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Food And Feeding In Health And Disease | by Chalmers Watson



A manual of practical dietetics

TitleFood And Feeding In Health And Disease
AuthorChalmers Watson
PublisherMcAinsh & Co., Limited
Year1915
Copyright1915, McAinsh & Co., Limited
AmazonFood and Feeding in Health and Disease

By Chalmers Watson, M.D., F.R.C.P.E, Assistant Physician, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh Editor of the "Encyclopaedia Medica"

Second Edition-Revised

-Preface
The aim of this work is purely practical. It aims at providing a complete and practical epitome for the dietetic student It is now many years since the late Sir Henry Thompson, a distinguished authori...
-Chapter I. Food And Its Functions
FOOD is required for two purposes - to build up the body and repair tissue waste, and to supply potential energy, which can be converted into heat and work. Foods are classified as follows: - ...
-The Physiological Properties Of Food
The digestibility of food and the ease with which it can be absorbed in the intestine are the most important facts to be considered in connection with any food. The time required for food to be digest...
-Digestion
UNDER the vague term digestion all these processes may be included to which the food substances are subjected and the resultant changes which the various food constituents undergo in order to prepare ...
-Food Absorption
There are two main paths by which the food constituents are absorbed into the circulation - the blood-vessels and lymphatics. The blood-vessels pour their contents into the radicles of the portal vein...
-Metabolism. Proteins
The combustible parts of the food are built up together with oxygen into the living protoplasm of the cell to form a highly unstable molecule with large potential energy. In the breaking down of this ...
-Role Of Bacteria In Digestion
It is becoming increasingly recognised that the role of bacteria in digestion is, from the clinical standpoint, a much more important one than formerly supposed. Active bacteria are numerous in the al...
-Putrefactive Bacteria
Putrefactive bacteria are numerous. These split up proteins into the following: - 1. Fatty acids and amino-acids, e.g., leucine, tyrosine, indol, skatol. 2. Other aromatic bodies, e.g. phenol an...
-Influence Of Various Factors On Digestion
Reference must be made to various conditions which interfere with normal digestion. One of the commonest is unduly hurried meals. The bolting of imperfectly masticated food is a fruitful cause of indi...
-Chapter III. Daily Amount Of Food Required, And Factors Modifying It
Amount Of Food Required The amount of food required varies under different conditions. Thus, the growing child requires relatively more than the adult, old people need less than the middle-aged, an...
-Mineral Constituents Of Food
Death ensues if salts are withheld from the food. They are essential for the growth and repair of the tissue. There are no exact data available for indicating how much is required, but we know from ex...
-The Influences Of Various Conditions Upon The Amount Of Food Required. Influence Of Age And Sex
The age of the individual not only modifies the absolute amount of food required, but also the relative quantity in proportion to body-weight. The rapid growth of children in early life necessitates a...
-Chapter IV. Milk And Its Products
Milk is the type of a complete food provided by nature. In early life it forms the exclusive food of all young mammals. It can also be employed as the chief food for adults under certain pathological ...
-Cow's Milk
The composition of milk varies within wide limits, so that it is impossible to gauge within 20 per cent, the amount of nutritive materials contained in a given quantity. The main variations are in the...
-Clotting Of Milk, And Its Effect On The Digestibility
Milk is not truly a fluid food, for whenever milk enters the stomach the ferment rennin and the acid of the gastric juice change the milk into a solid curd. This is brought about under the influence o...
-Milk's Nutritive Value
With regard to its nutritive value as a food for adults, milk cannot be recommended as the sole article of food, for the following reasons: - In order to get sufficient carbohydrates a very large quan...
-Milk Adulteration And Impurities
It is advisable to refer very briefly to some of the more common defects in milk as an article of food. The most commonly encountered adulteration is dilution with water. When the dilution is made wit...
-Milk Derivatives. Cream
Cream consists mainly of the fat of milk. It, however, also contains protein and sugar in the same proportion as milk. The real difference between cream and milk is that cream contains less water. ...
-Whey
When milk has been standing for some time a spontaneous coagulation occurs, and whey is squeezed out of the contracting clot. Whey so prepared has a sourish taste, and is less palatable than the artif...
-Butter
Butter is made from the cream of milk by churning. It consists of about 80 per cent, of fat, 15 per cent, of water, with a little casein and sugar. A certain amount of common salt is added to increase...
-Koumiss
Koumiss is a fermented milk, prepared by both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. It is made from the milk of a certain breed of mares in South-eastern Russia; it is also made from cow's milk, to ...
-Kephir
Kephir is another form of fermented milk, resembling koumiss. It is made from cow's milk - alcohol, lactic acid, and albumin being formed as a result of the fermentative process. The casein is partly ...
-Eggs
Eggs contain all the ingredients necessary to support life and develop the organism. From their chemical composition it is readily understood how they are such valuable articles of food in the diet...
-Chapter V. Animal Foods
Animal Foods The term animal food is popularly used to denote the flesh of animals, birds, and fish only, though it ought also to include soups (made from meat or bones), beef extracts, beef-teas, ...
-Varieties Of Meats
Parkes gives the following characteristics of good meat: - The flesh should be firm, elastic, of a bright, uniform colour; in fresh meat the outside is lighter than the inside, owing to oxidation of t...
-The Usual Scotch Mode Of Cutting-Up A Sheep
Explanation of Scotch made of cutting-up a sheep: - 1. Gigot, leg, or haunch; roasted or boiled. 2. Loin, This is the finest piece for chops; sometimes roasted. 3. Flank or flap, used...
-Fish, Including Crustacea And Mollusca
A distinguished authority on dietetics long ago pointed out that a large proportion of our town population would profit by exchanging some of their meat as an article of diet daily for fish. There is ...
-Salmon
A red fish; this is very rich in fat, which is found most abundantly on the under side. Its flesh is so rich that most people require a corrective in the way of vinegar or other acid sauce. In selecti...
-Crayfish
Used principally as a garnish, or for making soup. Like lobsters in appearance, but smaller and of more delicate flavour. Shrimps and Prawns can scarcely be classed as a food. They are best cooked ...
-Digestibility Of Meats
The digestibility of meat foods varies so much according to the quality of the meat, the manner of cooking, and the state of the digestive organs, that no very precise statements can be made on this s...
-Cooking Of Flesh And Fish
The chemical composition of meat is modified by cooking, the results varying according to the method of cooking employed. Cooking abstracts a large amount of water, about 20 per cent, also part of the...
-When The Meat Juices Are Retained
When this is the main object there is first a preliminary case-hardening of the albumin by intense heat; after which cooking proceeds at a lower temperature, rising in the interior of the meat just to...
-When The Meat Juices Are Extracted
Stewing and braising are processes by which meat and poultry can be prepared and served in the most tender condition possible. 1. Stewing Stewing aims at making an extract of nutritive juices of...
-Soups. Nutritional Value
The amount of nutriment to be got from a simple soup is very small. Soupmaking proceeds upon the principle of taking as much as possible from the materials, the extraction being effected by the use of...
-Method Of Making Soup Stock
First Stock For Clear Brown Soup 3 lbs. shin of beef, or 2 lbs. and 1 lb. knuckle of veal. 3 quarts cold water. I carrot. 1 turnip. 1 teaspoonful mixed herbs. 2 small on...
