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Meals Medicinal | by W. T. Fernie



(With "Herbal Simples" Of Edible Parts) Curative foods from the cook; In place of drugs from the chemist.

TitleMeals Medicinal
AuthorW. T. Fernie
PublisherJohn Wright & Co.
Year1905
Copyright1905, John Wright & Co.
AmazonMeals Medicinal: With "Herbal Simples" Curative Foods From the Cook in Place of Drugs From the Chemist
Meals Medicinal: With Herbal Simples.

By W. T. Fernie, M.D., Author of "Herbal Simples," "Animal Simples," "Kitchen Physic," etc., etc.

"Bound in vellum, and tied with green tapes,"was a small booklet, published at Liege, 1610 - "the School of Good Living; beginning with Cadmus the Cook, and King, and concluding with the Union of Cookery and Chymistry." - We borrow its exordium to-day. "The writer confidently trusts as to his readers that many will be found to kiss this little yolume heartily, to thumb all its pages, and to carry it in their hands both day and night".

To Our "Little Marys" (Playfully Named); With The Homage Of A Life-Time Spent In Their Service.

-Introduction
The purpose of this Handbook is to explain what are the curative constituents of such dishes, and table-waters, as a Doctor can adequately order instead of drugs, when prescribing against diseases; th...
-Introduction. Part 2
John Evelyn likewise tells in his Acetaria (1699): We read of divers Popes, and Emperors, that had sometimes learned physicians for their master-cooks; and that of old an excellent cook was reckon'd ...
-Introduction. Part 3
The great majority of medical men are unable to give precise instructions to a cook; while, nevertheless, on the other hand, many unqualified practitioners impress the public mind by affording careful...
-Introduction. Part 4
Accordingly, such a compendium of explanatory dietetics is now undertaken, with the conjoint purposes of enlightening the cook, of treating diseases by effective medicinal constituents given at table,...
-Introduction. Part 5
Instead of having to learn painfully, and laboriously throughout the proverbial first forty years of his life, how to become his own physician (or to remain a fool), every man may take practical heed ...
-Absinthe
Absinthe is a liqueur used largely in France, being concocted in the main from the herb Wormwood (artemisia absinthium) which yields an essential oil consisting chiefly of absinthol. This oil is the b...
-Acids - Horse-Radish
Acids See Fruits (Apple, Grape, and Lemon); Vinegar (Malt). Balm (See Herbs). Bilberry (See Whortleberry). Brandy (See Cordials). Capsicum (Cayenne, See Pepper). Cereals ...
-Alcohol
This is chemically a toxin of the yeast plant, as the spirituous product of vinous fermentation (whereby are given intoxicating properties of varying relative strength to ardent spirits, wines, and ma...
-Alcohol. Part 2
Boswell, talking to Dr. Johnson about the ethics of drinking, said, respecting himself, I am a lover of wine, and therefore curious to hear what you say remarkable about drinking. This was apropo...
-Alcohol. Part 3. Beer
Beer, as mentioned by Herodotus, was brewed in Egypt 2,000 years ago. Sir Cuthbert Quilter has found at Luxor, on a monolith, the bas-relief of a tankard. Before the time of Elizabeth beer was drunk n...
-Alcohol. Part 4
The grape juice, which by fermentation makes wine, contains chiefly grape sugar, together with one part of fruit sugar, also albuminous matters, and the acids (principally tartaric, and tannic). This ...
-Alcohol. Part 5
Therefore it is an appropriate stimulant for benefiting certain sorts of infantile, and youthful debility, as well as nervous failure in the digestive functions of enfeebled old invalids. Sherry (Vinu...
-Ale
(See Alcohol and Beer). Ale is beer of a certain strength, light in colour, being brewed from malt dried at a low degree of heat. Andrew Boorde, in 1542, distinguished ale (as made of malt, water, ...
-Alkalies In Foods
The alkali, Soda (sodium), which is most necessary in the body for the proper constitution of its fluids, is derived chiefly from animal foods, this being taken in the chemical form of chloride of sod...
