposed, but it is doubtful whether any of them can be made to yield all the benefits to be derived from the genuine substance. Efforts ...
-Stimulants And Beverages
It is the almost universal experience of mankind that the taking of food and drink merely to satisfy the cravings of physical needs does not at the same time wholly satisfy the desire of the mind for ...
-Alkaline And Mineral Waters - Effervescing Waters
There are many spring waters which are used as beverages and drunk either with or between meals. They possess, in addition to the properties of plain water, a mildly tonic effect upon the mucous membr...
-Alkaline And Mineral Waters - Effervescing Waters. Continued
1. Alkaline Waters Vichy, in France; Ems, in Germany; Fachingen, in Germany; Saratoga Vichy (rich in C02), New York; St. Louis Springs, Michigan (poor in C02); Bethesda Springs, Wisconsin. Other...
-Tannin
Tannin is an astringent of vegetable origin which exists in tea, coffee, and many wines, especially the red wines, and as such it is worthy of brief separate consideration. It possesses no nutrient po...
-Teas
Method Of Preparation Tea is a preparation made from the leaves of various species of a hardy evergreen shrub called Thea. The manufacture consists in plucking the young leaves of the plant and pla...
-Teas. Part 2
Infusion The flavour of tea depends not only on the character of the leaves, but upon that of the water which is added to them. About five grammes of leaves should be used for one infusion. The ...
-Teas. Part 3
Ill Effects The ill effects of excessive tea drinking - the tea habit - are referable to its action on the digestive and nervous systems and are cumulative. If taken in large quantities with mea...
-Coffee
Composition Coffee consists of the berries or seeds of Coffea arabica, which are dried, roasted, ground, and subjected to infusion. The coffee drunk in the United States is mainly imported from Sou...
-Coffee. Part 2
Ill Effects Strong black coffee taken after dinner tends to retard the digestive processes somewhat, and for this reason it should be avoided by dyspeptics; but to persons with sound digestion who,...
-Relative Value Of Coffee And Tea
Much argument has been expended on the relative digestibility and usefulness of tea and coffee, but about all that can be said definitely in regard to the matter is, that many persons who can drink te...
-Cocoa
Cocoa and chocolate are both prepared from the cocoa bean, or pulpy seeds of the exotic cacao tree, Theobroma cacao. The major portion of the supply consumed in the United States is derived from Brazi...
-Cacao Butter
The fat, which is called cacao butter, is the nutrient ingredient of most importance. It usually constitutes 50 per cent of the cocoa bean. It has an agreeable taste and odour, and it may be kept inde...
-Chocolate
Preparation Chocolate is manufactured from the husked, dried, ground, and fermented cocoa seeds, which are then roasted and made into paste and compressed into cakes by moderate pressure. To increa...
-Kola
Composition The kola nut is the fruit of a tall tree of the order Sterculiacece, growing in the island of Jamaica, on the west coast of Africa, East India, and Ceylon. It resembles both coffee and ...
-Alcohol
Alcohol is a substance produced by a process developed in certain sugar-yielding substances (such as grains, molasses, sugar cane, etc.) by the action of an organised ferment, the yeast fungus Saccha-...
-Alcohol. Part 2
Physiological Action The physiological effects of alcohol may be considered under several headings: I. Action as a Food. II. Action as a Stimulant to the Nerves and Circulation. III. Action upon...
-Alcohol. Part 3
II. Action As A Stimulant To The Nerves And Circulation As a stimulant, alcohol acts primarily upon the nervous system and the circulation, although it increases the functional activity of many org...
-Alcohol. Part 4
IV. Action Upon The Body Temperature The physiological effect of alcohol upon the body temperature may also be regarded as proceeding primarily from its stimulating influence, acting through the va...
-Alcohol. Part 5
VIII. Alcohol Absorption Alcohol is highly diffusible, and is promptly absorbed from mucous surfaces as well as from subcutaneous tissue. Its effect is always more immediate when taken into an e...
-Clinical Uses Of Alcohol
Use As A Tonic Very moderate doses of alcohol increase the flow of gastric juice, and for this reason it may be employed with advantage in cases such as the following: 1. By those whose nervous sys...
-Clinical Uses Of Alcohol. Part 2
3. Use In Nervous Diseases Alcohol is of service for many forms of diseases of the nervous system. Neuralgic pains are sometimes allayed by the use of alcoholic drinks which contain volatile ethers...
-Clinical Uses Of Alcohol. Part 3
Proper Time For Giving Alcoholic Beverages Whenever an alcoholic beverage is prescribed by the physician, the time at which it is to be given should be explicitly stated, and there should be superv...
-Malt Liquors. Beer
The lager-beer industry was introduced into the United States about the year 1842. Composition Beer contains alcohol in strength varying between 3 and 8 volumes per cent (sometimes even 10 per c...
-Wine
Composition Wine made from the expressed juice of different varieties of the grape consists of an alcoholic solution varying in strength from 6 to 25 volumes per cent, and containing flavouring and...
-White Wines
White wine is made from grapes of any colour, the greatest care being taken not to macerate the berries in expressing the juice, and to allow no coloured juice to flow. As a rule, however, the better ...
-Red Wines
In making red wine dark grapes are used, and both skins and stones are left to ferment with the pulp, to which they furnish tannin, pigment, and extractives. Red wines, on the average, contain from...
-The Varieties Of Wines
The following classification of wines, with the examples and comments, is largely derived from Chambers, and will be found convenient and practical from a purely dietetic standpoint. Wines may be c...
-The Varieties Of Wines. Continued
III. Aromatic Wines Aromatic Wines have a peculiarly choice bouquet, and contain abundance of essential oils with considerable alcohol. They are best when drunk in their native countries - in Spain...
-Champagne
The essential difference between champagne and other wines is that it contains carbon-dioxide gas in solution. Manufacture Champagne is made of different grades, representing the first, second, ...
-VI. "Perfect" Wines
Perfect Wines are those which are classified by Chambers as having their several ingredients - alcohol, water, sugar, ethereal flavours, fruity extractives, and acids - commingled without giving...
-VII. Rough Wines
Rough Wines are those in which an excess of tannin causes decided astringency. They usually contain pigment, but not much alcohol. Some clarets belong with this group. As a rule, these wines are no...
-Influence Of Wines Upon Digestion
Roberts has thus determined the effect of several wines upon peptic digestion by adding together two grammes of dried beef-fibre, 0.15 per cent of hydrochloric acid, 1 c. c. of glycerin extract of pep...
-Liquors
Strong spirits, such as rum, whisky, brandy, and gin, are the worst forms of alcohol for daily drinking, and liquors of this class are responsible for nine tenths of the evils of inebriety. In localit...
-Whisky
American whiskies are classed as (1) rye and (2) Bourbon, from the county of that name in Kentucky. Manufacture The proportion of materials used in making the mash for distillation is, on the ...
-Therapeutic Uses Of Liquors Compared
The spirits in common use have different physiological action. As their alcoholic basis is substantially the same in quality, the effects are varied mainly by aromatics. Gin is the most distinctly diu...
-Condiments And Spices
Properties Condiments and spices are substances which are used as adjuncts to food, and which in themselves supply but little nourishment, their effect being mainly of a stimulating character eithe...
-Condiments And Spices. Varieties Of Flavouring
Next to salt (see p. 45), the most useful condiments are pepper, mustard, ginger, and vinegar, but much difference in taste exists in the use of condiments, and their selection is to some extent a rac...
-Part III. Cooking. Food Preparation And Preservation. The Quantity Of Food Required. Cooking
The Object Of Cooking Food While man is so constituted that it is possible for him to live upon raw food for a considerable length of time, it is apparently designed by Nature that a large portion ...
-Varieties Of Cooking
The several processes of cooking which are in common use are as follows: 1. Boiling. 2. Stewing. 3. Roasting. 4. Grilling, or broiling. 5. Frying. 6. Braising. 7. Baking. 8. Steaming. There is undo...
-1. Boiling
The primitive method of boiling water consisted in heating the water in a hollow dug in the ground by plunging in hot stones taken out of the fire. Later, as the arts of pottery making and metal worki...
-2. Stewing
Stewing differs from boiling in the fact that the juices of the meat or vegetables are dissolved in the heated water, whereas in boiling, the juices are kept from passing out into the water by the coa...
-3. Roasting. 4. Grilling
The processes of roasting and grilling or broiling, when performed over a very hot fire, result in cooking the meat in a manner which is in some respects analogous to stewing; in fact, the interior po...
-5. Frying
Frying is a process of cooking by which the heat is transmitted by the contact of the food with melted fat, butter, or oil, and not by radiation, as in the case of broiling or roasting. As explained b...
-6. Braising
Braising is a method of cooking meat by which it is immersed in a solution of vegetable and animal juices called braise,' contained in a covered vessel, in which it is exposed to a strong but not b...
-7. Baking
Baked meat is prepared by cooking in a confined space, which prevents the volatile products which are driven off in roasting from escaping, and consequently the meat has a somewhat stronger and less d...
-Meat Soups
Meat soups are made by continued boiling, which converts the connective tissue of meat fibres into gelatin, which is gradually dissolved into the water. The soup thus becomes an aqueous solution of ge...
-Cooking Of Fish
Fish may be cooked by boiling, grilling, baking, frying, or stewing. Of these several methods, boiling is decidedly the most advantageous for persons with feeble digestions, and next in order is broil...
-Cooking Of Vegetables
The object of cooking vegetables, as in the case of cooking meat, is to render them more digestible, to give variety, to modify their flavour, and in some cases to preserve them. Some coarse vegeta...
-Food Concentration. Condensed Food
The concentration of food is based upon the fact that many foods contain a large percentage of free water, which can be driven off by evaporation, thereby reducing the weight, and usually the bulk of ...
-Diet Of Concentrated Foods
There are many complex dried foods in market prepared especially for invalid diet, and supposed to possess high nutritive value with small bulk. As compared with fresh food, their lighter weight and g...
-Food Preservation
The different methods of food preservation have of late years received much attention, for it is owing to them very largely that it is possible to maintain large armies and navies in action and to per...
-Food Preservation. Part 2
III. Salting The process of salting is a primitive but still desirable method of preserving meat and fish. Salted meat usually becomes pale from the action of the salt upon the haemoglobin containe...
-Food Preservation. Part 3
V. Refrigeration The process of refrigeration does not involve the actual freezing of meat or vegetables, but implies their preservation in chambers at a temperature which is maintained but a few d...
-Food Preservation. VII. Exclusion Of Air. Canning
Exclusion of air from contact with food is accomplished not only in the process of canning, but by such means as varnishing or covering it with substances which are comparatively impermeable, as in th...
-VIII. Antiseptic And Preservative Substances
A long list of chemical substances have been used from time to time in the preservation of food, but most of them have been supplanted by the safer process of canning, refrigeration, etc. The use o...
