Brown Bread is wheaten Bread made from unbolten flour, so that the bran remains included. In the United States it is commonly called Graham Bread. Pour or five hundred years ago this kind of Bread, which was then the staple food of the poorer classes, was known as "trete, or "bis, being made of meal which was only once bolted; and to this day bran is called "trete "in the "North Countree".

"The farmer has brown Bread as fresh as day, And butter fragrant as the dew of May. A widow has cold pye. Nurse gives you cake. From gen'rous merchants ham, or sturgeon take".

The origin of wheat is hidden in obscurity; no other cereal will grow in so many climates as wheat, and none of the other cereals are so suitable for making Bread. "Wheat grain contains everything necessary for supporting life. All the thirteen minerals, besides flesh-formers, body-warmers, and fatteners, are packed up in each little grain of the wheat; but, unfortunately, most of these nourishment factors are abstracted when the grain is ground by the miller; he leaves only the fine wheaten flour for making white Bread; nearly all the minerals are sifted out; and, in fact, little remains for the purpose of bread-making besides starch, which only fattens, but does not restore nerve, muscle, or bone. When "milled "the outermost coat of wheat yields bran, fine pollards, sharps, and middlings, the white flour within being derived solely from the endosperm. Ordinary Bread is usually made from a mixture of "whites,' and "households".

"Seconds "flour yields a . Bread which is richer in proteid than the "whites," but the loaf is apt to be rather dark in colour. "Hovis "flour, prepared by using superheated steam, becomes richer in proteid, and fat, than ordinary flour.

The making of Bread from wheaten flour is only possible because this contains gluten, a proteid, or mixture of proteids, which has the peculiar property of becoming viscid when moistened with water. If the viscid mass composed thus is blown out with interspersed gas, it has sufficient coherence to remain in the form of a sponge, or honeycomb, instead of collapsing again, and allowing the gas to escape. Most other cereals, such as barley, rice, and oatmeal, do not contain gluten, but possess other forms of proteid which fail to become viscid when wetted, and consequently Bread cannot be made out of these. When Bread is kept it becomes dry from loss of its water, also it becomes stale by the shrinking, and coming together of the wall fibres. In the cooking of Bread a little caramel (or burnt sugar) is produced. New Bread, unless thoroughly chewed, and separated by mastication, offers greater resistance to action upon it by the stomach juices than stale Bread, owing to the tendency of the new, moist dough to clog in close masses. "He that will have a cake out of the wheat must needs tarry the grinding" (Troilus and Cressida). Wheat grain may be used whole as a food, being soaked in water until it swells up, and bursts, and then boiled in milk, with sugar, and other ingredients, thus making the old, and very nourishing mess, formerly called frumenty, which is seldom seen nowadays. on the farmhouse table as of yore.

A quaint quondam nursery rhyme, which has an occult significance, runs to this effect: -

"Hark! Hark! the dogs do bark,

The beggars are come to town; Some in jags, and some in rags,

And one in a velvet gown. Some give them white bread,

Some give them brown; Some take a long pole,

And drive them out of the town".

This disorderly episode must refer to the time when (as Alice learnt Through the Looking-glass): -

"The Lion and the Unicorn Were fighting for the crown".

Brown Bread

Brown Bread in which raisins (stoned, and slightly chopped) are mixed, makes a nice loaf which is gently laxative. In the United States Graham Bread is made with milk, and white flour, for afternoon use, whilst for the morning Graham flour is employed, with Porto Rico molasses added. Boston brown Bread is manufactured from meal of yellow corn, Graham flour, salt, soda, sour milk, Porto Rico molasses, and batter; it is first boiled in a covered mould, and then baked uncovered so as to form a crust. Brown Bread and cherry pudding, is the English analogue of the thick German cherry cake, eaten cold. The bran which is included in wholemeal Bread contains a considerable amount of albuminoid nourishment, as "cerealin,"this being allied to the solids of milk. It is a soluble nitrogenised ferment, which has a powerful action on starch, converting it rapidly into dextrin, and other similar bodies, thereby actually malting the bread. White wheaten Bread does not contain enough of this albuminoid matter to make it a complete human food; therefore it has been sometimes proposed, and practised, to retain the bran, grinding its silica, and cellulose into a very fine dust; but the realization of this method has proved a failure, and has properly met with the unqualified condemnation of all scientific men.

We leave the bran to the animals, which have hitherto consumed it: "Some of them, like millers' horses, are not without evil effects from the magnesium phosphate, in the bran-forming calculi within their intestines."Moreover, the husk of whole meal, when used in making Bread, is less digestible than the inner white flour of wheat, whilst the undigested particles will irritate the lining coats of the intestines when passing along. "Therefore," says Dr. King Chambers, "white Bread is generally chosen in preference by shrewd working-men who wish to make their money spent in food go as far as it can".

But it must be allowed that our fine white Breads of to-day, from which all the husk is excluded, and which do not contain the lime, are less favourable for building up the bony structures than was the Bread of rye and barley which was pretty general throughout several English counties early in the nineteenth century. "Triticumina" bread is prepared from the entire wheat grain, including its cerealin; but Dr. Hutchison, who is the best modern authority on foods, and their nutrient values, declares his belief that no dietetic salvation can be obtained by the use of whole-meal Breads. "I am no believer,"he says, "in the brown-bread fallacy".

The phosphatides of cereals contain phosphorus, and nitrogen; their compounds are essential constituents of all the nuclei (or central vitality) of cells in bodily structures, and therefore they are prominent ingredients in nerve tissues. The chief restorative phosphorus-principle is known as lecithin: it is procurable from the cereals, from eggs, apples, and other food sources.

For some unhealthy conditions of the skin, with tetter, or ringworm (through a predisposition to develop its mycelium), sluggish sores, and other signs of defective nutrition, a diet consisting chiefly of whole-wheat meal, with fresh, ripe, sound fruit, and fresh, succulent vegetables, will prove curative; and at the same time some of the fixed oil expressed from the wheat germs will heal the sores by its outward application. Bread, mixed with sea-water, is now used in Philadelphia for some forms of indigestion. The finest wheat meal, when cooked with fruit, is famous against chronic constipation; but whole-wheat meal prepared as Bread by simple baking is less nutritious than fine flour similarly prepared. The roller mill has of late diminished the dietetic value of our Bread, because the finer the flour the less nutriment it affords. Furthermore, defective teeth result from a lack of grain sufficiently coarse to require some masticatory grinding. Savages usually possess magnificent molars, mainly because of their Bread, which is composed of grain roughly pounded between stones, and retaining much of the coarser parts.