-Alkalies In Foods. Certain Natural Waters
Certain Natural Waters from volcanic regions, former, or present, are in demand as pure and refreshing drinks, because of their amount of carbonic acid gas as well as their mineral salts. The best, an...
-Almonds
Two sorts of almonds are available with us commercially - the sweet, or Jordan almond, - so called, it would seem, from jardyne,because of the garden sort (chiefly from Malaga and not in any way con...
-Angelica
The candied stems of this aromatic English herb, as sold commonly by our confectioners, are of excellent service to relieve the flatulence of weakly digestion. They smell pleasantly of musk, being a c...
-Animal Foods
A distinction is to be made between animal foods, and flesh foods, which latter do not include milk, cheese, butter, or eggs, (each of which will be considered here under its proper heading). As to an...
-Animal Foods. Continued
And in this way the moral, and intellectual redeeming moiety was utterly extinguished, so that the monster Edward Hyde completely overpowered the good, benevolent Dr. Jekyll, and presently came to a m...
-Anisette, Or Aniseed
This is a cordial liqueur, prepared from the condimentary seeds of the herb Anise, which are commonly kept among the pantry stores of a well-ordered household. The said seeds (of the Pimpinella anisum...
-Apple
The Apple in its composition consists of vegetable fibre, albumin, sugar, gum, chlorophyll, malic acid, earthy lime salts, and much water. German food-chemists teach that this fruit contains phosphate...
-Apple. Part 2
Francatelli gives as a recipe for apple-water, to be drunk during fever: Slice up thinly three or four Apples without peeling them, and boil these in a very clean saucepan with a quart of water, and ...
-Apple. Part 3
The botanical name of an apple tree is Pyrus malus, of which schoolboys are wont to make ingenious uses by playing on the latter word: - Malo, I had rather be, Malo, in an apple-tree, Malo, than a...
-Apricot
(See Marmalade). The Apricot, Armeniaca, is a beautiful stone fruit,; of a rich reddish, yellow colour, shining, as Ruskin has said, 'in sweet brightness of golden velvet. Its name originated in...
-Arrowroot
This is a starch obtained from the roots of several species of Maranta, chiefly the variety Arundinacea (West Indian). Brazilian Arrowroot (tapioca meal) is got from the roots of the Manihot utiliss...
-Artichoke
Dietetically are used the Jerusalem Artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus), of the Sunflower order, and the Globe Artichoke (Cinara maxima anglicana), which is a magnified thistle. The tubers of the former...
-Asparagus
The title Asparagus comes from Sparage, of Persian origin, and its form Sparagus became corrupted by popular etymology into Sparagrass, and Sparrowgrass, sometimes called simply grass; each of which...
-Ass's Milk
There are various milks used for dietetic purposes, some of these being likewise medicinal. Comprised among them are the milk of cud-chewing animals, human milk, ass's milk, and mare's milk. The essen...
-Bacon
(See also Pork). The side, and belly of a pig are called Bacon, when salted and cured in a way similar to that which converts the leg of pork into ham. If the whole side of a pig has been salted, a...
-Bacon. Continued
She is indeed almost too transcendent; a delight, if not sinful, yet so like to sinning that really a tender-conscienced person would do well to pause; too ravishing for mortal taste, she woundeth, an...
-Balm (Melissa Officinalis)
Balm (Melissa Officinalis), so called because of its honied sweetness, occurs plentifully in our kitchen gardens, and was so highly esteemed by Paracelsus as the Primum ens Melissa that he believed ...
-Banana
The Banana (Musa sapientum), now so popular with us, and of such common use as a highly nutritious vegetable product of the plantain tree, especially for children (who eat it with gusto), was probably...
-Barberry
(See Fruits). Barberry berries, as supplied at the shops, have some excellent medicinal virtues. They grow on a cultivated variety of the wild shrub Berberis, as found in our English copses, and he...