-Home-Made Beef-Teas, Extracts, And Essences. Meat Infusions Or Teas
Home-made infusions of beef, mutton, veal, and chicken are always in demand for the sickroom. They are to be regarded more in the nature of pleasant, palatable, and stimulating beverages than as foods...
-Meat Juices
This variety of food differs greatly in nutritive value from the beef-teas and essences previously mentioned. The meat juice is extracted without any heat and under strong pressure, and thus a large p...
-Chapter VI. Vegetable Foods
The large and varied class of foodstuffs derived from plants have a strikingly common feature as far as their chemical composition goes. They are all very rich in carbohydrates, and as a rule are poor...
-Sugars
Sugars are crystallisable carbohydrates with oxygen and hydrogen existing in proportion to form water. There are several varieties of sugars, e.g., cane sugar, grape sugar, milk sugar, fruit sugar, an...
-1. Sucroses. (A) Cane Sugar
Cane Sugar is the clarified and crystallised juice of the sugar cane, but may be made also from beetroot. To the ordinary consumer the source of the sugar, whether from cane or beet, is indistinguisha...
-2. Glucose, Or Grape Sugar
Glucose, Or Grape Sugar, is present in almost all fruits, in some in abundant quantities. In peaches, pineapples, and strawberries it is found with cane sugar, and in grapes and cherries it is combine...
-3. Invert Sugar
Invert Sugar is a mixture of dextrose and levulose. It can be prepared from cane sugar by the action of ferments, or by boiling. Inversion goes on rapidly if cane sugar is boiled with fruit juice. A l...
-Vegetable Foods Proper
Almost every part of plants furnishes food, but more especially seeds, roots, stems, leaves. These may be classified as follows: - A. Seeds And Fruits (a) Cereals. - Wheat, oats, maize, etc. ...
-A. Seeds And Fruits. Cereals
(a) The Cereals, from Ceres goddess of corn, comprise all grains or corn-bearing plants. They are really grasses cultivated so as to develop the maximum of food material with a minimum of husk - the g...
-Cookery Of Flour
(A) Breadmaking The making of bread is possibly the most important of all cooking processes now in use. Bread is a mixed food containing fat, protein, salts, sugar, and starch; it does not conta...
-The Adulteration Of Flour By Bleaching
All who appreciate the value of pure food will welcome the announcement made by the President of the Local Governmetit Board a short time ago, that a Bill was in preparation designed to render illegal...
-Digestion, Absorption, And Nutritive Value Of Bread
The digestion of bread commences in the mouth, where, under the influence of the saliva, the starches are converted into dextrin and maltose. Thorough mastication is all-important lor this process. Th...
-Brown Breads
This is an elastic term, meaning that a certain proportion of bran or germ, or of both, have been added to the flour. It is also applied to bread made from whole-wheat meal. Any bread made with the ad...
-Gluten Bread
Bread made from gluten flour is useful where there is diabetes, and in some cases of obesity. It is very unappetising. The best breads contain 40 to 50 per cent, of gluten, but some only contain 16 pe...
-Pastry And Puddings And Cakes
These are prepared in innumerable variety from flour, in various proportions, with milk, cream, butter, sugar, eggs, flavouring agents, nuts and fruits (such as currants, raisins, pineapple, cherries,...
-Preparations Of Wheat Other Than Flour
The wheat grain may be used as a food in its entirety. It is soaked in water till it swells up and bursts; it is then boiled in milk with the addition of sugar, so forming a nourishing dish called fru...
-Other Cereals
Oats contains more protein and fat than flour and meal from other cereals. Maize meal is the most closely allied to it. Starch is present in proportion of about 38 per cent. The nitrogenous portions c...
-Legumes Or Pulses. Peas, Beans, Lentils, Pea Nuts, Butter Beans
The ripe seeds of pulses rank next to cereals in importance as vegetable foods. They are especially rich in nitrogen, the chief proteins being legumin or vegetable casein. They are also rich in starch...
-Peas. Varieties Of Fresh Peas
Fresh peas are sweetish, and should be cooked by boiling in water with a little salt; when old they lose water, become very dry, and require prolonged steeping so as to soften them. When old they lose...
-Beans
There are several varieties. The chief are: - (1) The kidney or haricot bean. (2) The broad or Windsor bean. (3) The scarlet runner. Haricot beans almost rank first among vegetables as a n...
-Fruits
Fruits, speaking generally, are composed largely of water, with starches, sugar, organic acids, pectin, cellulose, essential oils, and ethers. Some fruits contain a little protein, chiefly as albumin....
-Preserving And Cooking Of Fruits
This is most commonly done by drying, or by making jam, just before they are fully ripe. Dried fruits are more nourishing, but less digestible. Of these mention may be made of currants and citrons; fi...
-When To Eat Fruit
The laxative effects of fruit are most obtained if the fruit be taken alone the first thing in the morning on an empty stomach, half an hour before breakfast, with a little water. The Uses of Fruit...
-Fruit Groups
Group I. Apple, Pear, Quince Good apples are a wholesome fruit. They are useful for their antiscorbutic and also for their laxative properties. They should be given to invalids only when cooked. Wh...
-Nuts
Nuts contain a large quantity of fat, protein, some starch, and very little water. The shell forms on the average about half the nut. Nuts are not easily digested, owing to the dense cellulose framewo...
-Fungi. Mushrooms
Fungi are largely employed as food in Southern Europe. They are eaten raw. They are also dried or preserved by cooking in vinegar, brine, or olive oil, which takes away the characteristic acrid taste ...
-B. Root And Tuber Vegetables
The roots and tubers used for food comprise the potato, turnip, carrot, parsnip, artichoke, onion, with the different plants yielding arrowroot, tapioca, and sago. The main nourishment of these plants...
-C. Stems And Leaves - Green Vegetables
Green vegetables are even less nutritious than roots,, and are chiefly valued for their mineral salts, especially salts of potassium, and as a source of ballast, their indigestible residue stimulating...
-Salad Vegetables (Lettuce, Endive, Cress, Green Peppers, Mint, Tarragon, Parsley, Chevril,Borage, Chive, Horse-Radish, Etc.)
This is a group of vegetables, lettuce being the chief type, the leaves of which are eaten raw. These are not very easily digested, they are cooling, antiscorbutic, nutritious, and gently laxative. Th...
-Chapter VII. Mineral Constituents Of Food - Food Accessories
MINERAL salts are of very great importance in nutrition. This will readily be understood if we bear in mind that analysis of the tissues yields 5 per cent, of ash. Death occurs in a few weeks if salts...
-Food Accessories. Condiments. Spices
A large number of sapid substances are added to the foods to stimulate the saliva and gastric juices. They add flavour, and relieve the monotony of diet. Mineral Constituents Of Food It is easy ...
-Chapter VIII. Beverages - Water - Aerated Waters - Tea, Etc
Water Water is indispensable to life. About two-thirds of the total body-weight is composed of water, and water also enters largely into the composition of all foodstuffs. It is useful as a solvent...
-Natural Mineral Waters
Mineral waters are frequently taken as substitutes for ordinary water. They differ from ordinary water in the greater amount of gaseous and solid matters they contain. The gaseous constituents are mai...
