Charles Lamb, in his Elia's Essay, Grace before Meat, has said: "During the early times of the world, and the hunter state of man, when dinners were precarious things, and a full meal was something more than a common blessing, when a bellyfull was a windfall, and looked like a special providence, then in the shouts, and triumphal songs with which, after a season of sharp abstinence a lucky booty of goat's flesh (or deer's flesh) would naturally be ushered home, existed perhaps the germ of the modern "Grace before meat." This animal, the Goat (Capra hircus), long associated with medicine, and named a carpendo, from cropping, yields a milk "accounted cordiall against consumption: yea, its very stench is used for a perfume in Araby the Happy." The milk is richer in solids than that of the woman, the cow, or the ass, containing the largest proportion of cheese substance (casein), and the most fatty constituents, as well as salts, though it is comparatively poor in sugar of milk. It possesses hircin, r hircic acid, which has a peculiar smell, and taste. Goats' milk will often serve to check obstinate diarrhoea, whilst whey made therefrom helps to obviate scrofulous disease.

This whey is the chief means of a cure carried out specially in well-known establishments of Germany, and the Tyrol. The whey is sweetish, balsamic, and agreeable, with a greenish tint, and consisting of sugar in solution with lactic acid, and with animal extractive matters, such as osmazome, and the like; also mineral salts are present, these being the chlorides of potassium, and sodium, sulphate of soda, and phosphate, and carbonate of lime. Help is given in the cure by the restorative atmospheric, and climatic influences which are brought locally to bear. It is essential that the whey shall be made from the milk of Goats which range, and browse on high mountains, particularly of Switzerland. In habitual torpor of the digestive organs, with constipation of the bowels, this whey-cure by Goats' milk effects admirable results, whilst in the scrofulous affections of children the benefits are simply wonderful.

At Naples there are no milk carts, but the cow is brought to the door, and milked on the spot to the quantity required. "Passa la vacca" is said by the customer on a blank day, - "Pass on! can't afford milk to-day;" which has become a homely proverb expressing far more than that, "the wolf (as well as the cow) is at the door." "Close behind come the Goats, and they, too, must be milked in sight of the purchasers, or how can it be sure that this milk is not watered." Upstairs climbs Nanny, if need be to the topmost storey, her owner professing loudly his innocence of tricks; but under his ragged jacket he has a skin of water, with a tube extending down his sleeve. In Italy a kind of cream cheese (ricotta) is made from Goats' milk, and is sold in the streets, being much appreciated as sweet, and palatable. The vendors carry it on their heads like our muffin sellers, and retail it at so much a centime.

Sir Wm. Broadbent, writing about the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis, says "it is interesting to note that asses, and Goats, do not suffer from this disease "; wherefore, adds Mrs, Earle in Pot Pourri, "it is a continual surprise to me that Goats are not kept for supplying their milk to the Consumptive Sanatoriums'.

'Old Lord Chesterfield, in one of his famous letters to his son (London, March, 1759), wrote: "I am rather better than I was, which I owe, not to my physicians, but to an ass, and a cow, who nourish me, between them, very plentifully, and wholesomely; in the morning the ass is my nurse, at night the cow; and I have just now bought a milch goat, which is to graze, and to nurse me at Blackheath. I do not know what may come of this latter, and I am not without apprehensions that it may make a satyr of me; but should I find that obscene disposition growing upon me I will check it in time, for fear of endangering my life, and character, by rapes." Again, in another letter, from Italy, he records the fact that the Italian doctors had ordered for his lungs, then out of order, that he must drink asses' milk twice a day, and Goats' whey as often as he pleases, the oftener the better; whilst in his common diet they recommended an attention to pectorals, such as sago, barley, turnips, etc. In the Essay on Witches and Night Fears, Elia says: "Nor, when the wicked are expressly symbolised in Scripture by a Goat, was it so much to be wondered at that by our ancestors (whom we are too hasty to set down in the gross as fools) the devil was thought to come sometimes in the body of this animal, and assert his metaphor." It is a fact worthy of notice that where a goat is kept about a dwelling-place rats will not come.

Dr. Robert Hutchison tells us that Goats' milk, because stronger even than cows' milk, is unsuitable for the use of infants. One hundred parts contain four and a half of proteid solids. Whey procured from this milk ranks between aliments, and medicines, being of high value in the treatment of patients debilitated by organic disease of the stomach, or intestines. Paul Kruger, when among the Boers (as recently told in his Life,) had his left thumb blown off by the bursting of his rifle when firing at a rhinoceros charging upon him, from which animal he then had to ride for his life. He doctored his hand roughly with turpentine, but everybody insisted it would have to come off. Kruger, however, flatly refused to lose his hand. "The two joints of what was once my thumb had gone, but it appeared that it would still be necessary to remove a piece of bone. I took my knife intending to perform the operation, but it was snatched away from me. A little later I got hold of another knife, and cut across the ball of the thumb, removing as much as was necessary; the worst bleeding was soon over, but the operation was a very painful one.

I had no means by me of deadening the pain, and tried to persuade myself that the hand upon which I was performing this surgical operation belonged to somebody else. The wound healed very slowly. The women sprinkled finely-powdered sugar on it, and from time to time I had to remove the dead flesh with my pocket-knife; but gangrene set in after all. Different remedies were applied, but all seemed useless, for the black marks rose as far as the shoulder. Then they killed a goat, took out the stomach, and cut it open; and I put my hand into it while it was still warm. This Boer remedy succeeded, for when it came to the turn of the second goat my hand was already easier, and the danger much less. The wound took over six months to heal, and before it was quite closed I was out hunting again." Goats' milk is found to be far less subject to germs than cows' milk; it has wonderful nutritive properties, and will sometimes rescue infants, and invalids, as a last resource in diet. "The Indians," says Antient Cymric Medicine, "are treated by their native doctors for asthma in a remarkable way. Ghee prepared with Goats' milk is given to the patient internally, and a Goat is brought into the sick person's room three times a day.

The patient is directed to make use of the animal as a pillow, and to hug it during his paroxysms of difficult breathing, then inhaling the strong scent of the beast; and the sick man will within a short while become cured of his complaint." From the days of Moses the Goat has been accredited with a certain virtue as the carrier away of what is evil. Originally, according to the old Jewish ritual, on the great day of atonement the sins of the people were symbolically laid on the head of a Goat, which was afterwards turned out into the wilderness.