-Barley
Hordeum vulgare, or Common Barley, affords a grain chiefly used in Great Britain for brewing, and distilling, but which possesses dietetic, and medicinal virtues of importance. We fatten our swine on ...
-Bean
The common White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), because of its seeds bearing a close resemblance to the kidney, and to a sexual gland, was worshipped by the Egyptians, who would not partake of it as a foo...
-Beef
The flesh of the ox has been long reputedly in this country the highest form of sustenance, for both the sound, and the sick. Its solid parts are composed of albumin, fat, creatin, creatinin, inosinic...
-Beer
(See also Ale and Malt). Beer, which is practically Ale when brewed together with hops, is not a good beverage for persons of sedentary habits; unless taken quite moderately by such, it burdens the...
-Beet Root
The Beet of our kitchen gardens is of the Goosefoot tribe, and derived from the Sea Beet, which grows plentifully about English coasts. Its name originated through a fancied resemblance borne by its s...
-Birds, Small
Such of our small fowl as the Blackbird, Lark, Robin, Snipe, Sparrow, Thrush, and Woodcock, whilst good for the table, exercise severally certain medicinal effects which are available for curative use...
-Biscuits
As is commonly known, Biscuits are multiform, and of various manufacture. Their general name signifies twice baked (biscuits, or cocti), whilst they consist chiefly of flour, with water, or milk, an...
-Blackberry
The Bramble, or Blackberry Shrub (Rubus fruticosus), which grows in almost every English hedgerow, is familiar to us all. Its popular fruit, ripe in the late summer, furnishes citric, and malic acids,...
-The Bladderwrack, Or Kelpware
The Bladderwrack, Or Kelpware, is a coarse-looking Seaweed found in heavy brown masses on most of our coasts. It is known quite commonly by the characteristic bladders studded about the blades of the ...
-Blood Of Animals
When Animal Blood is used in cooking: for example, in the sausages known as black puddings, the addition of several aromatic spices is necessary so as to overcome its alkaline flatness, and lack of sa...
-Borage
Borage (which, with its gallant blue flower, is freely grown in the kitchen garden for Claret cup, and the bees) doth exhilarate, says an old herbalist, when taken in sallets, and maketh the mind...
-Brains Of Animals
The Brains of animals consist largely of a fatty matter containing cholesterin, and lecithin, the latter element being comparatively rich in phosphorus. Dr. Salmon (in 1696) directed that a ram's Bra...
-Bread
Bread is such an essential food in all countries that it may well be called the Staff of Life. Quando deest panis tunc est cibus omnis inanis:- If Bread one needs in vain one feeds. Our Bread...
-Bread. Part 2. Brown Bread
Brown Bread is wheaten Bread made from unbolten flour, so that the bran remains included. In the United States it is commonly called Graham Bread. Pour or five hundred years ago this kind of Bread, wh...
-Bread. Part 3
Rye contains less gluten even than barley, and thus yields with leaven a heavy, close-grained Bread of darkest colour; its bran, however well ground, is never absorbed. The latest equivalent to the Pu...
-Bread. Part 4
It is in just the same way that meat, or game, which is high before being cooked, becomes, if roasted, or baked, similarly carbonized, and browned outside, and thus made sweet. To cook food au gra...
-Broths
IT was about the year 1820 that the term Broth was for the first time given to an essential solution of meat, the strength thereof being determined by the weights of the principal ingredients used. In...
-Bun
The ordinary sweet Bun was originally Bugne,a sort of fritter, a kind of bread made with sugar in it, and baked in cakes, generally round. The first mention of Buns occurs in a comedy of 1676; and e...
-Butter
As everyone knows, Butter is the fatty portion of new milk. The name is probably derived from the Greek word Bous, a cow. Butter contains 80 per cent of fat, and therefore is capital food for supply...
-Cabbage
The time has come,as said the Walrus (Alice and the Looking (Mass): - To talk of many things; Of shoes, and ships, and sealing wax; of Cabbages, and kings. Because apt to ferment, the whole ...