-Tea
Beverages may be classed into the following two groups: - 1. Those whose stimulant qualities depend on an alkaloid, e.g., tea, coffee, cocoa, kola, coca. 2. Those whose stimulant qualities depend o...
-Coffee
Coffee is prepared from the seeds of Caffea arabica, the seeds being stripped of their covering and dried, and specially prepared by a roasting process, in which the berries lose about 20 per rent, of...
-Cocoa
Cocoa is prepared from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, deprived of their outer pulp and roasted, in which form, as in the coffee bean, the starch of the seed is changed into dextrin. The peculiar aroma ...
-Alcohol
Introduction A remarkable change has occurred in the past twenty years in the attitude of the medical profession on the question of the value of alcohol in the treatment of disease. Whereas formerl...
-Spirits
Spirits are obtained by distillation of the products of fermentation of different saccharine substances, the alcohol and various volatile substances being separated by distillation. Distillation of ma...
-Wine
Wine is (or should be) the product of the juice of the grape by fermentation. When so prepared, it is an alcoholic solution varying in strength from 6 to 25 volumes per cent, and containing flavouring...
-General Composition Of Wines
The important ingredients in wines, from the medical point of view, are the following: - Alcohol, Acids, Sugars, Ethers. There are in addition slight amounts of extractives, chiefly of a carb...
-Natural Wines And Fortified Wines
As already stated, wines are divided into two great classes, natural wines and fortified wines. The chief natural wines are claret, hock, and the Hungarian, Italian, Australian, and Californian wines;...
-Therapeutic Uses Of Alcohol
As already indicated in the introduction to this section, alcohol is now very much less employed in the treatment of disease than it was some ten or twenty years ago. There is little doubt that this r...
-Chapter IX. Patent, Proprietary, And Predigested Foods
There are numerous patent and proprietary foods in the market, many of which are largely advertised and extensively used by the public and the profession. It is therefore necessary to investigate thei...
-A. Nitrogenous Foods. (1) Foods Prepared From Cow's Milk. Condensed Milk
The importance of studying condensed milk is evident when we realise that we import 500,000 cwt of it into this country every year, and that among the poorer classes there is no commoner substitute fo...
-Dried Milk Preparations
There are a large number of preparations of dried milk in the market; they belong to various groups: - 1. Milk powders, composed of milk modified by the abstraction of casein or addition of sugar, ...
-(2) Foods Prepared From Meat
These exist under the name of meat teas, meat extracts, meat juices, peptones, peptonoids, dried meat powders, and lozenges. A large number of meat preparations do not contain the nutritive constitute...
-Foods Prepared From Meat. Continued
These extracts have considerable value as stimulating, and in proportion to the protein present, nutritive beverages. They can advantageously be used to add to other foodstuffs. The following recipes ...
-(3) Proprietary Foods Made With Eggs
These exist usually as combinations with milk proteins, animal proteins, and fat; the most useful are the following: - Virol, made from marrow fat, yolk of egg, egg-shells, malt extract, and lemon jui...
-B. Carbohydrate Foods
Many of these foods are made from wheat flour or mixed flours, and consist of practically unchanged starch. As examples, mention may be made of Albany food, Marr's food, Ridge's, Robinson's patent ...
-Classification Of Predigested Preparations. Ferments
1. Ferments for predigesting foods at home. 2. Predigested proprietary milk foods, either alone or in combination with starch. 3. Predigested proprietary meat preparations. 4. Malt and malt e...
-2. Predigested Milk Products
Mention must be first made of Fairchild's peptogenic milk powder. By means of this powder and process cow's milk is so modified as to conform remarkably to normal mother's milk, thus affording a food ...
-3. Predigested Meats And Peptones
The advantages of having a meat nutriment which contains the albumins in a soluble and readily assimilable form is obvious in the treatment of those patients in whom the digestive powers are more or l...
-4. Malt Extracts - Diastase And Maltose
Diastase or malt is a vegetable ferment which has the property of converting starch into the soluble maltose. In nature it is the action of diastase which causes the ripening of fruits and vegetables ...
-5. Partially Malted Foods
Water. Protein. Fat. Carbohydrates. Soluble. starch. Ash. A. STARCH LIT...
-5. Invalid Foods
These are a group of foods of various composition that are of great use in the dietary of invalids. Benger's food contains ferments which convert the proteins and starch during the preparation. It ...
-Savory & Moore's Best Food For Invalids
The manufacture of this food was originally suggested by Licbig, but the process has since been much improved. The flour is specially prepared and then partially malted. On mixing in the manner descri...
-Chapter X. Food Preservatives, Food Adulteration, And Diseases Caused By Food
PRESERVED foods of all kinds now enter so largely into the daily dietaries of nearly all classes of the community that some reference must be made to the different methods of preservation of foods, an...
-2. Food Adulteration
Food may be adulterated cither by the fraudulent substitutes of cheaper foods, or by the addition of substances which have a deleterious action. The objects arrived at by the manufacturer who engages ...
-3. Diseases Caused By Food
In other sections we have considered diseased conditions induced by over-feeding, over-drinking, and under-feeding; reference must now be made to some special diseases dependent on dietetic sources. ...
-Chapter XI. Diet At Different Periods Of Life
A COMMON fault in the feeding of children is giving a diet which consists too largely of pultaceous foodstuffs, which require little or no mastication. Such foodstuffs are usually of a kind which lead...
-The Food Requirements Of Children
The quantity of food required by children is out of proportion to their size and weight, for the following reasons: the rapidgrozvtJi taking place requires muscle-forming protein material for the cons...
-The Food Requirements Of Children. Continued
Meat Foods Fish of the white varieties, boiled, broiled, and fried, are always allowable. Chicken and rabbit may be given twice a week. Beef and mutton boiled and roasted is quite digestible, but i...
-Diet During School Life
During this stage of life the rapid growth and incessant activity still continue, and to this is now added the brain-work. It thus follows that growing boys and girls require a large amount of nourish...
-Diet In Old Age
Increasing years are associated with diminishing activity and a lessening demand for energy. Less nourishment must therefore be taken in proportion as age advances, or the individual will suffer. If a...
-Diet In Old Age. Part 2
Lentil Soup Wash the lentils thoroughly in cold water, and add the lentils to water in the proportion of 3/4 lb. lentils to a gallon of water or of second stock. Add pepper, salt, onion, turnips, c...
-Diet In Old Age. Part 3
Kedgeree 1/4 lb. cold fish or dried haddock. 1/4 lb. boiled rice. 1 ounce butter, 1 egg. Cayenne pepper and salt. Wash and boil the rice; boil the egg very hard; break the fish into pieces...
-Diet During Pregnancy
A good mixed dietary is the one best adapted for the normal pregnant woman. If the bowels are kept regular, and if the patient take the requisite amount of fresh air and exercise, no special dietary p...
-Under-Feeding
The effects of under-feeding may reveal themselves as a result of, on the one hand, an insufficient diet, and, on the other, an ill-balanced one. The latter is the more common cause, as owing to the l...
-Over-Feeding And Over-Drinking
Insufficient attention is sometimes paid to the effects of over-drinking in forming dietaries. Quite apart from the abuse of alcohol in the form of whisky, beer, and the like, il'1-health not infreque...