-Substitutes For Food
Men are often placed under conditions in which, from poverty or exposure, sufficient quantities of food cannot be obtained. Under these circumstances, the craving of hunger may be diminished and the a...
-How Much Water To Drink Per Day
The amount of water drunk per diem is usually less than should be taken. Many persons believe that it is injurious to drink much fluid with their meals and forget to take any between, and as a result ...
-Quantity Of Food Required To Maintain The Body In Vigour
The quantity of food required to maintain the body in vigour depends upon the following conditions: 1. External temperature. 2. Climate and season. 3. Clothing. 4. Occupation, work, and exercise. 5...
-Quantity Of Food Required To Maintain The Body In Vigour. Part 2
7. Sex influences to a considerable extent the quantity of food consumed, but allowance must be made for totally different habits of life. There are many women who eat as much as men, but the majority...
-Quantity Of Food Required To Maintain The Body In Vigour. Part 3
Table Compiled By Mrs. E. H. Richards And Miss Marion Talbot One day's food, at the University of Chicago, calculated to determine the amounts and proportions of the various constituents and their ...
-Quantity Of Food Required To Maintain The Body In Vigour. Part 4
According to Chambers, the average adult at ordinary labour obtains enough food in a day if he eats one pound of meat and two pounds of bread or its equivalent, provided no peculiarities of size, heal...
-Quantity Of Food Required To Maintain The Body In Vigour. Part 5
While held fast in the ice, and still on the steamer, the average allowance of food per day was about four pounds, but some complained of being hungry on this ration. Several men suffered severely fro...
-Starvation And Inanition
Starvation, or asitia, is a term which technically applies rather to the lack of sufficient food for the maintenance of the body, while inanition means the lack of assimilation of food by the tissues....
-Voluntary Fasting
Of late years several persons have attempted prolonged feats of starvation, tempted by love of notoriety or desire of gain, by exhibiting themselves for the gratification of public curiosity. In sever...
-Starvation Symptoms
The symptoms which result from complete starvation are characteristic, If food is suddenly withheld, the sensation of hunger gradually increases at first, becomes extreme, lasts for two or three days,...
-Famine
When starvation occurs upon a large scale, affecting a community with famine, pestilence is sure to accompany it. Disease has always been rampant in Ireland when the potato crops have failed, and in I...
-Improperly Balanced Ingredients Of Diet
Improper diet is often quite as injurious as slow starvation, for a person who eats a large bulk of food of one class, to the exclusion of other classes, may delude himself by thinking that he is taki...
-Part IV. Foods Required For Special Conditions. Age And Food. Food In Childhood
A child at three or four years of age actually consumes nearly one fourth as much food as it requires at adult life, for during this process tissue growth is very rapid, and if the child be in health,...
-Food In Adult Life
The nature and quality of the diet appropriate for adults must depend somewhat upon individual constitution, occupation, habits of life, and to some extent upon the climate in which they live. The ...
-Food In Old Age
In old age there are inevitable changes which slowly occur in the circulatory and digestive organs of the body. Although the general health may still be unimpaired, the circulation is less vigorous, a...
-Food For Individual Size And Food
The size of the body has more influence than its weight upon the quantity of food consumed. In infant feeding the relationship is made the subject of careful study (see Infant Feeding), but in adults ...
-Body Weight And Food
The question as to how far gain or loss in the body weight may be taken as an indication of the appropriateness of diet is important. In prescribing systems of diet for many diseases, such as dyspepsi...
-Sex And Food
The relation of sex in regard to food affects the quantity rather than the quality, excepting among a few rude tribes where superstition is allowed full sway. The northern. Eskimos, for instance, have...
-Diet And Heredity
The influence of heredity upon diet is not very striking. Children are sometimes supposed to inherit likes and dislikes for particular foods, whereas they are merely acquired tastes from the circumsta...
-Diet And Race
The food of prehistoric man necessarily consisted of the simplest elements, represented by fruits, berries, nuts, insects, and an occasional piece of raw fish or meat. Such food is, in fact, the diet ...
-Diet And Race. Part 2
These Eskimos are as irregular in their habits of sleep as they are in regard to their meals. During the four months of constant sunshine they usually arise when the sun is in the south, but the Eskim...
-Diet And Race. Part 3
The most important articles of diet for a polar expedition we found to be pemmican, cranberry sauce, tea, coffee, chocolate, preserved milk, sugar, ham, cheese, bacon, oleomargarine, lard, pickles, l...
-Climate And Season And Food
Much has been written about the need of man changing his diet when he removes from one climate to another, in the belief that the natives always eat the kind of food best adapted to the climate in whi...
-Part V. Food Digestion. Conditions Which Especially Affect Digestion. Digestibility Of Foods
In the previous part of this work the writer has incorporated a number of tables of the so-called nutrient values of foods as computed by physiological chemists. Such analyses are of unquestioned sc...
-Hours For Meals And Order Of Taking Food
The hours for taking meals which are commonly selected are those which are best adapted to the varying needs of the system at different times in the day, and experience teaches that they must be varie...
-Appetite
The term appetite in relation to dietetics usually means a pleasurable desire for food or drink, whereas hunger and thirst imply a craving for food and drink respectively, which has become disagreea...
-Abnormal Cravings
Instances of abnormal cravings for food are familiar to every one. They sometimes take the form merely of an inordinate desire for food which is in itself wholesome but which is poorly adapted to an e...
-Variety In Diet
Monotony of diet is not incompatible with maintenance of life, and even of health, when the food is restricted to two or three articles only, but for the reasons given in discussing the force value of...
-The Nervous System And Digestion
The influence of the nervous system on digestion is very complex. In a general way, the peripheral nerves may affect the digestive process (a) through the circulation, (b) through motion, (c) through ...
-Circulation And Digestion
The influence of the circulatory system upon digestion appears in the composition of the blood and in its rate of supply to the digestive glands. Vigorous active circulation accompanies good digestion...
-Temperature And Digestion
Both the external temperature and the internal body heat influence digestive processes. The effect upon the system of the temperature of food and drink is also a matter of important consideration. ...
-Exercise And Digestion
The influence of muscular exercise upon digestion is practically exemplified by every one's personal experience. Violent exercise, even by those of robust constitution, taken immediately after the ing...
-Rest And Sleep And Digestion
The custom of spending half an hour in making a leisurely toilet for dinner is beneficial in giving the rest to mind and body which puts the latter into the most favourable conditions. Dyspeptics and ...
-Mental Emotion And Digestion
Strong mental emotion, such as fright, terror, or excessive excitement of almost any kind, inhibits the digestive functions, especially in the stomach, but also in the intestines. Such emotion may be ...
-Food In The Mouth
The proper care of the mouth in relation to diet is an important subject which is frequently overlooked. In patients who are unable, from weakness or the prostration of fever, to use solid food or to ...
-Food In The Stomach
Much controversy has arisen over the question as to how far the stomach performs the essential work of digestion, and how far the intestine is responsible for it. Some writers argue that the stomach i...
-Secretion Of The Gastric Juice
When food enters the stomach it immediately excites the secretion of the gastric juice. This it does at first through mechanical action, either upon the nerves or the cells of the gastric tubules them...
-Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid exists in the human gastric juice in the average proportion of 0.2 per cent. Experimentally it is found that the best proteolytic digestion results with 0.1 to 0.2 per cent of hydroc...
-Pepsin
According to Chittenden, pepsin is a hydrolytic ferment which is found in the cells of the tubules of the gastric mucous membrane, chiefly near the cardiac portion. It exists in these cells in an ante...
-Albumoses, Peptones
The final product of food digestion as accomplished by pepsin with the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice is peptone. Kuhne showed that peptone is seldom, if ever, pure in the stomach, but the sub...
-Peristalsis
In addition to exciting secretion upon entering the stomach, the food, at first by mechanical action and subsequently possibly through chemical stimulation, excites more or less rhythmical peristaltic...
-Duration Of Gastric Digestion Of Different Foods
Bauer says: By the digestibility of a food one can obviously understand nothing more or less than the sum of the resistances that it offers to the action of the gastric juice. The time required f...
-Digestion Of Proteids In The Stomach
The various albuminous foods are digested best, each with a different degree of acidity, and it is probable that throughout a meal the intensity of reaction of the gastric juice varies considerably, b...
-Abnormalities Of Gastric Digestion
(The clinical examination of the stomach contents is described under that heading). Hypersecretion Hypersecretion of gastric juice gives rise to thirst, sour eructations, more or less epigastric...
-Food In The Intestine
After preliminary maceration under the conditions of the moisture, warmth, and motion in the stomach, and after partial digestion there, the food, mixed with gastric juice, passes in a pultaceous mass...
-The Digestion Of Fats
When fat is cooked in the food, a good deal of it is converted into rancid fat - i. e., fat containing free fatty acids. In the mouth the fatty food is unaltered, unless it be in the form of adipose t...
-Intestinal Gases
During the digestion of certain foods in the intestine more or less gas is evolved. The gas, by distending the walls of the gut, serves the purpose of keeping them from agglutinating, and thereby faci...
-Artificial Digestion
To physiologists we are indebted for the discovery and development of the scientific preparation of digestive ferments or enzymes and the predigestion of food outside of the body. The composition of t...
-Predigestion Of Starches
There are a variety of ferments and other materials which have the power of converting starch into dextrin and sugar. They are ptyalin in the saliva, amylopsin in the pancreatic juice, diastase, a fer...
-Predigestion Of Proteids
The digestion of proteids may be accomplished either within the body by prescribing pepsin and hydrochloric acid, or without the body by use of the same agents, or, as it is more often done at present...
-Food Absorption
The absorption of food takes place from the stomach to a limited extent, to a great degree from the small intestine, and to a lesser degree from the larger intestine. The rectum is capable of absorbin...
-Elimination Of Food Waste
The data given below, which are derived from Bauer, exhibit the balance of income of food and output of waste of the body under different conditions of rest and activity. Income of Food...
-The Urine And Food
The relation of the composition of the urine to the quality and quantity of the food is highly important. Independently of renal disease and of excessive perspiration, the occurrence of a scanty ur...
-Tobacco And Food
The use of tobacco in its relation to digestion is a subject very closely allied to dietetics, but a brief mention of it only can be made here. Like alcohol, undoubtedly most persons are better withou...
-Food Equivalents
It is easy to compute the chemical equivalents of foods as analysed outside of the body. It is quite another matter to compute them with accuracy within the body. Most writers upon dietetics, however,...
-Part VI. The General Relations Of Food To Special Diseases. Diseases Which Are Caused By Dietetic Errors
There are two methods of adapting diet for the sick: First, by giving one half, one third, or one fourth of the ordinary quantity of food for health; second, by altering the quality of the different c...
-Diseases Caused By Dietetic Errors
While the course of the majority of all diseases is obviously influenced by the quantity and quality of the food eaten, there are particular diseases which are directly caused by improper diet. This c...