-Cakes
In the making of Cakes, which are capital food for growing children, but should be plainer for the sick, good sweet butter, and fresh eggs are absolutely necessary; what is known as cooking butter, ...
-Caper
The Caper (Capparis), with which we 'are familiar, as pickled, and used in sauce with boiled mutton at table, is a product of countries which border the Mediterranean; the unopened buds being used for...
-Caraway Seeds
The well-known aromatic Caraway Seeds of our household cakes, and of the confectioner's sugared comfits, depend for their cordial and comforting properties, (especially when bruised) on an essential o...
-Carrot
The Garden Carrot (Daucus carota), an umbelliferous plant, is so common a vegetable with us all as not to need any descriptive preliminaries. The root contains an essential oil, which is fragrant, aro...
-Caudle
Practically Caudle, so called from the Latin Calidus hot, or the old French word Chaudel, is a drink of warm ale made with groats, and given to the sick as a restorative support. It is more freque...
-Caviare
The salted roe of the Sturgeon, known as far back as in Shakespeare's day (who spoke of it as 'Caviare,' but not appreciated by the multitude), has been humorously styled salt blackberry jam. Some p...
-Celery
Our garden Celery (Apium sativum) is a cultivated variety of the wild Celery (Apium graveolens) which grows abundantly in moist English ditches, and in water, being unwholesome as a food, and with a f...
-Cheese
When milk is coagulated by rennet, or some other acid, it separates into solid curd, and liquid whey (or serum). If the solid parts are collected, and pressed together in a mould, hoop, or vat, they u...
-Cheese. Part 2
The average palate has been taught to relish Cheese after it has undergone butyric acid fermentation (which is, in fact, the first stage of putridity). But years ago, when the small dairymen made plai...
-Cheese. Part 3
There is no doubt that preparations of the kind can be added in very large amount to ordinary foods, such as soups, and milk, and even to some solid foods with great benefit, and without the sick pers...
-Cheese. Part 4
The phosphate of lime which is supplied by Cheese made with rennet, is probably in a condition of such fine division, that it can be readily dissolved by the gastric juice in the stomach. For a dish i...
-Cheese. Part 5
Sydney Smith, when writing to Robert Murchison, the geologist (December, 1841), said: Heaven send I may understand your book, but my knowledge of the science is too slender for that advantage, - a kn...
-Cherry
(And see Fruit). Our cultivated Cherry (Cerasus) dates from the time of Henry the Eighth. A London street cry in the fifteenth century was Cherries on the ryse,(or on twigs), but these were proba...
-The Chesnut
The Chesnut, as already described, is probably of the chiefest dietetic value among Nuts. Evelyn says of them they are a lusty and masculine food for rustics at all times, and of better nourishment f...
-Chestnut
Of all known Nuts the Spanish Chestnut (Stover Nut, or Meat Nut) is the most farinaceous, or starchy, and the least oily, so that it is more easy of digestion than any other. Italian Chestnut Cakes co...
-Chicory
(See Coffee). The Wild Chicory, or Succory (Cichorium), is an English roadside plant, with flowers (white, or blue), and which is also called Turnsole,a Sunflower. Its fresh root is bitter, with...
-Chocolate
(See Cocoa). Chocolate is a paste, or cake, composed of the kernels of the Theobroma cacao fruit, ground up, and combined with sugar, vanilla, cloves, cinnamon, and other flavouring substances: it ...
-Cider
(See Apple). Cider (or Cyder, an early form of the word) is the juice of apples which has been fermented advisedly. It contains about the lowest percentage of alcohol of all popular fermented dri...
-Cinnamon
What we employ as Cinnamon from the spice-box consists, when genuine, of the inner bark of shoots from the stocks of a Ceylon tree. This bark contains cinnamic acid, tannin, a particular resin, a vola...
-Cinnamon. Continued
It is convenient for all bodies, especially for them that are of cold and moyst temperature, and that have weake stomackes. St. Francis of Sales has said, in his Devout Life, with respect to the labo...