-General Rules To Be Kept In Mind When Framing A Dietary In Disease
(a) Directions should not be of a general nature; all directions should be made specific, and in writing. (b) The relation of the meals to rest, exercise, and work should be clearly defined. (c)...
-Chapter XIII. General Serving Of Food For Invalids
The manner in which the food is served is of great practical importance. A meal served in a careless, slovenly manner may disgust the patient and seriously retard convalescence. Everything should b...
-Artificial Feeding - Rectal Alimentation. Rectal Feeding
Rectal feeding is a method of alimentation of great value in the treatment of some diseases. It is indicated in many disorders of the stomach or other part of the upper alimentary tract, such as gastr...
-Forced Feeding By The Stomach Tube (Gavage)
In asylum practice and in certain medical affections of the tongue, pharynx, and (esophagus which render deglutition impossible, recourse is had to forced feeding by the stomach tube. This is inserted...
-Chapter XIV. Infant Feeding - Diet In First Two Years Of Life
In all civilised countries the subject of infant feeding has, of late years, been attracting much attention, and in Germany, France, America, and our own country much has been done to unravel medical ...
-Breast-Feeding
(1) The Mother In the case of all healthy mothers, even when it is unlikely that the period of suckling will be long-continued, the full extent of this period should be utilised. Every day of suckl...
-Artificial Infant Feeding
In the event of mother's milk being unavailable for the infant, it becomes essential to provide a substitute for it, and we look first naturally to the milk of other mammals. Animals, other than the c...
-Artificial Infant Feeding. Part 2
2. Modification Of The Percentage Composition Of Milk The usual and most satisfactory method of carrying out this modification is to dilute milk with water, and add cream and sugar. By this means t...
-Artificial Infant Feeding. Part 3
An immense number of proprietary infant foods are now on the market, and their composition varies widely. Some are intended as substitutes for cow's milk, and some as additions to it. For the infant u...
-Artificial Infant Feeding. Part 4
Proprietary foods, as is well known, are very largely used in this country in the rearing of healthy children. Many of the foods themselves are most excellent, and, in the hands of different practitio...
-Artificial Infant Feeding. Part 5
Accordingly, on the third day, we add milk to the sugar and water. How much milk and how much water? Rather more than a tablespoonful of water to each tcaspoonful of milk, and, with this, just a pinch...
-The Weakly Baby
In the preceding few pages the diet to be recommended for an average healthy infant has been briefly outlined. But some healthy infants are markedly below the average, and others just as markedly abov...
-Chapter XV. Infant Feeding In Disease, And Diet To Close Of The Second Year
The Dietetic Treatment In Cases Of Minor Ailment Of minor ailments occurring in infancy, constipation is one of the commonest, and in its treatment diet is all-important. Constipation frequently...
-Improper Feeding
The results of improper feeding may display themselves as acute or as chronic symptoms, e.g. acute or chronic gastro-intestinal catarrh. Such conditions may be brought about by other causes also, but,...
-Some Further Conditions Of Serious Illness In Infancy
Vomiting has previously been alluded to as one of the minor ailments of infancy. The act is an easy one; it is a common symptom in a wide variety of conditions, and its nature and significance vary co...
-Diet Till The End Of The Second Year
During the latter three or four months of the first year, the milk should be strengthened by some farinaceous food. Most of the proprietary infant foods can now be used with advantage, and are a usefu...
-The General Dietary Of The Second Year
What is the average diet for the average child? What is his food to consist of? How often is he to be fed in the course of the day? How much food is he to get at one time? Before particularising, i...
-Forms Of Sickness In Young Children
For delicate children or for sick children, the diet must be prescribed in detail and in writing. During acute illness, at this period the food must consist solely of milk, and it is always well to...
-Chapter XVI. Dietary In Fevers And Acute Infective Diseases
A HIGH temperature acts on all the tissues of the body, causing alteration in normal metabolic processes, and derangement, more or less severe, of the whole alimentary tract. Associated with the high ...
-Dietary In Fevers And Acute Infective Diseases. Part 2
Eggs Eggs form another permissible food, but ought not to be allowed too freely. They may be given as a drink, cither alone or in combination with milk, or may be used to fortify other nourishment....
-Dietary In Fevers And Acute Infective Diseases. Part 3
Veal Jelly 1 lb. veal. 2 thin slices of turnip. 1 teacup of water. Pinch of salt. Slice the veal very thinly, and place a layer of it in ajar with a layer of thinly sliced turnip, and repe...
-Dietary In Typhoid Or Enteric Fever
In no disease is the question of diet of greater importance than in typhoid fever. The disease is a serious one, on account of its usually protracted nature, with its corresponding drain on the patien...
-Dietary In Typhoid Or Enteric Fever. Part 2
Diet Sheet I The following dietary is suitable for the acute stage: - 3 a.m. - Chicken tea (hot), 7 ounces, with 3 ounces milk; or Bovinine and 3 ounces milk. 5 A.M. - Milk, 3 ounces, hot water,...
-Dietary In Typhoid Or Enteric Fever. Part 3
By this time the evening temperature has also frequently settled; but even if not, another increase may be safely tried, always provided there has been no rise above normal in the mornings. At this st...
-Dietary In Typhoid Or Enteric Fever. Part 4
It will be observed that the above dietary is a strikingly libera] one. While it has given good results in a large series of cases, and does not appear to have been prejudicial in any recorded cases, ...
-Dietary In Typhoid Or Enteric Fever. Part 5
Rheumatic Fever - Acute Rheumatism The diet for acute rheumatism is the diet of acute fever (p. 267). Strong meat soups, however, should not be given until convalescence is well advanced. The patie...
-Chapter XVII. Diet During Convalescence
Diet During Convalescence The digestive tract being more or less weakened in all cases of acute illness, patients convalescing from an acute disease may be regarded as dyspeptics for the time being...
-Farinaceous Foods
The value of different farinaceous foods is often much interfered with by defective cooking. In the preparation of gruels and other farinaceous foods, prolonged boiling is required in order to burs...
-Farinaceous Or Milk Puddings
In the following recipes we have boiled farinaceous foods which are further cooked by baking; eggs can be added if desired. The presence of eggs in a pudding greatly improves the flavour and appearanc...
-Omelets
Eggs may also be advantageously used as omelets, as follows: - How To Make An Omelet For an omelet of 2 eggs, break them into a bowl, add salt and pepper, and beat them with a fork for about a m...
-Jellies
Jellies are a pleasant change to the ordinary milky foods, and are much appreciated by invalids. The directions for calfs-foot jelly and plain gelatine jelly are given on page 273. They may be take...
-Soups
The following recipes are those in which the ingredients are not too rich for the digestive capacity of convalescent patients. They form a delightful change after the monotony of the beef-teas and ext...
-Fish
Raw oysters, whiting, haddock, and sole are the most easily digested members of the fish group, and as such should come first in the dietary (see also Chapter V (Animal Foods). and p. 207). Oysters...
-Meats
Of this class of food, poultry (e.g. chicken and turkey), game (e.g. pheasant and partridge), tripe, sweetbreads, and rabbit are the most easily digested. They can be served in the usual manner of roa...
-Tripe
Methods of preparing: - The best varieties of tripe are those known as the blanket (because it has a folded appearance), and the dark variety known as the monk's hood; these are best for invalids ...