-II. Overeating And Overdrinking
Both overeating and overdrinking may be (1) temporary - that is, the result of an occasional debauch; or (2) chronic. 1. Temporary overeating may apply to the excessive consumption (a) of a mixed d...
-III. Food In Itself Wholesome, But Which Is Injurious
Because The Ingredients Are Not Properly Balanced. Such diet may produce anaemia, from lack of meat or other animal food; scurvy, from preponderance of salt meat and fish and lack of fresh fruits a...
-IV. Food Containing Parasites Or Their Embryos
Food sometimes serves as the medium for the introduction of parasites or their embryos, such as the tapeworm, roundworm, echi-nococcus, and trichina. In many cases the source of infection is found ...
-Intestinal Worms
The presence of intestinal worms, such as the roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and various species of cestodes or tapeworms, requires no special dietetic care beyond the preventive treatment of avoidi...
-Trichinosis
Etiology Trichinosis is a parasitic disease produced by the embryos of a worm, the Trichina spiralis, which work their way into the voluntary muscles and there become embedded. Among the parasites ...
-Trichinosis. Continued
Mortality The greatest mortality occurs between the fourth and sixth week. The causes of death may be exhaustion from choleraic discharges, dyspnoea, and inability to swallow. In protracted cases i...
-V. Food Containing Ptomaines
Ptomaines are substances resembling alkaloids which are formed in the alimentary canal by the decomposition or putrefaction of nitrogenous foods. They may also form in such food outside of the body. T...
-Poisoning By Meat Or Game
When meat has been kept too long exposed to the air, or when it has become contaminated in any manner with putrefactive bacteria, it is unfit for food, yet if thoroughly cooked it may not be necessari...
-Poisoning By Milk, Cream, Ice Cream, And Cheese
Poisoning by plain milk is less common than from certain varieties of cheese and from cream. When ice cream is made in large quantities, the cream is allowed to accumulate, and if a portion of it beco...
-Poisoning By Shellfish And Fish
Poisoning by shellfish and fish results from infection with ptomaines developed by micro-organisms, as in cases of milk and meat poisoning. In addition, it must be remembered that there are a number o...
-VI. Food Containing Other Poisons Than Ptomaines - Grain Poisoning, Etc
Flesh may become poisonous from the animal having fed upon some noxious substance shortly before it was killed. The flesh of pigs fed on garbage may cause diarrhoea (Parkes). The flavour and digestibi...
-VII. Food Adulteration
Food adulteration consists of: 1. The addition of deleterious substances. 2. Fraudulent substitution of cheaper articles of food or the sale of food not as fresh or good as it is represented. A. J....
-VII. Food Adulteration. Continued
Figments Artificial colouring matters are added to foods, both to intentionally deceive and also merely to make different substances, such as preserved green vegetables, candies, or confections, ap...
-Tin And Lead Poisoning
Both tin and lead poisoning may arise from the prolonged use of preserved meats, vegetables, or fruits. In tin cans the lead is derived from the action of various organic acids upon the solder (which ...
-VIII. Food Containing Micro-Organisms
Recent developments in the study of micro-organisms conducted within the past decade have demonstrated very clearly the dangers of infection upon a large scale from consumption of meat, milk, and othe...
-Tubercular Infection Through Milk And Meat. Tubercular Milk Infection
This matter is of special importance in regard to the danger of conveying tuberculosis to infants through raw milk. That this may happen is generally accepted as proved (although Koch, at the Tubercul...
-Infection With Typhoid-Fever Germs Through Eating Oysters
An epidemic of typhoid fever occurred at Wesleyan University in the latter part of November, 1894, which affected only certain students to the number of thirty, who had attended college-society supper...
-Food Infection Through Flies
The importance of preventing food infection through the agency of common house flies is just beginning to be appreciated. These insects are admirably adapted to convey infection from their great numbe...
-Idiosyncrasies In Regard To Food
Idiosyncrasies are found to exist with some persons in regard to special articles of food, and these cannot be readily explained. As a rule, if marked, they extend throughout life, but it is not seldo...
-Alcohol Poisoning
The position of alcohol as both a food and a stimulant has already been fully discussed in connection with its physiological and dietetic action (p. 231). The effects of poisoning by alcohol differ...
-Alcohol Poisoning. Continued
Dietetic Treatment Of Mild Cases In the milder cases characterised by nervousness, muscular tremors, indigestion, dyspepsia, a foul breath, coated tongue, and urine loaded with urates or crystallin...
-Delirium Tremens
Delirium tremens is a condition of active maniacal excitement which in its worst form is accompanied by intense general nervous excitement, muscular weakness, and hallucinations, chiefly of sight and ...
-Part VII. Administration Of Food For The Sick. Methods Of Feeding The Sick
General Rules In no branch of her work can the nurse be of more service than in her ability to feed a very sick patient properly. There are many details which can only be mastered by extensive beds...
-Methods Of Feeding The Sick. Part 2
Regularity In Feeding The hospital nurse should be taught that it is as important to give food as medicines at regularly appointed intervals. Punctuality should be carefully observed in serving all...
-Methods Of Feeding The Sick. Part 3
Feeding Helpless Patients In feeding helpless patients with fluids, if the head is to be raised, it should be done by placing the hand beneath the pillow and lifting it gently. This affords much be...
-Methods Of Feeding The Sick. Part 4
Disinfection Of Utensils All dishes or utensils used in serving food to patients having syphilis, stomatitis, or diphtheria, or any infectious disease likely to be communicated through such means, ...
-Nutrient Enemata. Rectal Feeding
Rectal Absorption That all mucous membranes are capable of absorbing certain materials from their surfaces and passing them into the blood vessels or lymphatics has long been recognised; but it is ...
-Nutrient Enemata. Rectal Feeding. Part 2
Hunger And Thirst During Rectal Feeding These symptoms are not necessarily present after the first day or two of rectal feeding. In an obstinate case of gastric haemorrhage in which absolutely noth...
-Nutrient Enemata. Rectal Feeding. Part 3
Quantity The proper quantity of food for a nutrient enema for an adult is 4 to 8 ounces; for a young child, 2 to 3 ounces, given every 4 or 6 hours. Aids To Retention Upon withdrawing the tub...
-Substances Available For Rectal Feeding
Of the different classes of food stuffs, there are some which are absorbed readily by the rectum, while others are scarcely taken up at all. To the latter class belong starches and most of the fats. T...
-Substances Available For Rectal Feeding. Continued
Blood Dried beef blood has sometimes been used as a rectal food, but there is no evidence that it is absorbed. In those cases in which I have employed it it has usually caked within the rectum and ...
-Other Methods Of Feeding. Inunction Foods
Attempts are sometimes made to get nourishment into the body by means of inunction through the skin, and olive oil, cod-liver oil, and cacao butter are rubbed into the integument of the abdomen and th...
-Medicines And Food
Too little attention has been bestowed upon the mutual relations of food and medicines. So little is really definitely known of the intricate chemistry of digestion and assimilation that it is difficu...
-Rules For Administering Medicines In Relation To Food
1. Alkalies are best given shortly before meals, unless designed to neutralise hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid. 2. Acids should be given within half an hour after meals. 3. Bitters should be...
-Diet-Kitchen Outfit
When a case of protracted severe illness occurs in a household it is very convenient to improvise a small diet kitchen in a room next the patient's bedroom. The outfit should consist of the following ...
-Trained Purveyors Of Food
The training of food purveyors for hospitals, asylums, and other institutions has only quite lately received the attention which it deserves, and hospital managers are awakening to the fact that it is...
-Part VIII. Diet In Disease - Diet In Infectious Diseases. Diet In Fever In General
The general principles of the dietetic treatment of the condition of fever which accompanies many different diseases are conveniently studied collectively, while the special modifications of diet requ...
-Diet In Disease - Diet In Infectious Diseases. Diet In Fever In General. Continued
3. To give abundant fluid with the object of relieving thirst and to wash out through the kidneys the waste matter produced by the increased rate of metabolism. 4. In some cases, to give alcohol as...
-Beverages In Fevers. The Value Of Water And Other Beverages
In almost all febrile affections the liberal use of water, or some beverage composed chiefly of water, is to be recommended both for the relief of thirst and on account of its diluent effect and of it...
-Alcohol As A Food In Fevers
The principal theory of the action of alcohol in all fevers is that it serves as a food; it is readily absorbed and carried in the blood to all parts of the body, and it is believed that its combustio...
-Diet In Convalescence From Fevers
Convalescents who have long subsisted solely upon fluids must be careful in resuming solid diet, for the rapidity of recuperation of the digestive organs varies in different persons, and taking meats ...
-Diet In Typhoid Fever
Pathological Physiology Careful nursing and diet regulation are the life-saving agents in typhoid fever. In few diseases does a closer relation exist between right feeding and symptoms. In avera...
-Diet In Typhoid Fever. Part 2
Quantity Of Milk Required If milk is the only food, enough should be given, and the problem of what constitutes enough must be solved in each case separately. Much harm is done by overfeeding, whic...
-Diet In Typhoid Fever. Part 3
(B) The Milk May Be Given Raw The Milk May Be Given Raw, boiled, diluted with plain water, barley water, lime water, Vichy, Seltzer, or Apollinaris, or pan-creatinised according to taste and need. ...
-Diet In Typhoid Fever. Part 4
Farinaceous Gruels I have alluded to the occasional advantage of giving farinaceous gruels, for, despite the fact that many writers are opposed to them on the ground that they may excite tympany, I...
-Diet In Typhoid Fever. Part 5
Relation Of Intestinal Antisepsis To Diet It is said that bacilli fed on beef juice produce ptomaines which act more strongly upon the nervous system than if they are fed upon milk (Rachford). The ...
-Diet In Typhoid Fever. Part 6
The Stomach The dangers of overfeeding with milk have already been considered upon page 433. Milk disagrees with 30 many patients sooner or later, and the fermentation processes of which it is capa...
-Diet In Typhoid Fever. Part 7
Rules For Feeding In Atypical Cases If at any time during convalescence after several days of a normal temperature it begins to rise above 100 or 100.5 F. it is safest to return at once ...
-Typhoid Fever In Children
Typhoid fever in young children is rare. When it occurs in infants between two and five years of age they must be fed, if possible, exclusively upon milk in some form, predigested if necessary, but in...
-Diet In Typhus Fever
In general the dietetic treatment of typhus fever should be the same as that of typhoid fever, but as intestinal ulceration is absent from the former, the extreme care of the alimentary canal is less ...
-Diet In Smallpox
The invasion of smallpox is usually abrupt, and the temperature may reach 1040 F. on the first day. There are anorexia, thirst, vomiting, and prostration, in addition to other symptoms. The fever cont...
-Diet In Scarlet Fever
In mild cases of scarlet fever the temperature subsides in a few days, and after that time, during the period of desquamation, special care in the diet is unnecessary unless nephritis is present. Whil...
-Diet In Measles
The diet in ordinary cases of measles does not require special care beyond that described under the section on Diet in Fever in General. The appetite is usually wanting in the prodromal and eruptive s...
