At the same time a considerable amount of bodily exercise, chiefly out of doors, must indispensably accompany this dietary, unless it is prohibited by a previous wasting of the muscles during some acute disease, with as yet insufficient convalescence.

Dr. Hutchison further says, there is no sort of carbohydrate food more fattening than sugar, because, unlike any other such food, this contains no water, the nourishing value whereof is nil.

Such preparations therefore as the malt extracts can never add to the diet as much fattening and warming support as an equivalent in weight of ordinary cane sugar. Spermaceti, as obtained from the whale, used to be largely given for the purpose of making a thin person fat, but it has now dropped out of use. It was administered in the form of a powder, mixed with sugar, and three-quarters of an ounce could be thus taken daily, being well borne, and not difficult to absorb. Cream contains about 20 per cent of fat, and three tablespoonfuls of it are more than equal in food value to one tablespoonful of cod-liver oil emulsion. Butter has 80 per cent of fat, and can be taken in considerable quantity if mixed with starchy food, such as mashed potato.

As Dr. Hutchison says, "There can be no doubt that mutton-fat, especially when hot, proves irritating to the stomachs of some persons; and in them the eating of mutton pies, or Irish stews, is likely to be followed by bothering indigestion, or even acute catarrh of the stomach".

Sleep of itself seems to lessen the waste of bodily fat. A German writer goes so far as to assert that an extra hour's sleep at night is equivalent to the saving of two and a half pounds of fat in the year. A good homely form of fatty food at breakfast is fried bread. Take slices of brown bread, fry them a nice brown with some dripping (either of mutton, beef, or roast chicken), serve warm with pepper. "You'll find," said the elder Mr. Weller to his son Sam, "that as you gets vider you'll get viser. Vidth and visdom, Sammy, always goes together".

Practically, when it is wished to increase the bodily weight and nutrition by laying on fat only, then the food increment must be made as regards giving fats, and carbohydrates (starches, and sweet things); but where one desires rather to enrich the body as to its muscular tissue, and complement of blood, thereby adding weight as well as vital force, or, in other words, to confer more proteids, then the proportion thereof in the daily food must be augmented; whilst what are termed proteid-sparers, or economisers, are also given, such as gelatin, and the like. This is the plan to be pursued in strengthless, nervous disorders. Lean fresh meat is to be regarded as the type of a natural proteid food. It contains about one-fifth of its weight of that constituent, the rest being made up chiefly of water; the proteids are not only rapidly consumed, but they cause a sympathetic increase in the consumption of sugars and fats; therefore an animal diet makes for leanness. Where, on the other hand, it is desired to reduce the amount of bodily fat, as in obese persons who are encumbered thereby, it will be proper to reduce the number of fat- and heat-producers in the daily food; also to increase the output of energy as supplied in the food, by taking more exercise, or doing more daily active work, or by a combination of these methods.

The richer meats should be used very sparingly, such as pork, and goose; likewise the fatty fish, as salmon, mackerel, eels, herrings, sardines in oil, and sprats; the coarser sorts of bread will be best, such as contain much unassimilable bran. Potatoes are not so fattening as white bread, and may be allowed in moderation. Fresh fruits will be very useful, but not so the dried sweet fruits. Thick soups, sauces, and pastry are fat-producing, likewise starchy farinaceous foods. Lean meat may be taken liberally. Rest and sleep seem to lessen the waste of fat. But sleep is useful as an aid to digestion only in the case of invalids, and aged persons, and even then it may be injurious, because of the depressed circulation meanwhile.

At first, for those newly convalescent from a wasting disease, pounded meat should be added to soups in the form of purees; then passing on to the more easily digested forms of animal food, such as chicken, fish; and eggs. Jellies properly made from lean superior meat are to be commended, likewise custard, and light milk puddings, which are proteid-sparers. The enrichment of the diet in fat for such patients may be wisely deferred until later, being then accomplished, if desirable, by the free use of cream, butter, bacon, and suet.

Warner, in his Literary Recollections, tells of an eccentric lady, Mrs. Jefierys, the sister of Wilkes, who lived at Bath, and who dined every day at a boarding-house, with a bottle of Madeira at her side, eating largely of some big joint particularly abundant in fat. She was served with frequent slices of this fat meat, which she swallowed alternately with pieces of chalk, neutralizing, as she supposed, the acids of the fat with the alkaline basis of the chalk. Furthermore she amalgamated, diluted, and assimilated the delicious compound with half a dozen glasses of her Madeira.

Charles Lamb, in Grace before Meat, inveighs against overfed, obese greedy eaters. "Gluttony and surfeiting," says he, "are no proper occasions for thanksgiving. We read that when Jeshurun waxed fat he kicked." "Whenever I see a fat citizen at a feast in his bib and tucker I cannot imagine this to be a surplice." The shrewd worldly old Lord Chesterfield, in one of the noted letters to his son, then at Paris, 1752, for the recovery of his health, gave the advice, "I pray you leave off entirely your heavy greasy pastry, fat creams, and indigestible dumplings; and then you need not confine yourself to white meats, which I do not take to be one jot wholesomer than beef, mutton, and partridge".