-Sweetbreads
There are two varieties of sweetbread - the throat sweetbread (thymus gland) and the stomach sweetbread (pancreas). The latter is much more digestible. Lamb's sweetbreads are very tender. This art...
-Red Meat
A slice of plain roasted mutton or beef, or a lightly grilled chop or steak, are easily digested. The following recipes will be found useful: - Minced Beef 1/2 lb. best rump-steak. 1/2 pint cold...
-Chapter XVIII. Diseases Of The Stomach
Under the vague term indigestion there is comprised a number of disorders which have one feature in common, e.g., the inability to digest ordinary food in the painless, unconscious manner characterist...
-Diagnosis Of Functional Indigestion
Having now determined that the indigestion is not secondary to some chronic constitutional disease, and further, that it is not dependent, so far as can be ascertained, on organic disease of the stoma...
-Principles In The Dietetic Treatment
In the slighter cases all that is required is to correct the defects in the dietary, which may be ascertained from a careful inquiry into the dietetic history of the patient. Tea must be reduced or el...
-Practical Rules In The Treatment Of Dyspepsia
(a) Small meals, slowly and deliberately eaten, is the first essential. The meals should be small, and very moderate in quantity. A diet should be selected that gives the necessary nourishment with th...
-Chronic Intestinal Indigestion In Children
The clinical picture of a child suffering from chronic indigestion is a varied one. The child may be well nourished, but more commonly it shows wasting, often in marked degree. Listlessness and a gene...
-Gastric Catarrh - Gastritis
The indigestion associated with gastric catarrh, and more particularly in its acute form, is distinguished from other forms of indigestion by the suddenness of its onset, and by the fact that a defini...
-Dietetic Treatment Of Chronic Gastric Catarrh
Chronic gastric catarrh may be primary, when it results from long-continued excesses in eating and drinking, aggravated usually by hurried and irregular meals, and by septic state of the teeth; it may...
-Acute Gastric Irritation In Children
This condition is usually associated with some gastric catarrh. It arises from an error in diet, and more especially from too many sweets, unripe fruit, or a general excess of foodstuffs. It is import...
-Hyperacidity Or Hyperchlorhydria
Probably the commonest form of indigestion is that associated with and dependent on a hyperacidity of gastric juice (hyperchlorhydria). This condition occurs most commonly in young adults, especially ...
-Gastric Ulcer
In typical cases the diagnosis of a gastric ulcer is easy. Typical cases are those in which haematemesis has occurred as a sequel to symptoms of acute or chronic indigestion, which may have been of mo...
-Gastric Ulcer. Part 2
Pain and vomiting are the guides to treatment. If either of these recur, it is an indication to reduce the diet, and subsequently to increase it more slowly. If the progress is in all respects satisfa...
-Gastric Ulcer. Part 3
Lenhartz - Full Convalescent Diet (Fourteenth Day) Have to supply 8 eggs (4 cooked, 4 beaten-up raw), sugar, milk (4 to 5 pints), raw beef, milk with a cereal, bread, meat, butter, made up as follo...
-Dilated Stomach
The treatment of dilated stomach varies according to the cause. The dilatation may be the result of obstruction at the pyloric end of the stomach - obstructive form - which is most commonly due to mal...
-Diet In Dilated Stomach
Severe Form In severe cases a complete rest for the stomach for forty-eight hours is advisable, rectal saline injections being administered. A milk diet is not suitable - a dry diet is advisable...
-Diet In Cancer Of The Stomach
In inoperable cases of cancer of the stomach the treatment is purely palliative. There is usually associated some degree of gastric catarrh, or dilatation of the stomach, which increases the difficult...
-Chapter XIX. Diet In Diseases Of The Intestine
Intestinal Fermentation And Putrefaction - Auto-Intoxication Intestinal auto-intoxication is a toxaemia resulting from the absorption of abnormal food products under the influence of bacterial acti...
-Acidosis, Or Acid Intoxication
Acidosis, or acid intoxication, is a clinical condition occasionally met with in children. The condition is one to which increasing attention is now being paid. It is a toxaemia which is recognised by...
-Food Fever
Under the term food fever, Eustace Smith has described a condition in children characterised by the following clinical features. The child is suddenly attacked with acute fever, associated with mani...
-Constipation
Food is a factor of some importance in the treatment of constipation. Food may promote peristalsis through a mechanical action, as in the case of foods rich in cellulose, .which leave a large residue ...
-Diarrhoea
It is probable that all forms of diarrhoea, with the exception of the diarrhoea of pure nervous origin, are dependent on the pathogenic action of the bacteria which are usually present in the bowels. ...
-Catarrhal Enteritis
For all practical purposes the diarrhoea of catarrhal enteritis may be regarded as merely an exaggeration of the condition (p. 354) already discussed. It is undoubtedly of bacterial origin. It is freq...
-Colitis
All forms of colitis are the result of bacterial or parasitic influences. In most cases of acute intestinal catarrh resulting from toxic articles of food, there is an associated inflammatory state of ...
-Dysentery
The dietetic treatment of acute and chronic dysentery is the same as for acute and chronic colitis. Commencing with a mild starvation diet, we make use of milk (diluted or peptonisedj, whey or koumiss...
-Mucous Colitis, Or Muco-Membranous Colitis
In health the small amount of mucin secreted by the lining membrane of the colon has a lubricating effect, which is of some value in promoting normal peristalsis, and so preventing constipation. In di...
-Intestinal Colic (Enterospasm)
Intestinal colic may result from constipation, or from enteritis or colitis, and more particularly from that form of colitis known as mucous colitis. The dietetic treatment therefore varies with the c...
-Intestinal Ulceration
The dietetic treatment of gastric ulcer has already been fully discussed (p. 330). The dietetic treatment of duodenal ulcer is essentially the same as that for gastric ulcer; when associated with hype...
-Flatulence Or Meteorism
A flatulent distension of the bowel, with accompanying unpleasant noises (borborygmi), is met with occasionally in young subjects, especially women, and in the later years of life. There may be no oth...
-Appendicitis
At the commencement of an attack of appendicitis, or at any rate when the patient first comes under observation, it may be impossible to say whether perforation or gangrene has occurred. In the eve...
-Haemorrhoids
Haemorrhoids may result from any cause which interferes with the proper return of the venous blood from the vessels in the lower part of the rectum. Among the more common causal factors, mention may b...
-Sprue
Various methods of dieting have been advocated, and are used either singly or in combination. These may be classified as follows: - 1. The milk diet. 2. The meat diet. 3. The fruit diet. 4...
-Biliousness
The term biliousness is a loose one, employed more especially by the public to indicate their condition when they feel sick, off colour, headachy, and the vomit contains bile. The cause of this condit...
-Jaundice
One of the functions of bile is to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats. When from any reason bile is prevented from getting into the intestine, the absorption of fats is interfered with, a sta...
-Diet In Gall-Stones
The chief causes of gall-stones are inflammation of the bile-passages and gall-bladder, with resulting stagnation of bile. This inflammation of the bile-passages is usually the sequel to a catarrh of ...
-Cirrhosis Of The Liver
The most common cause of cirrhosis of the liver is long-continued indulgence in excess of alcohol. The use of highly seasoned foods may also induce it, more especially in children. It may also arise f...
-Cancer Of The Liver
There is no special dietetic treatment for cancer of the liver. In the later stages the digestive powers of the patient are very greatly reduced, and the food must be given in very small amounts, freq...