-Diet In Whooping Cough
In whooping cough the paroxysms of coughing are so severe as to give rise to vomiting, and in bad cases they are excited by taking food which does not have an opportunity to become assimilated, and nu...
-Diet In Influenza
Symptoms Influenza is an acute and moderately infectious fever of microbic origin which is recognised by catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper air passages, and by symptoms re...
-Diet In Diphtheria
Symptoms Diphtheria is an acute, infectious disease characterised by croupous inflammation of mucous membranes which particularly affects the pharynx and upper air passages. Clinically the disease ...
-Diet In Tracheotomy
The operation of tracheotomy is performed for obstructions of various kinds, such as accumulation of diphtheritic membrane in the larynx, oedema of the glottis, laryngeal new growths, etc. The conditi...
-Diet In Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis
Symptoms Cerebro-spinal meningitis is an infectious disease of microbic origin, in which the chief lesions are an inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. This inflammation of the...
-Diet In Erysipelas
Symptoms Erysipelas is an infectious disease caused by a specific micrococcus, and characterised by high fever and intense local inflammation of the skin and contiguous mucous membrane. There is us...
-Diet In Cholera
Dietetic Prophylaxis Cholera is a zymotic disease, the germs of which can only enter the system by the mouth, and they are spread chiefly through the agency of contaminated water used for drinking ...
-Diet In Cholera. Continued
Second Period The stools become more frequent and serous. They are almost continuous, and enormous quantities of fluid are rapidly drained from the system, in which whitish flakes of desquamated in...
-Diet In Yellow Fever
Symptoms Yellow fever is an acute, infectious disease characterised by a sharp febrile paroxysm, gastric haemorrhage, jaundice and suppression of urine. The nature of the symptoms is exceedingly ac...
-Diet In Yellow Fever. Part 2
Treatment Of The First Period The patient must be immediately put to bed and kept absolutely free from excitement. Rest in a recumbent position must be carefully enjoined, and the patient must not ...
-Diet In Yellow Fever. Part 3
Treatment Of The Second And Third Periods During the interval of the second period abatement of the fever and of the gastric irritation may admit of a little nourishment being taken by the stomach....
-Diet In Septicaemia
In all septic conditions the diet must be made as nutritious as possible, and alcoholic stimulation may be required, brandy or whisky being the best forms. As a rule, the diet must be fluid, but in ve...
-Diet In Malaria
Intermittent Fevers The dietetic management of malarial fevers consists of the treatment during the paroxysms and of that between them. In intermittent fever the paroxysms, although severe, are com...
-Diet In Tetanus
Symptoms Tetanus is an acute infection produced by a bacillus which enters the body through an abraded surface, develops toxins in the system, and causes greatly exaggerated irritability of the cen...
-Diet In Rabies
In feeding a patient with rabies, substantially the same plan is to be followed as that above described for tetanus. In some cases, however, even in the early stages, all efforts to swallow fluid food...
-Diet In Tuberculosis
Causation Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, due to the presence in some part of the body of the Bacillus tuberculosis. The disease may be either acute or chronic, but fever is present whenever...
-Diet In Tuberculosis. Continued
If much hectic fever is present, it is desirable to employ the intervals when the temperature is low for feeding, and it often happens that a hearty meal taken between 7 and 10 a. m. may be better dig...
-Diet In Tuberculosis. Part 2
Fats And Oils Fats and oils are indicated in tubercular disease, and especially in pulmonary phthisis, in as large amounts as the patient may be able to digest. Crisp fat bacon, butter, cream, whol...
-Foods Allowed In Non-Active Cases Without Gastric Catarrh
Soups and broths: Mutton, oyster, clam, barley, vermicelli, bouillon, chicken with rice. Purees of peas, beans, tomatoes, celery. It is often well to add to them meat extracts, peptonoids, beef mea...
-Foods Allowed In Non-Active Cases Without Gastric Catarrh. Continued
Diet In Advanced Cases It not rarely happens that patients who have suffered much from indigestion in the earlier stages of phthisis finally reach a condition in which, although greatly emaciated a...
-Suralimentation
Suralimentation, called also superalimentation, or forced feeding, is based upon the theory that the best method to combat the symptoms of phthisis is by stuffing the patient with all the food ...
-Diet "Cures" For Phthisis
Many special forms of dietetic treatment have been devised and extensively practised for the cure of pulmonary tuberculosis. The details of these cures are elsewhere described. The principal ones ar...
-Diet In Diseases Of The Respiratory System
Laryngismus Stridulus In children who are subject to spasmodic croup the attacks are often precipitated by dyspepsia caused by overfeeding and nursing, by improper food, or by constipation. The die...
-Diet In Haemorrhage Of The Lungs
Haemorrhage of the lungs, or rather from the bronchial mucous membrane, when occurring suddenly and in considerable amount, greatly reduces the strength, and naturally alarms the patient and excites t...
-Diet In Bronchitis
Acute Capillary Bronchitis In acute capillary bronchitis in infants and children a wholly fluid diet of the simplest but most nutritious kind must be enforced. In young infants milk alone, in older...
-Diet In Asthma
Spasmodic bronchial asthma is believed to be occasioned by temporary spasm of the bronchial muscles which narrows the lumen of the tubules and obstructs the free entrance and exit of air. It is also a...
-Diet In Emphysema
Patients suffering from emphysema have more or less engorgement of the venous circulation, and hence are liable to catarrh of the stomach and intestines. The dyspnoea from which they suffer on exertio...
-Diet In Pneumonia
Symptoms Pneumonia is an infectious inflammatory disease of the lungs, accompanied by grave constitutional disturbances, such as fever and rapid and enfeebled heart action. The mortality at some se...
-Diet In Broncho-Pneumonia
Symptoms Broncho-pneumonia is common at the extremes of age, in the very old and very young. The mortality is greatest in children under two years of age. It is the sequel to many of the acute dise...
-Diet In Diseases Of The Circulatory System And Blood
Diseases Of The Heart The proper dietetic treatment of advanced heart disease deserves careful consideration, for on it to a great extent depends the patient's comfort, if not the prolongation of h...
-Diet In Cardiac Valvular Disease In Children
Children who have chronic valvular disease or enlargement of the heart, but who are not strictly confined to bed, should be closely supervised in regard to their habits of eating. They should eat slow...
-Dietetic Treatment Of The Senile Heart
In persons past middle life the heart may become enfeebled from a variety of causes independent of inflammatory conditions or valvular lesions. Fatty degeneration is a very common cause of such weakne...
-Diet In Angina Pectoris
The only indication to be met in the dietetic treatment of angina pectoris is to reduce the arterial tension. A vegetable diet with restricted fluids, and no alcohol, is to be recommended. These patie...
-Diet In Cardiac Palpitation
The dietetic treatment of cardiac palpitation is sufficiently indicated under the heading of Flatulent Dyspepsia. Overeating should be avoided, as well as all stimulating foods and beverages. Tea, cof...
-Diet In Arterio-Sclerosis
The aetiology of arterio-sclerosis is varied. In many cases it is traceable to toxaemias, as lead poisoning, gout, chronic alcoholism, or syphilis. In other cases it accompanies autointoxication from ...
-Diet In Aneurism
In aneurism of the larger arteries the vessel wall is dilated and thinned, and rupture is liable to occur at any time from increase of the blood pressure or obstruction to the circulation produced by ...
-Anaemia - Chlorosis
Pathological Physiology The proper nutrition of all the tissues of the body is directly dependent upon the quality of the blood plasma and of the amount of oxygen conveyed by the corpuscles. A very...
-Diet In Anaemia - Chlorosis
The dietetic treatment of anaemia requires, in the first place, that the most nutritious food should be supplied; secondly, care must be taken to insure its complete digestion and absorption. In all c...
-Diet In Pernicious Anaemia
Hunter argues for the use of an exclusively farinaceous diet for pernicious anaemia, on the ground that in health a proteid diet causes more extensive destruction of the corpuscular elements of the bl...
-Diet In Diseases Of The Urinary System
Modifications In The Urine Caused By Food The quantity as well as the composition of the food eaten exercises an important influence over the composition of the urine. Animal food increases the aci...
-Diet In Acute Nephritis
Symptoms Acute nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys, which is principally caused by exposure to cold and wet, by certain medicinal poisons, or by the toxins developed in the course of acute ...
-Albuminuria
Pathological Physiology Albuminuria may be produced by alterations in the composition of the blood and by structural or functional changes in the kidney itself, or by both. The albumin is derived f...
-Functional Albuminuria
Functional Albuminuria Temporary functional albuminuria is now recognised as occurring in many individuals without the significance of any structural or organic lesion of the kidney. This subject h...
-Diet In Chronic Bright's Disease
Causation Chronic interstitial nephritis may be of primary origin, or it may occur as a result of arterio-fibrosis and other conditions. It is usually a very slow process, and is often provoked by ...
-Diet In Chronic Bright's Disease. Continued
It is very important to thoroughly cleanse the mouth after drinking the milk, in order to avoid coating of the tongue and the disagreeable taste which destroys the appetite and interferes with the eff...
-Diet In Pyelitis
Most cases require abundant fluid, such as alkaline mineral waters, for the purpose of washing out the pelvis of the kidney, and if there is much irritation or painful micturition, it is well for the ...
-Diet In Oxaluria
The condition of oxaluria may be unsuspected by the patient, or it may attract his attention by a sensation of burning in the urethra, desire for frequent micturition, headache, nervousness, etc. ...
-Diet In Calculi, Renal And Vesical
Beverages When the presence of vesical calculus has been demonstrated it becomes important to regulate the diet so as to prevent, if possible, aggravation of the trouble. Not much is to be hoped fr...
-Diet In Lithaemia - Uric-Acid Diathesis - Gravel
Symptoms Lithaemia is a condition in which the blood contains an excess of uric acid or its salts, and is usually productive of such symptoms as insomnia, vertigo, tinnitus aurium, disagreeable ful...
-Diet In Gonorrhoea
The dietetic treatment of gonorrhoea consists in avoiding all alcohol and stimulating food and drinking bland diluents. In severe cases, and in cases among young children who have in some manner be...
-Diet In Diseases Of The Alimentary Canal
Diet In Abnormal Dentition In abnormal dentition in children the food is imperfectly masticated, and gastric dyspepsia or gastric catarrh may follow. If dentition is delayed and the teeth are imper...
-Diet In Tonsilitis And Quinsy
These diseases require no special care in the acute stage beyond giving food in such fluid form as can be most easily swallowed. The pain caused by this act is often so extreme that it is advisable to...
-Diet In Tonsilitis And Quinsy. Continued
Stricture And Carcinoma Of The Esophagus In diseases of the oesophagus which render swallowing difficult all food must be given in semisolid or fluid form. Many vegetable substances can be made int...