M. Brillat Savarin directs (1889), "that lean persons for whom it is sought to correct this disposition should eat plenty of newly-baked bread, taking care to masticate it thoroughly, and not to leave any of the crumb; also to partake of eggs for luncheon at about 11.0 a.m. Then at dinner, potage, meat, and fish, may be had as desired, but to these must be added rice, macaroni, sweet pastries, sweet cream, charlottes, etc. At dessert, savoy biscuits, babas, and other preparations which contain starch, with eggs and sugar. Beer is to be the beverage by preference, or Burgundy, or Claret. Acids are to be avoided, except with the salad, which rejoices the heart. Eat plenty of grapes in the season. Go to bed at about eleven p.m. on ordinary days, and not later than one o'clock in the morning on holiday occasions'.

'Such is the French method for getting fat!

Sydney Smith, who had been trying anti-fat dieting, and lessening his sleep, wrote in 1819 from Saville Bow, London, to Lady Mary Bennett, "I shall be so thin when you see me that you may trundle me about like a mop." It should be remembered that the dietetic requirements of old age are just the reverse of those of childhood. The assimilative power of the bodily cells is now on the wane, and the physical activities are restricted, so that less food is required. "Leanness and longevity," it has been remarked, "go together, and a man will only roll all the faster down the hill of life if his figure be rotund." "Discerne," 'taught Bacon, "of the coming on of yeares, and thinke not to doe the same things still, for age will not be defied".

Charles Dickens, when humorously describing a foot-race between the Boston Bantam, and the Man of Boss (very fat), said of this Roscius, "according to the epigram of some anonymous cove ":-

"And when ho walks the streets the paviours cry ' God bless you, sir,' and lay their rammers by".

Per contra, Tennyson in his Vision of Sin admonishes us solemnly that: -

"Every face, however full, Padded round with flesh and fat, Is but modelled on a skull! "

Edward Fitzgerald, in a letter to his friend Bernard Barton, August, 1844, wrote "I spent four pleasant days with Donne, who looks pale and thin. We are neither of us in what may be called the first dawn of boyhood, but Donne maintains his shape better than I do, for, sorrow, I doubt not, has done this with me; and so we see why the house of mourning is better than the stalled ox. For, it is a grievous thing to grow poddy: the age of chivalry is gone then".

Few children's rhymes are more common than that which relates to Jack Sprat and his wife; but it is little known that this has been current for two centuries and more. When Howell published his Collection of Proverbs in 1659 it contained the rhyme: -

"Archdeacon Pratt would eat no fat, His wife would eat no lean: 'Twixt the archdeacon and his wife The meat was ate up clean".

In certain animals, as the ox, sheep, goat, and hart, the fatty tissue about the loins and kidneys is known as suet; it is harder fat and less fusible than that from other parts of these animals. Fat of the ox, or sheep, when melted out of its connective tissue forms tallow; the corresponding flaky fat of hogs furnishes leaf-lard. Mutton suet may be purified from its peculiar odour by being heated to 150° Fahrenheit, at which temperature the hircin is decomposed, and the hircic acid passes away. During the siege of Paris some candles made of mutton fat were thus purified, and the fat was then used for food. The South Germans term the brisket-fat, or breast-fat of sheep and oxen, because of its excellent nut-like flavour, "breast-kernel." The hump of the Camel is analogous to it both in structure and in taste.

If the diet of a patient is restricted to milk, and if this is well-borne, it may be made more nourishing as "superfatted milk " by immersing in the milk some suet finely chopped, and enclosed in a muslin bag; then simmering the whole for a while with moderate heat. To begin with, a good-sized teaspoonful of the suet should be used for a pint of milk, advancing presently to larger quantities of the suet if the stomach does not rebel. Chopped suet is neither heavy, nor indigestible, if the pudding, or dumpling, or other dish in which it is used be boiled, or steamed, a sufficiently long time, so as to render it light, and easy of digestion. For a plain suet pudding: take one pound of flour, half a pound of chopped suet, and a pinch of salt. Mix all together, with about a quarter of a pint of cold water; then flour a cloth, and put the pudding into it, tie up, and drop it into a saucepanful of boiling water, and boil for two or three hours. The late Lord Leighton, President of the Royal Academy, who loved everything about him to be beautiful in form, colour, and texture, and who would have wished, it might be naturally supposed, to live almost on ambrosia and nectar, when he was asked what he would specially like for his birthday dinner, could think (as Miss Cockran tells) of no greater delicacy than roast mutton with suet pudding.

Tennyson, again, loved beer, and chops. So it does not appear that these gifted men, whose pen and pencil seem to have been inspired, manifested any special nicety of palate, or natural craving for choice culinary dishes.