-Disease Of The Pancreas. Indigestion Of Pancreatic Origin
There is little definitely known about the relation of diet to pancreatic diseases, but recent advances in the pathology and treatment of pancreatic diseases clearly indicate the practical importance ...
-Chapter XXI. Anemia And Diseases Of The Blood
ANEMIA may be secondary or primary. A secondary anemia is one in which the blood disorder is the result of a known disease, such as cancer, tuberculosis, rheumatism; or it may result from a serious bl...
-Anemia In Children
There are two factors of special importance in the development of anemia in children. These are (1) defective feeding, and (2) a chronic intestinal catarrh, which may be latent and only revealed by ob...
-Chlorosis
Many cases of chlorosis are associated with marked subjective symptoms of gastric disturbance, such as sensation of weight after food, flatulence, pain in the epigastric regions, and vomiting, and in ...
-Pernicious Or Idiopathic Anemia
Pernicious or idiopathic anemia is essentially a disease of adult life. The cause is unknown; recent advances in our knowledge point to its being, in the vast majority of cases, the result of a chroni...
-Leukaemia
The dietetic treatment of the different forms of leucocythaemia or leukaemia should be largely conducted along the lines laid down for the anemias. Subjective symptoms are often absent in the early st...
-Scurvy
The exact etiology of scurvy is unknown. It is variously ascribed to a deficiency in the potash salts of the food, to a deficiency in the alkalinity of the blood (acidosis), to ptomaine poisoning, and...
-Chapter XXII. Diet In Arteriosclerosis
Introduction The general thickening of the arterial wall which is characteristic of arterio-sclerosis, is too commonly regarded as essentially a disease of adult and later life. This condition, how...
-Chapter XXIII. Diet In Diseases Of The Heart
General Introduction It is probably no exaggeration to say that the majority of patients who complain of their heart are really suffering from a derangement of the stomach or liver, which has had i...
-Diet In Diseases Of The Heart. Part 2
Chronic Heart Disease The diet for patients with chronic organic heart disease usually requires more or less careful regulation, even before compensation is lost, for digestion is always more or le...
-Diet Rules For Failure Of Compensation (Diseases Of The Heart)
With failing compensation there arise various digestive disorders. Loss of appetite, flatulence, constipation, are the subjective indications which result from the congested state of the liver, stomac...
-Chapter XXIV. Diet In Renal Disease. Acute Nephritis
In health the kidneys extract from the blood the excess of water, and the products of nitrogenous waste - urea, uric acid, etc. There is a definite relation between the quantity and quality of food in...
-Subacute And Chronic Nephritis, Including Granular Contracted Kidney
The principles underlying the dietetic treatment are essentially the same for the different varieties of subacute and chronic Bright's disease. One important essential in treatment is to bear in mind ...
-Dietetic Treatment Of Other Renal Disorders
No special reference is necessary to the dietetic treatment of other renal disorders. These have all to be treated along the general lines indicated on p. 410. One special point should, however, be no...
-Chapter XXV. Tuberculosis
Introduction Tuberculosis is essentially a wasting disease, conspicuous features of the condition being loss of appetite, disturbed digestion, interference with assimilation, and a resultant loss o...
-Tuberculosis. Part 2
The general principles to be followed in the dietetic treatment of tuberculosis have been admirably summed up by Kardswell and Chapman as follows: - 1. The amount of protein in the physiological di...
-Tuberculosis. Part 3
You require to take much more food than you did before you became consumptive. Do not hurry over your meals; you will feel satisfied frequently before you have eaten enough, and you must continue to e...
-Tuberculosis In Cases With Impaired Digestion
Tuberculosis is frequently accompanied in its severer forms with anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and the question has to be faced how a patient with these symptoms can be got to take the above ...
-Tuberculosis Of The Intestine
In addition to the general toxasmic state due to the tuberculous poison, we have to consider the inflamed, and it may be ulcerated, surface present in the bowel. Abdominal pain and diarrhoea are the c...
-Haemoptysis
A slight haemoptysis, nothing more than a discoloration of the sputum, is probably the result of some local congestion, and does not call for any change in the dietetic required. If, however, after a ...
-Laryngeal Tuberculosis And Dysphagia
There is no symptom that calls for special treatment in the earlier stages of laryngeal tuberculosis; it suffices to say that the same high standard of nutrition must be adopted as is necessary for tu...
-Tuberculosis Of Kidney And Bladder
In tuberculosis of the kidney, bladder, or other part of the urinary tract, the feeding of the patient is a more difficult matter than in most other forms of tuberculosis. It is often impossible to gi...
-Various Forms Of Surgical Tuberculosis
The dietetic treatment of tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands, the general health of the patient being good, is to place him in the best possible hygienic conditions, and at once begin the standard t...
-Diet In Tuberculosis In Children
The most common forms of tuberculosis in children are tuberculous peritonitis, enlargement of abdominal glands (tabes mesenterica), tuberculous enteritis, glandular tuberculosis, tuberculosis of bone,...
-Prophylactic Treatment
This is especially important in the case of children with a family predisposition to tuberculosis. Here the general circumstances of the child, and also the dietary, must be arranged so as to maintain...
-Abdominal Tuberculosis
This most frequently takes the form of tuberculous peritonitis, tuberculous ulceration of the bowel, or tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands (tabes mesenterica). The infection comes from the intestine...
-Gout
Introduction Derangements in the digestive system play an exceedingly important role in the development both of acute and chronic gout, and these derangements usually depend either on immoderate ea...
-Gout. Part 2
Soups What soups may a gouty person partake of? The answer to this question will depend on the digestive capacity, but in coming to a decision we must take into consideration some elementary poi...
-Gout. Part 3
Fish Fish are well calculated to form a large proportion of the dietary of the gouty. They contain on an average one-third less nitrogen than an equivalent amount of ordinary meat, and usually cont...
-Gout. Part 4
Carbohydrates The fact that gout is unknown in countries like Japan, where a strict vegetarian diet is common, clearly proves that, as a class, carbohydrates can by no means be the direct cause of ...
-Gout. Part 5
Beverages To the confirmed gouty subject the question of what he may drink is sometimes a more important one than that of what he may eat. Alongside of this question there is another bearing on the...
-Gout. Part 6
Illustrations Of Treatment From the foregoing outline of treatment it will be evident that the dietetic measures vary enormously with the different stages and very diverse manifestations of the dis...
-Gout. Part 7
3. Mrs C, Aet. 32, Married; Two Children. - Hereditary History Of Gout 1. Neuralgia. ii. Pains in great toe joints and legs, iii. Acute gout. This patient is a big, well-built woman of active bo...
-Chronic Rheumatism
The causation of chronic rheumatism is not exactly known. Our present knowledge indicates that an important factor in rheumatism is a poisoning of the system by a poison absorbed from a latent catarrh...
-Rheumatoid Arthritis
There are few chronic diseases in which special attention to the gastro-intestinal tract by means of diet and other measures is of greater importance than that group of diseases comprised under the te...
-Chapter XXVII. Glycosuria And Diabetes
Introduction In health the ingestion of a mixed diet containing a moderate amount of sugar and starchy foods is not attended by the passage of sugar in the urine. The sugars and starches of the foo...