-Diet In Foreign Bodies Swallowed
When foreign bodies have been accidentally swallowed, such as coins, buttons, safety or other pins, large cherry, plum, or other fruit stones, fish bones, chicken bones, or pieces of clam or oyster sh...
-Diet In Indigestion And Dyspepsia
Symptoms Indigestion and dyspepsia are terms which refer essentially to functional slight and often temporary derangement of the digestive system, although these conditions may result from many var...
-Diet In Indigestion And Dyspepsia. Part 2
Etiology, Idiosyncrasies Personal idiosyncrasy is a very potent factor in dyspepsia. Not only do individuals vary from one another in this regard, but the same person varies at different periods, i...
-Diet In Indigestion And Dyspepsia. Part 3
Slow Eating A simple explanation of the normal physiology of digestion will often interest an intelligent patient and secure his hearty co-operation in methods suggested for his cure, which otherwi...
-Diet In Indigestion And Dyspepsia. Part 4
Test Meals The composition of the gastric juice is best determined by following lavage by a test meal. After a definite period the stomach tube is again introduced and a sample of the stomach conte...
-Chemical Test For Free Hydrochloric Acid
A number of chemical tests have been devised for the detection of hydrochloric acid. Ginzberg's Test For Free Hydrochloric Acid Phloroglucin............................................ 2 Vani...
-Acid Salts
If the litmus dipped into the gastric juice neutralised by CaCo3 is reddened, the presence of acid salts (phosphates) is indicated. The normal gastric free hydrochloric acid maintains a remarkable ...
-Hypersecretion Of Gastric Juice
Hypersecretion of gastric juice is determined by withdrawing the contents of the stomach in the morning after lavage the previous evening. If more than fifty cubic centimetres are obtained, hypersecre...
-Clinical Value Of The Chemical Tests Of Gastric Contents
It is extremely important not to place too much reliance upon a single gastric juice analysis, for the following reasons: (a) The test meals are usually not sufficiently appetising to stimulate copiou...
-Test For Motor Power Of The Stomach
The motor power of the stomach is demonstrated in various ways. Leube's Method Leube's method is to empty the stomach after the ingestion of a Leube's test dinner (p. 523), or Ewald's test break...
-Test For Absorptive Power Of The Stomach
This test, as devised by Penzoldt and Faber, is very simple. Into an empty stomach are taken three grains of potassium iodide in a clean gelatine capsule, with a wineglassful of water. The saliva i...
-Dietetic Treatment Of Dyspepsia
The foregoing details of the clinical examination of the digestive power of the stomach have been given in this connection as a convenient place to summarise them. It is not intended to imply that eve...
-Dietetic Treatment Of Dyspepsia. Part 2
B. Foods Occasionally Allowable There are foods which may be allowed to some patients but not to others, and many of them constitute exceptions to the foregoing general rules. Such are: Vegetabl...
-Dietetic Treatment Of Dyspepsia. Part 3
Special Systems Of Treatment The following systems of treating dyspepsia are condensed from the writings of several of the best-known dietists: Dujardin-Beaumetz divides dyspepsia into three cla...
-Rules For Special Varieties Of Dyspepsia
Dyspepsia With Excessive Flatulency This often occurs in nervous women, and is especially annoying at night. Avoid particularly all sweets and amylaceous food. Take no fluid with meals. Drink ho...
-Diet In Dyspepsia In Children
Children vomit much more easily than adults when they have taken improper food, and often suffer less in consequence, although, if such food is retained, they may have a gastric fever with a greater r...
-Diet In Acute Gastric Catarrh
Causation Acute gastric catarrh is commonly due to dietetic errors, although it is also excited in other ways. The dietetic causes are: 1. Food taken in too large quantity. 2. Food too hastil...
-Diet In Acute Gastric Catarrh - Gastric Fever In Children
Acute gastric catarrh in infants is oftenest due to improper feeding. It is also excited, or rather promoted, by teething and other reflex irritations which interfere with the normal stomach functions...
-Diet In Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Chronic Gastritis
Causation Chronic gastric catarrh may be the outcome of such errors in diet as have been described as causative of the acute form. It commonly results, however, from alcoholic excess. It also accom...
-Diet In Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Chronic Gastritis. Part 2
Other Diet Should it prove impossible for the patient to digest enough milk to support strength, his diet should be supplemented with other articles of food, such as scraped meat or peptonised meat...
-Diet In Chronic Gastric Catarrh In Children
Children with chronic gastric catarrh should always eat their principal meal in the middle of the day, and take only a light supper. When of nervous temperament, they are apt to bolt their food wit...
-Diet In Dilatation Of The Stomach - Gastrectasia
Causation Dilatation of the stomach may result from stricture of its pyloric end, or from chronic gastric catarrh, in which case it is accompanied by the secretion of much tenacious mucus. The stri...
-Diet In Dilatation Of The Stomach - Gastrectasia. Part 2
Lavage In cases of either dilatation or catarrh of the stomach which fail to improve on restricted diet and other methods of treatment lavage or stomach washing becomes necessary. This is an entire...
-Diet In Dilatation Of The Stomach - Gastrectasia. Part 3
The quantity of water used in the washing should be measured so that it all may be siphoned out again, as it is undesirable to leave any fluid behind. When the tube is introduced for the first few ...
-Diet In Vomiting - Seasickness - Vomiting Of Pregnancy
Vomiting occurs as a symptom of so many diseases and functional derangements that it will be advantageous to consider collectively the general dietetic means for its relief. The details of treatment w...
-Diet In Sea Sickness
There is no known dietetic treatment of seasickness which is applicable to many cases. There are those who overeat because of the tonic of the bracing sea air. The idleness and lack of accustomed exer...
-Diet In Vomiting Of Pregnancy
The vomiting of pregnancy usually takes the form of simple morning sickness. This may not appear until the patient arises in the morning, when she feels faint, dizzy, and nauseated. Such cases are b...
-Diet In Ulcer Of The Stomach
In ulceration of the mucous membrane of the stomach there is danger of irritation of the abraded surface through either the chemical or mechanical action of the food. Excessive secretion of gastric ju...
-Diet In Cancer Of The Stomach
In cancer of the stomach, prolongation of the patient's life and personal comfort depends more upon the dietetic than any other form of treatment. Nourishment should be given in a concentrated and pre...
-Diet In Diarrhoea
Pathological Physiology Diarrhoea is commonly the result of excessive peristalsis. It may also be occasioned by the presence of a large volume of fluid in the intestine, caused either by lack of ab...
-Diarrhoea In Infants And Young Children
Dietetic Causes The dietetic causes of diarrhoea in infants and young children may be classed as due to - 1. Too frequent or irregular feeding. 2. Overfeeding. 3. Feeding with improper or sp...
-Diarrhoea In Infants And Young Children. Continued
Examination Of The Stools In all serious cases the stools should be examined, if possible, microscopically, to determine the degree of digestion and absorption of the food. The chief abnormal ingre...
-Diet In Enterocolitis In Infants And Children - Summer Diarrhoea
Summer diarrhoea is exceedingly fatal among infants in hot weather in densely populated localities, and they require very careful feeding for this disease. Intractable cases are prolonged for several ...
-Diet In Cholera Infantum, Or Acute Milk Infection
Cholera infantum is a gastro-intestinal disease of violent acute-ness, characterised by severe vomiting, purging by serous stools, collapse, very rapid emaciation, thirst, fever, and other symptoms. ...
-Diet In Cholera Morbus - Acute Catarrhal Enteritis In Adults
Cholera morbus may be caused by the ingestion of indigestible foods or improper drink, such as polluted water, or water or beer drunk in large quantity after long-continued thirst, or chilling after e...
-Diet In Intestinal Fermentation And Putrefaction, Autointoxication
Intestinal autointoxication is a toxaemia resulting from absorption of abnormal food products formed within the alimentary canal by bacterial action. This definition excludes ptomaine poisoning, milk,...
-Diet In Chronic Enteritis In Adults - Chronic Intestinal Catarrh - Chronic Colitis
In severe cases it is often advisable to put the patient upon a milk diet for several weeks. Except in tuberculous subjects this is often successful in effecting a cure. The milk may be skimmed or boi...
-Chronic Intestinal Indigestion In Children
Chronic intestinal indigestion in children should be treated by dieting rather than by medicines. Diligent inquiry must be made into the cause of the trouble, and the diet must be regulated accordingl...
-Diet In Chronic Gastro-Intestinal Catarrh - Chronic Enterocolitis - Chronic Diarrhoea In Children
These conditions in children should be treated by very careful regulation of the diet. Parents are apt to be ignorant in regard to this matter, and strict written rules should be furnished to them. Ch...
-Diet In Simple Atrophy - Marasmus
Marasmus is a form of starvation occurring chiefly in artificially fed infants, but also in those at the breast, in whom there is great wasting of the muscular and other soft tissues, and sometimes ca...
-Diet In Mucous Disease - Chronic Pseudo-Membranous Gastro-Enteritis - Membranous Enteritis
Pathological Physiology Mucous disease is an obstinate chronic affection in which large quantities of thick, ropy mucus are formed in the alimentary canal, but chiefly in the large intestine. The d...
-Diet In Chronic Dysentery
Chronic dysentery is often best treated by an exclusive milk diet of from two and a half to three quarts a day, with rest in bed or on the lounge. In other cases rare steak or roast beef or chicken an...
-Diet In Chronic Constipation
Physiology The periodic daily evacuations of the bowels are determined by peristaltic contractions of the muscular wall of the intestines excited by their contents. The thick fluid condition of the...
-Diet In Chronic Constipation. Continued
Oils Olive oil and cod-liver oil, if taken at bedtime into an empty stomach, are laxatives for some persons, particularly children. Adults may take a dessertspoonful of best Lucca oil with each ...
-Part VIII. Aids To Dietetic Treatment
It is an important and infallible rule in cases of chronic constipation that hygienic as well as dietetic treatment should supersede the use of medicine. It is very necessary to establish a uniform ho...
-Aids To Dietetic Treatment. Part 2
Medicines Discussion of the medicinal treatment of constipation is not within the scope of this work, but the practice of continually taking laxatives and strong cathartics cannot be too strongly c...
-Constipation In Infants And Children
In earliest infancy from two to three daily evacuations from the bowels are considered a normal number, but in childhood, as in adults, one passage is normal. In later infancy constipation is exceedin...
-Diet In Hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids usually complicate cirrhosis of the liver sooner or later, but they also result from chronic constipation and other causes. The dietetic treatment is substantially that of chronic constipa...
-Diet In Appendicitis
Causation Appendicitis is mainly interesting from the dietetic standpoint on account of the possible causative relation of certain food residues. In about one third of the cases fecal concretions a...
-Diet In Biliousness (Oversecretion Of Bile)
Symptoms Biliousness is an unscientific but very convenient term employed to express functional disorder of the liver, usually accompanied by an oversecretion of bile, which is often vomited. The...
-Diet In Biliousness. Part 2
In regard to the suggestions given below, it must be remembered that they are very general, and are applicable rather to the chronic types of hepatic disease, although they will serve also for those a...
