Rye contains less gluten even than barley, and thus yields with leaven a heavy, close-grained Bread of darkest colour; its bran, however well ground, is never absorbed. The latest equivalent to the Pumpernickel, or black Bread of North Germany, is the English "York Night Bread,"so called because it must be baked throughout a whole night. Rye grains contain a peculiar odorous substance, and make a sour-tasting, dark Bread, which is apt to cause diarrhoea with some persons; these grains are liable to the attack of a parasitic fungus, and to become "spurred," being then poisonous to the spinal cord. Bread made of rye flour with which a small quantity of the spurred rye is included, is to be sometimes prescribed for defective spinal energy.

Alum, as "stuff," or "rocky," is mixed with the dough by bakers in general for making Bread (about two ounces to 280 pounds of dough), because it certainly improves the appearance of the Bread, whitens it, and causes the loaves to break more easily when separated from one another. Potatoes, again, are employed by bakers, under the name of "fruit,"for bread-making - one peck to the sack of flour - not as an adulteration for cheapening the produce, but beneficially to assist fermentation; mashed in their skins, and with yeast added, they supply a ferment.

"How is Bread made?"'asked the Red Queen of Alice (Through the Looking Glass). "I know,"cried Alice, eagerly; "you take some flour." "Where do you pick the flower ' " the White Queen asked; "in a garden, or in the hedges? "

"Well: it isn't picked at all,"Alice explained; "it's ground".

"How many acres of ground?" said the White Queen.

The crust of Bread is shown to contain more proteid, or principal nutriment, than the crumb. Crust coffee is a light, useful drink for invalids, which resembles in colour an infusion of coffee berries, and is made by steeping well-browned, or toasted crusts of Bread in cold water. For making "Brewis," take as many crusts, and other fragments of dry Bread as will be required; put them into a basin; pour over them sufficient boiling milk to well cover them; stand a plate on top of the vessel, and leave them to soak until they have absorbed the whole of the liquid, and are perfectly tender; then mash them to a smooth paste, removing any hard bits; stir in a small lump of fresh butter; season with salt, and a squeeze of lemon-juice, and serve them hot, or cold, with a jug of butter-milk, or cream.

One Tyson, in Manchester, a while ago, achieved fame as proprietor of a house noted for hot buttered toast. It was Tyson's humour to supply for his customers only chops, steaks, Cumberland ham, hot buttered toast, and insolence. "The excellence of his ham and toast, and the badness of his manners, were Tyson's peculiar claims to remembrance. He walked about the place in his shirt sleeves, superintending proceedings, and showing rudeness to his customers. We regret to find that by these means he acquired fame, and wealth."In the Book of Nonsense, written by Edward Lear, London (1862), and dedicated to "the grandchildren, grand-nephews, and grand-nieces of Edward, the thirteenth Earl of Derby,"we read with amusement: -

"There was an old man of the coast, Who placidly sat on a post; But when it was cold, he relinquished his hold, And called for some hot buttered toast".

This was quite a wise thing to do, seeing that the melted butter would serve admirably as fuel to quicken his bodily warmth.

At the"Marquis of Granby's"(of glorious memory) in Pickwick, when Sam Weller paid a visit to Mrs. Weller, his mother-in-law, "the fire was blazing brightly in the bar parlour, and a plate of hot buttered toast was gently simmering before the fire, and the red-nosed man was busily converting a large slice of bread into the same agreeable edible on a long brass toasting-fork. ' Governor in? ' enquired Sam. ' He may be, or he may not,' replied Mrs. Weller, buttering another round of toast for the red-nosed man. ' Ask a blessin', Mr. Stiggins.' The red-nosed man did as he was desired, and instantly commenced on the toast with fierce voracity."Quite an important medical art is that of making proper toast for the sick person. If the slice of bread is thick, and carelessly exposed to a blazing fire, the outside is charred, and converted into charcoal before the heat-can reach the inside. Thus the moisture within is only heated, not evaporated, and makes the inside doughy, or clammy; and butter, when spread upon this toast, cannot penetrate through into the interior bread, but floats upon the surface in the form of oil, and the result is one of the most indigestible of compounds.

The correct way is to have the bread stale, and cut into thin uniform slices, and to dry it thoroughly before browning it. Toast of this kind, when moistened with water, or with milk, is easily, and thoroughly acted upon by the digestive glands. But when it is a chip, dry enough to snap, is too dry. A central layer of soft bread lends it unity, and preserves enough moisture to influence the whole. If the intervening bread between the two toasted surfaces is more than a mere hint, then has the toaster failed ignominiously. Such an anomaly is "like dancing in thin boots surmounted by heavy gaiters." We remember it was "a lunatic, all gas, and gaiters," who made love to Mrs. Nickleby, the loquacious mother of Nicholas.

When sugar is continuously heated, its water is driven off and presently the sugar grows darker and darker in colour until it is charred black, and becomes on the outside "caramel," which possesses disinfecting properties. Similarly, when bread is toasted, its starch is converted by the fire into dextrin, water being driven off, and the dextrin is carbonized, or burnt brown into "caramel,"nearly identical with that of sugar. The toast, therefore, has likewise disinfecting properties, and when soaked in water makes this toast-water antiseptic, so that its administration in fever, and other septic diseases is a practically scientific proceeding. "Our forefathers and foremothers,"says Mattieu Williams, "probably made this discovery through empirical experience when living in country places where stagnant water was a common beverage, and various devices were tried for making it drinkable. When toast-water is prepared by toasting a small piece of bread to blackness, and letting this float on water in a glass vessel, an observer can notice that little thread-like streams of brown liquid are descending from the bread into the water. They denote a solution of the caramel substance, which ultimately proceeds to tinge all the water.