Formerly there was made by the cook a rich syrup with the spicy aromatic Carnation flower contained therein, the same being used as a tasty sauce for puddings. This is the flower of Jove (Di-anthus), and it is redolent of cloves. Its second title, "Sops in Wine," was given because the petals were infused in wine to give this a spicy flavour, especially in the cup presented to brides immediately after the marriage ceremony. The blossoms are highly cordial, whilst the dried petals, if powdered coarsely, and kept in a stoppered bottle, are of service against heartburn, and flatulence, being given in a dose of from twenty to sixty grains. Gerarde says: "A conserve made of the Carnation flowers with sugar is exceeding cordiall, and wonderfully above measure doth comfort the heart, being eaten now and then." By a mistake Turner designated the same flower "Incarnation." These flowers were thrown of old into casks of wine to give a pleasant taste, and a gallant colour.

At the famous Mulberry Gardens planted in London by James the First (1609) - where Arlington Street now stands - were made the famous restorative Mulberry tarts which Dryden loved. But in Germany mothers disapprove of Mulberries for their children, and declare the devil wants the dark juicy berries for blacking his boots. An excellent Mulberry wine is sometimes brewed which retains all the remedial virtues of this fruit: "On each gallon of ripe Mulberries pour one gallon of boiling water, and let them stand for two days; then squeeze all through a hair sieve, or bag. Wash out the tub, or jar, and return the liquor to it; put in the sugar at the rate of three pounds to each gallon of liquor; stir up until quite dissolved; then put the liquor into a cask; let this cask be raised a little on one side until fermentation ceases, and then bung it down. If the liquor be clear, it may be bottled after four months. Into each bottle put one clove, and a small lump of sugar; and the bottles should be kept at a moderate temperature. The wine can be used in a year from the time of bottling. The juice of Mulberries is curative of putrid sore throat when employed as a gargle, and the ripe fruit is somewhat laxative.

The familiar game played by children "Here we go round the Mulberry bush" bore reference originally to the Bramble, or Blackberry bush, with its similar juicy dark-red berries. The Mulberry is not a bush.

Violet "cakes" (already noticed) are of recent revival, being both nice, and with a reputation against cancer. "Take the juice of one lemon, and put it into a silver porringer, and add to it some sweet Violets; then let it stand a night, and put to it some more Violets, and so stand until it be as deep coloured as you wish; then take a spoonful of fine-powdered sugar, and wet it with the juice; then hold your spoon over a chafing dish of coles, stirring it; smoak, but not boil; take it off, and drop it into cakes (or medicated bon-bons)." "I want taiblet, "said Wee MacGregor to his father. "Taiblet!" exclaimed his mother; "Weans that gets taiblet gets ile after".

From the flowers of the Sweet Violet (Viola odorata) a conserve known as "Violet sugar," and dating since the time of Charles the Second (when it received the name of "Violet-plate"), has proved of excellent use in consumption of the lungs. This Sweet Violet is well recognized by its fragrant perfume when growing in our woods, pastures, and hedge-banks. The odour of the petals is lost in drying, but a pleasant syrup is to be made from the fresh flowers, which syrup possesses the sweet scent of Violets, and which is gently laxative for children. These homely blossoms are grown in abundance at Stratford-on-Avon (where more appropriately?) for the purpose of making the syrup. Again, the same dark purple flowers give zest and beauty to a salad for the table. In Syria a special sugar is blended with sweet Violet petals for making Sherbet. The Romans brewed an exquisitely-flavoured wine with Violet flowers, these being commended for nervous disorders, and epilepsy. A chemical principle, "violin," is contained in all their parts. When the plant is treated with spirit of wine as a tincture, this acts beneficially to relieve a spasmodic cough, with tight breathing.

Napoleon the Great claimed the Sweet Violet as his own particular flower, for which reason he was often styled "Le fere la Violette," this floral association dating from the time of his exile to Elba. The wild Violet, common on our banks, and in our pastures, is the familiar Pansy, from the French "Pensie," "thoughts; "(as Ophelia said, "There is Pansies: that's for thoughts"). The Pansy root has properties almost identical with those of ipecacuanha, and is often used as an efficient substitute for the same by country doctors. The whole herb contains chemically "violin," resin, mucilage, sugar, and the ordinary structural constituents of plants. This chemical principle, "violin," as contained in the wild Pansy, or Violet, resembles "emetin" in action. As long ago as in 1653 to make "a poultess for a swelling" the wild Violet had a curative reputation. "Take a good handful of Violet leaves, and as much groundsel, of chickweed and mallows half a handful; cut all these with a knife, and so seeth them well in conduit water, and thicken it with barlie meal, being finely sifted, and so roule it sure, and lay it to the swelled place, and shift it twice a day." It has been recently reported that a lady of title is grateful for cure from cancer through the application of Violet leaves; the disease was in her throat, and so advanced that the case seemed hopeless, there being complete inability to swallow food.

A cold infusion of the green leaves was kept constantly applied outside her throat on a compress, this being frequently changed afresh. At least a hundred years ago Violet leaves were held to be curative of the same dire disease.

Reverting to the Sweet Violet, its petals are kept candied by confectioners as a pleasant and attractive sweetmeat; also Violet jelly, and Violet fritters are made by the cook. In the fourteenth century Sweet Violets were among the ingredients commended for stuffing a roast hare. These perfumed flowers were formerly worn as amulets, or charms. The Violet was the symbolic flower of Athens; in old Pagan days it was dedicated to Venus, but in modern folk-lore it is devoted to the Virgin Mary. A noted tamer of rattle-snakes died recently in America, having been accustomed to supply the zoological collections, and museums with "rattlers" throughout the world. He had been bitten scores of times, whilst his infallible cure was a poultice of Violet leaves. "I never saw anybody that looked stupider than you do,"said a Violet (to Alice, Through the Looking-glass), so suddenly that Alice quite jumped, for it hadn't spoken before. "Hold your tongue," cried the Tiger Lily; "as if you ever saw anybody: you keep your head under the leaves, and snore away there till you no more know what's going on in the world than if you were a bud!" The leading chemists now manufacture a liquid extract of fresh wild Violets from the flowers, and the leaves.