-Diet In Acute Catarrhal Inflammation Of The Gall Ducts - Angiocholitis - Catarrhal Jaundice
A bland or non-stimulating diet must be given in the acute stage of angiocholitis. Vomiting is sometimes present, or it may be artificially induced as part of the treatment, so that the stomach is not...
-Diet In Cirrhosis - Ascites
Causation Cirrhosis is a disease of the liver occasioned by irritation of that organ by substances in the blood derived more particularly from the portal system after direct absorption from the int...
-Diet In Ascites
Pathological Physiology A further important symptom which is seldom absent towards the close of a protracted cirrhosis, if the patient lives long enough, is ascites. This is an accumulation of seru...
-Diet In Fatty Liver
Pathological Physiology The liver is the great storehouse of latent energy in the body, which is accumulated in glycogen and fat. A certain proportion of fat is to-be regarded as a normal constitue...
-Diet In Gallstones
Pathological Physiology Gallstones are formed in the gall bladder or larger bile ducts by precipitation from the bile of choles-terin, mixed with more or less mucus. Occasionally they contain the b...
-Diet In Pancreatic Diseases
Disease of the pancreas is usually impossible to diagnosticate with accuracy until it is far advanced, and but little can be expected from dietetic treatment. Since the pancreatic juice is on every ac...
-Diet In Neuralgia - Gastralgia - Enteralgia
Causation Neuralgia is a term applied to a variety of nerve pains which may be associated with organic lesions of various structures which irritate the peripheral nerves, or which may be purely fun...
-Diet In Visceral Neuralgias
The visceral neuralgias are produced in the sympathetic nerves chiefly. The digestive viscera - stomach, intestines, liver, etc. - in a normal state are free from sensory impressions, but their nerves...
-Diet In Gastralgia
Causation In neuralgia of the stomach, called gastralgia, or gastrodynia, the pain is situated in the epigastrium, penetrating to the back. It is distinctly localised and intense. It may be paroxys...
-Diet In Migraine
Migraine, or sick headache, is a neurosis characterised by pain in the course of the fifth nerve, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, mental depression, and local vasomotor disorders. There ar...
-Neurasthenia
Causation Neurasthenia is a condition of loss of tone of the nervous system which is of a functional rather than an organic character. It is also called nervous exhaustion or nervous prostration. S...
-Neurasthenia. Part 2
The Rest Cure At the commencement of treatment in severe cases the patient must lie absolutely quiet in bed and not be even allowed to raise the arms or head to take food. After a week or ten day...
-Diet In Neurasthenia
Dietetic Treatment The feeding of the patient must be based upon the principle of giving all the nourishment which can be assimilated. The stools should be carefully watched from day to day to make...
-Diet In Neurasthenia. Part 2
Playfair's Diet Playfair's diet for neurasthenia is a good example of a milk diet, soon combined with other foods, as follows: First Day Twenty-two ounces of milk in divided doses. Second ...
-Diet In Neurasthenia. Part 3
Keating's Diet Keating's diet for neurasthenia is adapted to patients who need not be kept constantly in bed. It is as follows: At 6 a. m., a tumblerful of strong hot beef tea; 8 a. m., a half t...
-Diet In Insomnia And Disordered Sleep
Insomnia is due to many causes, but those which concern dietetics are the opposite extremes of overfeeding and starvation or inanition. Overfeeding or eating improper food may cause disordered sleep, ...
-Diet In Vertigo
Vertigo, although it arises from many causes, may be occasioned by digestive disorders, such as the production of flatulency and palpitation, or by the absorption of products of indigestion which act ...
-Diet In Chorea
Mild cases of chorea require no special regulation of diet beyond that which is directed towards the prevention of flatulent dyspepsia (p. 534) and constipation (p. 582). In more pronounced cases it i...
-Diet In Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a functional nervous disorder, which may often be considerably improved by careful attention to diet. A very large proportion of cases occur in childhood at a period when existing function...
-Diet In Beri-Beri
Beri-beri is a form of multiple neuritis very rarely imported into this country by Chinese, Ceylonese, Japanese, or Philippine Islanders, who have acquired it in their native countries or on the voyag...
-Diet In Locomotor Ataxia
Locomotor ataxia is a disease which cannot be said to be particularly influenced by any system of dietetic treatment, although it is believed by some writers that the quantity of meat ordinarily eaten...
-Diet In Apoplexy
The several forms of cerebral haemorrhage may interfere with nutrition in a variety of ways. If coma is present, voluntary deglutition being suspended, great care must be exercised in feeding the pati...
-Diet In Acute Insanity - Melancholia - Primary Dementia - Mania
Acute insanity may result from overwork or severe mental strain, or from numerous diseases. It overtaxes the vital powers and causes wasting, inanition, and exhaustion. As the symptoms may result quit...
-Diet In Skin Diseases
It has long been known that a relation exists between various errors in diet and certain skin diseases, but it is only within the past ten or fifteen years that attention has been directed to the impo...
-Diet In Erythema - Urticaria
Either acute erythema or urticaria may be caused in some persons by eating fish, and particularly shellfish and crustaceans, as oysters, clams, lobsters, shrimps, and crabs. It is also produced by str...
-Diet In Acne
Causation The larger number of cases of acne are produced by improper food. The papules and pustules which constitute acne are caused by inspissation of the oil of the sebaceous glands, which plugs...
-Diet In Eczema
Causation Eczema, both acute and chronic, which constitutes so large a proportion of all cases of skin diseases, is provoked by different causes, but in a great number of instances its origin is di...
-Diet In Eczema In Nursing Infants
Bulkley points out that eczema in nursing infants is mainly due to dietetic errors of the mother, for whom, rather than for the child, treatment should be instituted. He prohibits the drinking of all ...
-Diet In Eczema In Children
Eczema in young children is often due to dietetic errors, and in all cases care should be exercised to cure it by regulation of the food. The commonest fault in feeding young children consists in givi...
-Diet In Exfoliative Dermatitis
Exfoliative dermatitis should be treated upon substantially the same dietetic plan as eczema. An exclusive milk diet for a month or six weeks may prove beneficial. Jackson advises chewing flaxseed or ...
-Diet In Rosacea
Causation Rosacea is a chronic skin affection disfiguring the middle parts of the face, about the nose, mouth, cheeks, and sometimes the forehead, by red patches of dilated capillaries. It is re...
-Diet In Psoriasis
Causation Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterised by the appearance of isolated red patches of considerable size, covered by shining white scales. The aetiology of this eruption is not un...
-Diet In Furunculosis, Or Boils
Furunculosis is often wrongly attributed to dietetic errors or high living, but it is now known to be of germ origin due to the action of the Staphylococcus pyogenes and other micro-organisms which pe...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia)
Causation Obesity is a diseased condition of the body, depending upon alteration in the proper balance of nutrition, with an accumulation of fat in and between the tissues. It may affect either ...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Continued
The carbohydrates, like fat, can protect circulating albumin from destruction and aid its transformation to organic albumin, but it is not proved that they themselves make fat, as at first supposed, f...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Part 2
The Banting System The diet which Mr. Banting practised upon himself in 1862 with considerable success, and which bears his name, was exceedingly rigid in regard to restricting the quantity of food...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Part 3
The Oertel System A more recent system for the dietetic treatment of obesity is that practised by Oertel and modified by Schweninger. The distinctive feature of the Oertel treatment is the attentio...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Part 4
Oertel's Diet For Obesity Morning One cup of coffee or tea, with a little milk - altogether about six ounces; bread, about three ounces. Noon Three to four ounces of soup, seven to eight o...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Part 5
Schleicher's Diet For Obesity Breakfast, 7 A. M A mutton or veal cutlet or a portion of sole as big as the palm of the hand; the same quantity of bread without butter. 8 A. M A cup of tea ...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Part 6
The Yeo System The diet recommended by Yeo is as follows: All fats and animal food are to be strictly limited, and farinaceous and starchy foods should be reduced to a minimum. Sugar must be entire...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Part 7
The Meat And Hot-Water Treatment This method is a treatment for obesity and chronic gastric catarrh, which consists in the restriction of the diet exclusively for several weeks to large quantities ...
-Diet In Obesity (Polysarcia). Part 8
The Chambers System Day's Regimen For A Three Weeks' Course Rise at 7. Rub the body well with horsehair gloves, have a cold bath, take a short turn in the open air. Breakfast at 8 or 8.30, on th...
-"Anti-Fat" Remedies
A host of quack nostrums are offered to a credulous public under the claim that they reduce corpulency. Some of them have achieved reputation because while they are taken the patient is also induced t...
-Diet For Leanness
The foods which tend to produce fat in the body are chiefly sugars and starches. Eating fat in excess does not necessarily cause fat to accumulate in the system, for it may be completely oxidised. ...
-Diet In Acute Rheumatism
Causation It has not been proved that any special articles of diet lead to the development of rheumatism, although indulgence in sweets, starchy foods, and malt liquors is sometimes held responsibl...
-Diet In Arthritis Deformans
Causation Arthritis deformans is a chronic disease in which the joints of the body, and particularly those of the extremities, are affected. The alterations in joint structures are produced mainly ...
-Diet In Arthritis Deformans. Continued
Preventive Treatment The prophylactic treatment of gout in those who inherit a constitutional predisposition to the disease is very important. From birth onward the children of gouty parents should...
-Diet For The Gouty Diathesis And Chronic Gout
In the following dietary a liberal variety of foods will be found, some of which may be selected and changed from time to time according to need in the intervals between the exacerbations or in chroni...
-Diet For The Gouty Diathesis And Chronic Gout. Part 2
Farinaceous Food Farinaceous food is allowable, and in the acute stage of gout it should constitute the main diet. Bread (not fresh), rice, sago, tapioca, oatmeal, cracked wheat, may all be eaten. ...
-Diet For The Gouty Diathesis And Chronic Gout. Part 3
Tea, Coffee, Etc Tea and coffee are admissible among beverages for the gouty, and it will be found that they are less likely to cause dyspepsia if taken quite weak without sugar. A quarter of a gra...
-Diet For The Gouty Diathesis And Chronic Gout. Part 4
Saline Waters Alkaline and saline mineral waters have a well-deserved reputation for benefiting gout. Many persons, especially obese gouty subjects, are helped by taking one or two courses of tr...
-Diet In Diabetes Mellitus
Nature Of The Disease Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterised by the passage of a large quantity of urine containing grape sugar or glucose and usually of high specific gravity - 1.035 or more...
-Diet In Diabetes Mellitus. Continued
Overindulgence In Food There is some doubt whether any one article of diet can determine an attack of diabetes, although inordinate eating of candy, preserves, raisins, fruit, confections, etc., ma...
-Relation Of Diabetes To Gout And Other Diseases
The frequent association of gout and diabetes has long been observed, and in gouty glycosuria (Brunton) comparison is made between the chronic hyperemia of the diabetic liver and the acute hyperemia...