-Glycosuria And Diabetes. Part 2
The following recipe of home-made artificial milk prepared from cream can be taken in unlimited quantity by diabetics, and is a most useful article of food: - Sugar-free Milk. Place 4 tablespoon...
-Glycosuria And Diabetes. Part 3
Diabetic foods are either made up by the manufacturers or made at home from the specially prepared flours, as follows: - The following albumins may be used for the preparation of bread substitutes,...
-Glycosuria And Diabetes. Part 4
Cocoa-Nut Cakes 1 ounce of German yeast, 4 tablespoonfuls of lukewarm water, 16 ounces of desiccated cocoa-nut powder. Mix into a paste, adding a little more lukewarm water if necessary. Leave in a...
-Hints In The Preparation Of Food For The Diabetic On A Rigid Dietary, With Menus
(The bread and biscuits recommended are always to be some of the diabetic bread substitutes). Porridge And Puddings Porridge or Gruel, made from almonds or cocoa-nut, can be prepared in the foll...
-Preparation Of Food For The Diabetic On A Rigid Dietary, With Menus. Continued
Second Day. Breakfast Tea or coffee with cream. Toasted sardines on fried gluten bread. Boiled egg. Bran bread. Butter. Marmalade. Lunch Fried bacon served on a puree of spinach. Caulif...
-Oatmeal Diet In The Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus
Reference must be made to the use of a largely oatmeal diet recommended by Von Noorden. Von Noorden claims that in some cases of severe diabetes, especially those in which the ordinary diabetic diet f...
-Alimentary Glycosuria
In cases where sugar only appears in the urine after food, and more especially after a diet rich in carbohydrates, the indication is to reduce the amount of sugar and starches in the food. An inquiry ...
-Diabetes In Its Milder Forms
In the milder forms of the disease a moderate restriction in the amount of carbohydrates of the food may lead to a disappearance of the sugar from the urine. Thus it may be found that a diet, from whi...
-Chapter XXVIII. Obesity
Introduction While obesity is not a disease in the common acceptation of the term, it is a condition which seriously disturbs the patient's comfort, curtails his ability to enjoy many of the pleasu...
-Obesity. Part 2
In the Oertel system the diet is combined with exercises, active or passive, to strengthen the heart. Steady walking exercise to strengthen the muscles of the heart is insisted upon, and walking slowl...
-Obesity. Part 3
A Milk Diet Cure For Obesity An interesting lesson may be learned from a record published by Professor Debroc of Paris, who treated a man, fifty-five years of age, who weighed on admission to hospi...
-Chapter XXIX. Diet In Nervous Diseases
Introduction Diseases of the nervous system are roughly divisible into two great classes, organic and functional. In the former, there is a definite morbid change in the affected structures, which ...
-Diet In Nervous Diseases. Continued
In Functional Disorders The most important functional disorder of the nervous system from the point of view of dietetics is neurasthenia, or nervous exhaustion. In the treatment of this disease, co...
-Apoplexy
The dietetic treatment of cases of cerebral haemorrhage, thrombosis, or embolism must be regarded from two points of view: - (a) The immediate - the comatose stage, and after; (b) the remote - after p...
-Neurasthenia
The treatment of neurasthenia or nervous exhaustion is much the same whether the condition is due to an accident, overstrain, or to a faulty inheritance. A great deal of sleep and much food are essent...
-Chapter XXX. Diet In Diseases Of The Lungs - Thyroid - And Skin
Diseases Of The Lungs The principles underlying the dietetic treatment of diseases of the lungs are similar to those laid down for cardiac disorders. Faulty feeding influences lung affections unfav...
-Diet In Acute Lung Affection
The diet in acute pneumonia, acute pleurisy, and acute bronchitis calls lor little comment in the way of detailed description. Pneumonia is not really a lung disease, but an acute infective fever with...
-Diet In Chronic Bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis, which is usually accompanied by emphysema, is commonly a late sequel of cardiac or renal disease, and under these circumstances the dietetic treatment is that appropriate to the pr...
-Diet In Asthma
It is easy to overestimate the importance of diet in relation to asthma. While it is true that in many subjects attacks occur apparently quite independently of dietetic conditions, it is equally true ...
-Diet In The Diseases Of The Thyroid. Exophthalmic Goitre
Introduction Myxcedema, goitre, and malignant disease of the thyroid are the special diseases of the thyroid gland. Diet is, in general, not an important factor in the treatment of these disorders....
-Diet In Diseases Of The Skin
The fact that in some individuals the ingestion of certain articles of diet, perhaps notably fruits, is followed by marked skin eruptions - erythema or urticaria (nettle-rash) - shows that there is an...
-Chapter XXXI. Special Diet Cures. Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism is a term loosely applied to different varieties of restricted dietaries that have one point in common, viz., the exclusion of flesh foods from the diet. The strict vegetarian lives sole...
-Special Diet Cures. Vegetarianism. Continued
Pulses The pulses may be used fresh or dried, whole and ground into flour; green peas, broad beans, French beans, cooked in the ordinary way, or served with poached or scrambled eggs, are excellent...
-Practical Points In Formation Of Lacto-Vegetarian Dietaries
There is often difficulty in planning the meals for a lacto-vegetarian dietary, and the following may be helpful: - Breakfast This meal may consist of oaten or wheaten porridge, or any other cer...
-Lacto-Vegetarian Diet, Uncooked Foods
Brief mention may here be made of a system of dietary of a largely vegetarian character, of which the distinctive feature is the use of uncooked food. The advocates of this system, first introduced by...
-Advantages And Disadvantages Of Vegetarianism
Probably the greatest advantages which accrue from the adoption of a vegetarian regime lie in the fast that such a dietary is a most valuable corrective of over-eating. There is no doubt that vegetabl...
-A Purin-Free Dietary
In recent years attention has been directed to the value of a purin-free dietary in the treatment of certain diseases. It has been recommended for gout, renal disease, neuralgias, headaches, bilious a...
-Purin-Free Foods
Milk, white bread, and potatoes contain practically no purins. Similarly, cream, butter, fats, eggs, apples, grapes, figs, dates, and raisins are purin-free. Macaroni, cheese, and nuts are in the same...
-Meat And Hot-Water Or Salisbury Diet
A meat diet is specially recommended in tuberculous affections. In 1889 C. Richet and Hericourt experimentally proved the value of a raw-meat diet in tuberculosis in dogs, and showed that the benefit ...
-Grape Cure
Various forms of fruit cure are occasionally practised Thus we have the lemon cure, in which the juices of two or three lemons are taken in sugar water three times a day, milk and fatty foods being av...
-Milk And Whey Cures. Skimmed Milk Cure
A diet of skimmed milk has very special value in cases where it is desired to rest the digestive organs to enable them to recover from an exhausted and irritable condition. It is useful in cases of in...
-The Koumiss And Kephir Cures
The general properties of koumiss and Kephir are given on p. 44, Koumiss contains from 1 to 2 per cent of alcohol. Ft is more easily digested and more completely absorbed than ordinary milk, and can b...
-Treatment By Soured Milk - Lactic Acid Therapy
In the last year or two a valuable method of treatment by means of soured milk and other methods of administering selected lactic germs has been brought to the notice of the profession by the distingu...
