The Crabapple has already been referred to as furnishing verjuice - a powerful astringent - of particular use when applied externally for old sprains.

Tannin in another form, or gallo-tannic acid, which is contained plentifully in what are known as Oak-apples (or galls), as well as in oak-tree bark, will serve to restrain bleedings if taken internally; and the bark when finely powdered, and inhaled pretty often, has proved very beneficial against consumption of the lungs in its early stages. Working tanners are well known to be particularly exempt from this disease, in all probability through their constantly inhaling the peculiar aroma given off from the tanpits; and a similar remedial effect may be produced by using constantly as a snuff some fresh oak bark, dried, and reduced to a sufficiently fine powder, whilst also inhaling day after day the steam given off from recent oak bark infused in boiling water. A strong decoction of oak bark is most useful for applying to reduce prolapse of the lower bowel, through a relaxed fundament.