-The Pancreas And Diabetes
Extirpation of the pancreas in man has been shown by William T. Bull to sometimes produce diabetes, and experimental extirpation of this gland in dogs has the same result. In many, but not all fatal c...
-The Nervous System And Diabetes
It is a curious fact that the irritation or puncture of a very circumscribed area in the floor of the fourth ventricle in the medulla is followed by the appearance of sugar in the urine. This spot is ...
-The Circulation And Diabetes
The occurrence of diabetes in connection with acute inflammations of the liver and passive hepatic congestion secondary to advanced cardiac disease favours the hypothesis that glycosuria may be develo...
-Various Theories Of Diabetes
Huppert, Pettenkofer, and Voit advocate the following theory: Sugar, like urea, is a normal product of the decomposition of albuminous bodies. In health the sugar is oxidised; in diabetes less oxygen ...
-Symptoms of Diabetes
The most important symptoms of a typical case of diabetes which are to be combated by diet are (a) extreme thirst, (b) the large quantity of urine voided and rapid emaciation and loss of strength. ...
-Symptoms of Diabetes. Continued
The Skin And Bowels Because so much water is eliminated in the urine there is scarcely any perspiration, and the skin becomes dry and wrinkled, the face looks drawn and pinched, and the eyes are ho...
-Course, Prognosis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes
Course The course of diabetes is so protracted that there is abundant opportunity and usually necessity for trying dietetic experiments, for it will be found impossible to establish rules for diete...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes
General Observations When prescribing any dietetic regimen for diabetic patients, the general condition of bodily nutrition must be carefully considered. Obese, naturally robust, and sometimes gout...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Continued
With regard to the suddenness with which the diabetic regimen should be adopted by the patient, it is found to be the rule that it is easier for most patients to begin with the fully restricted diet a...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 2
Foods Allowed In Diabetes Soups and broths made of meat of any kind without vegetables, ox-tail and turtle soup, gumbo, curry. Eggs in any form. Crustaceans, crabs, lobsters, shrimp. Fresh...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 3
A Useful Diabetic Diet In Detail I recommend the following dietary (alternatives in brackets): Breakfast, 8 A. M A sour orange [grape fruit, melon]; eggs, scrambled, with much butter; fresh m...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 4
Substitutes For Bread After all, the problem of selecting a suitable starchy food for the diabetic is governed as much by the necessity of furnishing some form of food which will satisfy the cravin...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 5
James Stewart's Diabetic Bread Take one quart of sweet milk or milk and water, one heaping teaspoonful of good butter, one fifth of a cake of compressed yeast beaten up with a little water, and tw...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 6
Camplin's Bran Bread Boil one quart of wheat bran in two successive waters, wash in a sieve with hot water until the water runs through clear. Squeeze in a cloth after each washing. Spread thinly ...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 7
Kiilz's Inulin Biscuits Fifty grammes of inulin are to be put in a large porcelain basin, and while standing over a water bath to be rubbed up with thirty cubic centimetres of milk, and as much ho...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 8
Cooking Care should be exercised in the preparation and cooking of the food for diabetic patients that injurious ingredients are not added for the purpose of flavouring or thickening. For this reas...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 9
Beverages Forbidden As a rule, patients always do better without alcohol, and strong spirits should be absolutely interdicted as well as sweet and sparkling wines of every kind, all wines with bou...
-Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes. Part 10
Ebstein's Diabetic Diet Early Breakfast One cup of coffee or tea (black), without milk and sugar. White bread toasted, thirty to fifty grammes; or brown bread well buttered - butter, twenty to t...
-Medicinal Treatment Of Diabetes
The medicinal treatment of diabetes is exceedingly unsatisfactory. In a certain proportion of cases of diabetes cure may result by exclusive dietetic treatment. There are others in which the use of me...
-Diet In Rhachitis (Rickets)
Causation Rickets is a disease of malnutrition. The fault may lie in a hereditary weakness of the digestive organs, or the influence of some disease, but the majority of cases are directly caused b...
-Diet In Scurvy
Causation Scurvy is a disease dependent upon malnutrition, which is customarily attributed fo lack of fresh vegetables in the dietary; but this statement is somewhat vague, in that it is not exactl...
-Diet In Haemorrhagic Purpura
With regard to idiopathic purpura, which sometimes appears in well-nourished subjects, it has been stated that a non-stimulating diet, by reducing the activity of the heart, may prevent the recurrence...
-Diet In Addison's Disease
The aetiology of this affection is somewhat obscure, but in the majority of instances it results from tuberculosis or other disease of the adrenal bodies, perhaps associated with functional or organic...
-Diet In Osteomalacia
The dietetic treatment of the condition of osteomalacia is suggested by what is known of its aetiology, but the results are seldom encouraging. It is characterised by progressive softening of the bone...
-Diet In Exophthalmic Goitre
It is only very advanced cases of exophthalmic goitre with considerable cardiac palpitation that require careful dieting. The indications for treatment are to support the strength and avoid flatulency...
-Diet In Chronic Lead Poisoning
Causation Chronic lead poisoning is common among all artisans or mechanics who work much with lead in any form, but especially white lead. Plumbers and house painters are therefore particularly sub...
-Diet For Surgical Patients And After Operations, Etc
Food And Anaesthetics Preparation For The Administration Of Anaesthetics When an anaesthetic, such as ether or chloroform, is to be given, care should be exercised that the stomach is empty, oth...
-Diet After Anaesthesia
Ether, much more than chloroform, is apt to occasion prolonged nausea and vomiting after its administration has ceased, and this may last in very susceptible persons for a day or two. In all cases whe...
-Diet After Surgical Operations And Injuries
Fractures, wounds, bruises, ulcers, and all surgical injuries naturally heal the sooner the better the condition of the blood. Abundant nourishing diet, properly selected in regard to its ready digest...
-Diet After Laparotomy, Ovariotomy, Etc
After all operations involving opening the peritoneal cavity complete rest of the stomach is necessary for at least four or six hours, and not infrequently for two or three days. Food and stimulants m...
-Diet In Surgical Inflammations, Sepsis, Etc
The diet in surgical inflammatory conditions was formerly reduced to a minimum, with the idea that the healing process would be more sure if the stimulating influence of food was removed, and that the...
-Part IX. Rations, Dietaries. Army And Navy Diets
The food furnished to soldiers and sailors, both in time of peace and war, is more accurately weighed and measured, and its effects are more accurately studied, for economic reasons than is the diet o...
-Rations, Dietaries. Army And Navy Diets. Continued
Kean's Proposed Tropical Ration Articles. Quantities per ration (ounces). Saving authorized (ounces). Meat compo...
-Emergency Rations
For scouting parties, troops under forced marching, or under any circumstances which make the supply of the ordinary ration impossible, an emergency ration for temporary service is necessary. The time...
-Emergency Rations. Continued
As stated by Major Woodruff, the United States is the only nation in the world that in time of peace pretends to supply the entire ration. Soldiers living in densely populated European countries suppl...
-Diet In Prisons
In prisons, penitentiaries, or reformatories the diet should be adapted to keep the patients in good health through periods of years, while it is maintained at a minimum of expense to the community. A...
-The Milk Cure
An exclusive diet of milk as a cure for certain chronic diseases is advocated by some physicians, and in whose hands it has met with considerable success. Karell, of St. Petersburg, and Weir Mitchell ...
-The Milk Cure. Continued
Symptoms Accompanying The Treatment The frequent occurrence of constipation is a not unfavourable indication that the milk is being well digested and very completely absorbed, leaving but small res...
-The Whey Cure
The whey cure has been extensively practised in the mountainous regions of Germany and Switzerland and at various springs or baths, especially those of the alkaline waters, which latter are frequently...
-Various "Cures"
There are other diet systems or cures, which deserve passing mention rather as matter of general interest and as illustrations of the effects of strong mental impressions or mind cure combined w...
-Fruit Cures
The fruit cure has appeared in many forms. At one time it is confined to oranges, English walnuts, and cold water, and, strange to say, some dyspeptics are able to digest it for a short time; or it ...
-The Grape Cure
The grape cure has been advocated for many years as beneficial in certain forms of disease, but, like the majority of vaunted dietetic cures, it is almost certain that the chief benefit experienced ...
-Meat And Hot-Water Cure
The meat and hot-water cure, often called in this country by the name of Salisbury, one of its chief advocates, is given to many classes of patients - consumptives, rheumatic subjects, and others. Lea...
-The Dry Cure
The dry cure is the name given to the treatment which consists in withholding fluid from the diet in increasing degree until the patient takes just as little as is necessary to sustain life. If carr...
-Diet For Athletic Training
The object of dietetic training in athletics is to fit men either for feats of great muscular endurance and strength or for exhibitions of dexterity requiring accurate and quick muscular movements a...
-Dietary Of The Boat Crew At Yale University
From March ist till June 10th (ten weeks and a half), the hours of work are from 4 to 7 p. m., with exercise for an extra half hour or more at such odd times as recitations may permit. During this per...
-Diet Of Harvard University Crew
The Harvard University Boat Crew diet while in active training in 1898 was studied for six days by W. O. Atwater and A. P. Bryant. The average weight per man was 162 pounds. A daily loss of from 2 to ...
-Diet Of Pugilists, Jockeys, And Bicycle Racers
Chambers gives the following example of a diet used by pugilists: 7 a. m. Light breakfast: oatmeal with little or no milk and sugar; one to three eggs, poached or raw; a cup of tea with little or n...
-Diet And Occupation
There are some occupations which are more or less closely connected with dietetics. Workers in lead, plumbers, painters, polishers, pottery glaziers, et al, should be taught to be very careful to clea...
-Diet For Brain Workers
Persons who are constantly employed in mental labour, and consequently lead sedentary lives, usually find from experience, sooner or later, that they must pay attention to their diet in order to maint...
-Diet For Brain Workers. Continued
It is a mistake to suppose that violent muscular exercise is an offset to mental strain. Very moderate exercise combined with abundant fresh air and with mental diversion and relaxation are more benef...
-Diet In Commercial Life
The responsibilities and anxieties of active business life are apt at times to react unfavourably upon digestion, producing dyspepsia, headache, constipation, and biliousness. As a rule, there are few...
-Diet And Travel
In travelling one is often placed in circumstances in which it is difficult or impossible to obtain wholesome food, and must either be content with badly cooked or positively repugnant food, or go wit...
-Diet In Pregnancy
It is not customary to adopt any definite system of diet for pregnancy unless complications arise. If serious vomiting occurs in the early months, this should be treated in the manner described on p. ...
-Diet For Puerperal Women
Within the past thirty years a revolution has been experienced in the dietetic treatment of puerperal women, and they are no longer, as formerly, kept for ten days or a fortnight upon a diet of toast ...
-Selection Of A Wet Nurse
The selection of a wet nurse should be based upon the following data: Her own general health and digestion must be good, and her bowels not habitually constipated. All evidence of syphilis, scroful...