-Chapter XXXII. Hospital Dietaries
THE American authors, Fricdenwald and Ruhrah, in their text-book on Dietetics, point out that in many hospitals the diet for patients is selected by the nurses, with the exception of a few of the more...
-Appendix. Foreword To Appendix
The following record is not presented as in any sense a completed piece of work. It is admittedly incomplete. It comprises a scries of papers which have been published in the past few years on the inf...
-Appendix. I. Stimulation Of The Thyroid And Parathyroid Glands By A Protein Dietary (Raw Meat)
The research which furnished these results was primarily an experimental research on gout (Preliminary Note). It consisted in feeding a number of fowls on a diet strictly limited to raw lean meat with...
-II. The Effects Of A Protein Dietary (Raw Meat)
(An Experimental and Clinical Study). The object of this paper is to record the clinical and pathological appearances observed in an experimental research on prolonged feeding of fowls on a diet of...
-The Effects Of A Protein Dietary (Raw Meat). Continued
Combs The combs of all the fowls became pale in colour, indicating anemia. The degree of pallor varied, and was not constant. In some cases it was associated with great duskiness of the comb in its...
-III. The Influence Of A Meat Diet On The Thyroid And Parathyroid Glands
In view of the results obtained from an investigation on the influence of 1 raw-meat diet on the thyroid and parathyroid glands in fowls, it was deemed advisable to repeat the investigation with other...
-IV. The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On Growth And Nutrition
In a paper published in 1905 attention was drawn to the increase that had taken place in the consumption of animal food in this country in the past fifty years. It was there pointed out that the amoun...
-The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On Growth And Nutrition. Part 2
II. The Effect Of An Ox-Flesh Diet On Young Rats From Two And A Half To Three Months Old Eight rats of an average weight of 65 grammes and approximately two and a half months old were led on an exc...
-The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On Growth And Nutrition. Part 3
The Influence Of A Meat Diet On The Progeny The progeny of meat-fed rats are usually poorly developed, and show a high mortality in early life. Some statistics on this point are given. Of ninety-th...
-The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On Growth And Nutrition. Part 4
B. In The Second Generation The recuperative power in the second generation of meat-fed rats was tested in four animals taken from two litters, other four animals from the same litters being employ...
-V. The Influence Of A Meat Diet On The Thyroid Gland In The Second Generation Of Meat-Fed Rats
In the Proceedings of the Physiological Society of 17th December 1904 (pp. 557, 564), the author gave a communication on the influence of a meat diet on the thyroid gland of rats which had been fed on...
-VI. The Effect Of An Excessive Meat Diet On The Osseous System Of Rats
Object Of The Investigation To determine what changes, if any, are induced in the osseous system by an excessive meat diet (ox-flesh). Method Of Observation Material employed: (a) Newly-we...
-VII. The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On The Development And Structure Of The Teeth
The object of this investigation was to ascertain what effects, if any, were produced in the teeth of rats by an excessive meat diet. The material employed was: - (a) A series of eight animals, whi...
-VIII. The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On The Skin Of Rats
The skin of the progeny of meat-fed rats differs in the majority of cases from that of animals bred on a bread-and-milk diet. In the latter the coats are thick and well nourished, while in the former ...
-IX. The Influence Of A Meat Diet On The Kidneys
With Histological Report by G. Lyon, and a Report on the Nitrogen Excretion by Andrew Hunter.2 Attention is here directed to the influence of a meat diet on the structure of the kidneys. The die...
-The Influence Of A Meat Diet On The Kidneys. Part 2
Histological Report By Dr G. Lyon I. In the first series of observations on seven adult rats fed on a horse-flesh diet for five months, the kidneys show very striking histological changes, when com...
-The Influence Of A Meat Diet On The Kidneys. Part 3
The result of this behaviour is that in the case (C) of bread and milk, which contains much less protein, 141 grammes of food had to be consumed, as against 37 grammes by a flesh-fed animal (B) of nea...
-X. Effects Of Diet On The Development And Structure Of The Uterus
The alarming and persistent decline in the birth-rate is a matter of national interest the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The purely medical aspect of this question is, however, exce...
-XI. The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On The Male Reproductive Organs
The object of this investigation was to determine the effects of an exclusive ox-flesh diet on the development of the male reproductive organs of rats. Three series of observations were made as follow...
-XII. The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On The Osseous System
The clinical results obtained in an experimental investigation on the influence of an excessive meat diet on the growth and nutrition of rats are described on p. 565. It was there shown that the proge...
-The Influence Of An Excessive Meat Diet On The Osseous System. Continued
Microscopic Appearances Owing to the uniformity of the bony changes throughout the whole series of meat-fed animals, it was unnecessary to make a histological examination of each subject. Sections ...
-XIII. The Effects Of A Meat Diet On Animals And On Their Progeny
In introducing his subject the author pointed out that the following facts suggested the research: - First, that in the course of an experimental investigation on gout in fowls the use of an excessive...
-XIV. The Influence Of Diet On The Liver
Two series of observations have been made. One experiment consisted in feeding a large number of rats on an exclusive ox-flesh diet, this being essentially a mixed diet of protein and fats. In this ex...
-XV. A Note On The Minute Structure Of The Thyroid Gland In The Rat
In the course of an investigation into the effects of varying diets on the structure of the tissues and organs in tame rats, my attention has incidentally been directed to the varying histological app...
-XVI. The Effects Of An Oatmeal Diet On The Thyroid Gland
There is ample clinical evidence that a dietary into which oatmeal largely enters is one which is specially valuable for the growth and nutrition of children. In former days the diet of the people in ...
-XVII. The Changes In The Structure Of The Thyroid Gland IX Wild Rats Under The Influence Of Altered Dietetic Conditions
In former papers the author has shown that diet modifies the minute structure of the thyroid gland in tame rats. The following investigation was undertaken to ascertain to what extent, if any, the thy...
-XVIII. A Note On The Adrenal Gland In The Rat
In the course of an experimental investigation into the effects of varying diets on the structure and function of the tissues in tame rats, my attention has incidentally been directed to the various g...
-XIX. The Effects Of Captivity On The Adrenal Glands In Wild Rats
In a paper published in the Journal of Physiology (vol. xxxv., p. 230), the author pointed out that the percentage weight of the adrenal glands in wild rats was considerably higher than in tame rats o...
-XX. The State Of The Ovaries During Lactation, With Special Reference To The Luteal Tissue
The present investigation was undertaken to ascertain the histological appearances of the ovaries of animals killed during lactationi special attention being directed to the luteal tissue. The mate...
-XXI. The Effect Of A Meat Diet On Fertility And Lactation
In a paper on The Influence of Diet on Growth and Nutrition, in the Journal of Physiology (vol. xxxiv., p. 3), Dr Chalmers Watson showed that in rats a diet of ox-flesh begun when the animals were w...
-The Effect Of A Meat Diet On Fertility And Lactation. Continued
It will be seen that the average percentage weight of the mammae of all the bread-and-milk animals is 9.6, while that of the meat-fed ones is only 8.2. This difference would in all probability have be...
-XXII. A Rich Protein Diet In Relation To Gout And The Thyroid Gland
At the present time, in existing text-books and otherwise, the subject of diet in its scientific and clinical aspects is studied from two standpoints and two standpoints only. These are: (1) from the ...







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