(See Artichoke).

Pepys (in his Diary, July 17th, 1664) wrote: "Dr. Burnett has showed me the manner of eating Turpentine, which pleases me well, for it is with great ease." Again, on December 31st: "So ends the old year; I bless God, with great joy to me. I have never been in so good a plight as to my health these ten years as I am at this day, and have been these four, or five months. But I am at a great loss to know whether it be my hare's foote, or taking every morning of a pill of Turpentine, or my having left off the wearing of a gowne".

Turpentine #1

Turpentine consists of an essential hydrocarbon oil, and a resin, "colophony;" it exudes from the incised bark of pine trees as an oleo-resin, which we term spirit of turpentine. When swallowed in a dose of from eight to twenty drops in a little milk, it promotes perspiration, and stimulates the bronchial mucous membrane. A larger dose might cause congestion of the kidneys, and strangury. For bleeding from the lungs five drops are to be given every half hour whilst needed. Quite small doses of turpentine, four drops or less, in milk, or on sugar, will promptly relieve kidney congestion. A pleasant form in which turpentine can be given is when made into a confection with honey and liquorice powder. In the low stages of bronchial pneumonic catarrh, turpentine will often prove specifically a saving sheet-anchor to rescue the patient. A capital way of then administering it is as turpentine punch. Rub a little fresh lemon rind on a lump of sugar: then drop from fifteen to twenty minims of spirit of turpentine on the lump of white sugar, and dissolve the same in a wineglassful of hot whisky punch; or the turpentine may be made into a smooth emulsion with yolk of egg, and peppermint water.

It is to be noted that a destructive microbe, diplococcus pneumonias, underlies the lung-inflammation, and must be combated with germicidal remedies, turpentine being one of these. The inhalation of oxygen gas should be combined therewith in advanced severe cases.