-Diet Of A Nursing Mother Or Wet Nurse
The diet of the nursing mother or wet nurse must be regulated, to prevent noxious substances from passing into the breast milk and to keep her in good health, so that she does not suffer from constipa...
-The Food Of Infants
Size Of The Infant's Stomach With regard to infant nursing, it is never sufficient to give general directions about an infant's food. The physician should supervise the exact mode of its preparatio...
-I And II. Feeding By The Mother Or Wet Nurse
Starr advises putting the infant to the breast as early as six or eight hours after labour is completed, which is good for both mother and child. For the mother it improves the nipple, stimulates the ...
-III. Feeding By The Bottle
When it becomes necessary to employ artificial feeding there are two principles upon which it may be conducted. The first and most extensively practised is to endeavour to obtain a food by modifying c...
-III. Feeding By The Bottle. Continued
Care Of The Milk In order to keep milk fresh and pure for infant use in hot weather it should be at once artificially cooled, and if intended for city consumption, during transportation both car an...
-IV. Mixed Feeding
There is no harm whatever in partly feeding infants with the bottle who are at the same time being nursed. If the mother is suffering from want of sleep she will be of more value to her infant if allo...
-V. Gavage
When infants have irritable stomachs, gastric catarrh, or when they persistently refuse food or are too feeble and marasmic to take sufficient food, they are fed by the method of gavage, which consi...
-Weaning
The period for weaning varies considerably, according to the health and vigour of both mother and infant. As a rule, it should be between the tenth and eighteenth month, ordinarily not before the tent...
-Artificial Infant Foods
Very young infants fed upon proprietary or prepared baby foods, to the greater or less exclusion of mother's or good cow's milk, soon become rhachitic or scorbutic. Wiederhofer says that the nu...
-Infant Stools
The stools of the infant should be observed from time to time in order to ascertain whether the milk is being properly digested. The stools of an infant fed exclusively on milk should number two (o...
-Nursing Bottles
Ever since the influence of bacteria upon the fermentation of milk has been established the necessity for observing carefully the most minute details for cleansing all the infant's feeding utensils ha...
-Care Of The Infant's Mouth
Cryer says that mothers or nurses in caring for the infant will give attention to dirty hands or face and bathe the body daily, but how few keep the mouth as clean! The teeth should be gently and tho...
-Weighing Of Infants
The systematic weighing of infants at least once a week is a very useful indication of the progress in nutrition and growth which they are making, and it should not be neglected. Budin reported som...
-Premature Infants
The feeding of premature infants demands unusual care. Their bodies are small; their vitality is low; their digestion is feeble, and their rate of heat loss is rapid. They are sometimes advantageously...
-Food For Young Children
The infant, although weaned, should receive all its food from the bottle until at least the twelfth month, and then very gradually a few other articles than milk or beef juice may be added. 51 Chil...
-Food For Young Children. Part 2
Foods Forbidden To All Young Children The following articles are particularly indigestible for children, and should not be allowed them under four years of age, and some of them should not be given...
-Food For Young Children. Part 3
Dietaries For Young Children The following diets are recommended by Starr as types for use from the period of weaning up to three and a half years or more: Diet From The Twelfth To The Eighteent...
-Food For Young Children. Part 4
Diet From Three And A Half Years Up (Starr) Breakfast Every day: Milk, porridge and cream, bread and butter. One dish only each day: Fresh fish, eggs lightly boiled, eggs poached, eggs scramb...
-Food For Young Children. Part 5
Holt's Sample Diet For A Child Four Years Old First Meal Half an orange, one and a half tablespoonfuls of oatmeal or hominy, well salted, with two tablespoonfuls of cream, but no sugar, and ...
-Diet For School Children
Too much attention cannot be given by teachers to the diet of the pupils under their care in boarding schools, and they should exercise some supervision in regard to the matter in day schools as well,...
-Diet For School Children. Part 2
Variety An important consideration in school diet is to prevent monotony, which becomes so common from economic reasons, or more often from carelessness. It is much easier to yield to routine and f...
-Diet For School Children. Part 3
A Sample Diet If early rising is insisted upon, a child should never be set at any task before breakfast, especially in winter, and if it is not expedient to serve a full breakfast at half past six...
-Diet For School Children. Part 4
Sweets The greater number of children have a natural craving for sweets. The important role of sugars in furnishing energy for the body has been discussed (p. 13), and the energy developed in activ...
-Hospital Dietaries
Statistics of the most economical quantity and quality of food for men in health, and under different conditions of activity, have been very accurately and practically determined, but such data for in...
-Hospital Dietaries. Part 2
IV. Nitrogenous Diet Nitrogenous Diet, or animal food, which is somewhat more used than the preceding diet, and from which sugars and almost all forms of starchy food excepting a little dried bread...
-Hospital Dietaries. Part 3
Sample Hospital Dietaries Dietary Of The New York Hospital All patients shall be furnished the regular house diet, unless otherwise specially directed by the attending physician or surgeon. As a s...
-Hospital Dietaries. Part 4
Dietary Of The Presbyterian Hospital, New York, 1901 Although the diet is very satisfactory and ample at the Presbyterian Hospital, New York, the food allowance per capita for patients is not separ...
-Hospital Dietaries. Part 5
Dietary Of The Roosevelt Hospital, New York The ward diet of the Roosevelt Hospital, New York city, is classified as follows: Full Diet Daily Meat, dressed, eight ounces; potatoes, eight o...
-Hospital Dietaries. Part 6
Dietary Of The Cook County Hospital, Chicago In the Cook County Hospital, of Chicago, the official diets are four - viz., ward diet, light diet, special diet, milk diet. Extras may be ordered, s...
-Hospital Dietaries. Part 7
Average Daily Dietary For Adult Women Patients, 1901, Not Including Milk, Eggs, Or Beef Tea For Special Cases Flour, meal, rice, or beans, uncooked.................. ˝ ounce. Bread.................
-Hospital Dietaries. Part 8
Dietary Of The Utica State Hospital For The Insane Monday. Breakfast Cold corned beef, oatmeal, boiled potatoes, bread and butter, tea or coffee. Dinner Roast beef, boiled potatoes, gravy,...
-Dietaries Of Army Hospitals
United States Army Hospitals. Special Diet The medical officer will select from this list according to his discretion: Bread, butter, coffee, tea, toast (dry), toast (milk), eggs (boiled), eggs (po...
-Dietaries Of Army Hospitals. Part 2
United States Army General Hospital Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. Sunday. Oatmeal and milk. Vermicell...
-Dietaries Of Army Hospitals. Part 3
Light Diet Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. Sunday. Oatmeal and milk. Rice soup. Milk toast. ...
-Dietaries Of Army Hospitals. Part 4
British Army Hospitals The following statement is quoted from a report made by Col. Alfred A. Woodhull, who was sent abroad by the U. S. Army Department to investigate certain medical features of t...
-Appendix. Receipts For Invalid Food And Beverages, Suitable For Fevers And Convalescence From Acute Illness. Beverages
1. Demulcent And Nutritive. Barley Water (Pavy) Take two ounces of pearl barley and wash well with cold water, rejecting the washings. Afterwards boil with a pint and a half of water for twenty min...
-2. Diuretic And Refrigerant
Lemonade (Pavy) Pare the rind from a lemon thinly, and cut the lemon into slices. Put the peel and sliced lemon into a pitcher with one ounce of white sugar, and pour over them one pint of boiling ...
-Fluid Beef Preparations
Beef Juice (Bartholow) Broil quickly some pieces of round or sirloin of a size to fit in the cavity of a lemon squeezer previously heated by being dipped in hot water. The juice, as it flows away, ...
-Broths And Soups
Chicken Broth (Bartholow) Skin and chop up fine a small chicken or half a large fowl, and boil it, bones and all, with a blade of mace, a sprig of parsley, and a crust of bread, in a quart of water...
-Solid Meat Preparations
Raw-Meat Diet (Ringer) From two ounces of rump steak take away all fat, cut into small squares without entirely separating the meat, place in a mortar, and pound for five or ten minutes; then add t...
-Milk Preparations
Milk-And-Cinnamon Drink (Ringer) Boil in one pint of new milk sufficient cinnamon to flavour it pleasantly, and sweeten with white sugar. This may be taken cold with a teaspoonful of brandy, and is...
-Egg Preparations
Eggnog Eggnog is made by adding the beaten yolk of egg and a little spirits to a tumblerful of milk, stirring well, adding sugar and the white of the egg, separately beaten. The digestibility of bo...
-Farinaceous Foods
Arrowroot Blancmange (Ringer) Take two tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, three quarters of a pint of milk, lemon, and sugar to taste. Mix the arrowroot with a little milk to a smooth batter; put the ...
-Farinaceous Foods. Part 2
Farina Gruel (U. S. Army Hospitals) One tablespoonful of farina. One pint of water. One teaspoonful of sugar. One half teaspoonful of salt. Into one pint of water, raised to boiling, put a half tea...
-Farinaceous Foods. Part 3
Malt (Ground) And Rice Pudding (Yeo) Stir an ounce of ground malt into a pint of boiling milk, strain through a sieve, and add the milk to two ounces of well-soaked rice. Mix well, and stand for te...
-Farinaceous Foods. Part 4
Panada (Ringer) Take the crumb of a penny roll and soak it in milk for half an hour, then squeeze the milk from it; have ready an equal quantity of chicken or veal, scraped very fine with a knife; ...
-Gelatin Preparations
Port-Wine Jelly (Ringer) Put into a jar one pint of port wine, two ounces of gum arabic, two ounces of isinglass, two ounces of powdered white sugar candy, a quarter of a nutmeg grated fine, and a ...
-Fat Foods
(Useful in diabetes and in emaciation not due to gastrointestinal disorder, such as that of chronic phthisis and chronic sepsis, empyema, etc). Fresh butter, one quarter pound or more per diem; sue...
-Vegetables Classified According To Their Dietetic Value
1. Useful For Nutriment, Mainly Protein, But Also Starch And Fats White beans. Lima beans. Kidney beans (haricots). Soya beans. French beans. Red beans. Frijole. Peas (dried an...
-Concentrated Fluid Nourishment
(Sometimes useful in fevers and conditions in which only very small quantities of food can be taken). 1. Milk, peptonised, to which is added in each tumblerful one or two teaspoonfuls of (1) milk s...
-Substitutes For The Morning Tea Or Coffee
Patients often insist upon having some form of hot drink to replace the breakfast cup of tea or coffee of which they have been deprived. There is no true substitute for these beverages in the sense th...
-General Rules For Prescribing A Dietary
1. All directions should be made specific, and in writing. 2. The patient's previous experience with the foods recommended should be investigated. Often a supposed difficulty in digestion is due to...
-Food Weights
Most persons have but little idea of the weight of the foods they eat, yet the usual dietetic tables of food values are based upon gramme measurements. Following is a list of approximate weights of...







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