-Cloves
Cultivated at Penang, and elsewhere, the Clove tree (Caryo-phyllus), belonging to the Myrtle family of plants, produces flower-buds, which whilst yet unexpanded, constitute our Cloves, these having be...
-Cochineal
A rich crimson dye is frequently used for kitchen purposes, being altogether harmless, as obtained from the Cochineal insect, dried, powdered, and infused, or made into a liquid essence. This diminuti...
-Cockles
The Cockle (Cardium), or poor man's oyster, is, as is well known, a common, little, bi-valvular shell-fish found buried in the sand of our sea-shores, particularly at Teignmouth, and on the Norfolk ...
-Cocoa
(And see Chocolate). The seeds of Theobroma cacao (a Mexican tree, as already described) contain a considerable quantity of nitrogen, but only from 20 to 30 per cent of animal nourishment (proteids...
-Cod
(See Fish and Oil). The Cod is found by those who have made competent research to be one of the least digestible fish, though containing but little fat. Its fibre is coarse, and woolly, but Cods' h...
-Coffee And Chicory
The Coffee Berry The Coffee Berry, which we roast, and grind, for infusing as a stimulating, fragrant, refreshing drink, is got from the Coffea Arabica tree, which produces a fruit resembling a che...
-Coffee And Chicory. Part 2
French Coffee French Coffee has hitherto been made with more or less Chicory in combination, and sometimes with burnt sugar also. This Chicory is the root of the Wild Endive (Cichorium intybus), ki...
-Coffee And Chicory. Part 3
Trelawney has described the making of Turkish Coffee correctly, thus (July, 1900): A bright charcoal fire was burning in a small stove. Kamalia first took for four persons four handfuls of the small,...
-The Common Garden Radish (Raphanus Sativus)
The Common Garden Radish (Raphanus Sativus) is a cultivated variety of the horse radish; it was not grown in England before 1548, though highly commended by Dioscorides and Pliny in ancient days. John...
-Confectionery
Formerly there was made by the cook a rich syrup with the spicy aromatic Carnation flower contained therein, the same being used as a tasty sauce for puddings. This is the flower of Jove (Di-anthus), ...
-Cookery
The French ideal of a perfect cook is that he shall exactly understand the nature and properties of the substances which he employs, so that he may correct, or improve, such aliments as nature present...
-Cookery. Part 2
We must bear in mind, as Sir Wm. Roberts has taught, that among civilized races the preparation of food for the table is carried to a high degree of practical effect. The cereal grains, for example...
-Cookery. Part 3
And even as lately as at the beginning of the last century (1810) a bowl of coloured glass containing water was placed before each guest, at the end of dinner, and the women as well as the men stooped...
-Cordials And Restoratives
In olden times the good Elizabethan housewife was the doctor's great ally. In her still-room the lady with the ruff and fardingale was ever busy with cooling waters, surfeit waters, and cordial waters...
-Cordials And Restoratives. Part 2
There is a pure, wholesome Cognac which is immensely valuable for medicinal purposes, being made from the grapes of La Folle, or St. Pierre, such as are carefully cultivated, and guarded, in the viney...
-Cordials And Restoratives. Part 3
Allspice (Pimento) Allspice (Pimento) is likewise popular as a warming cordial, having a sweet odour, and a grateful aromatic taste. The name is given because the berries afford in smell and taste ...
-Corn, Indian
(See Maize, Hominy, Samp, Oswego, Pop Corn, and Cerealine). Maize, or Indian Corn, which is produced over immense regions of the globe, though not grown in England, affords nutriment of a substanti...
-Cow
(See Butter, Cream, and Milk). In Flintshire, and some other counties, the sweet breath, and smell of the Cow are thought to be of benefit against consumption of the human lungs. Henderson tells of...
-Cowslip
Because affording an excellent sweet wine with decided curative virtues, the Cowslip merits a passing culinary notice. Pliny wrote about this homely flower, In aqua potum omnibus morbis mederi tradun...
-Crab Apple
(See Verjuice). From green fruits, particularly the wild Crab, and unripe grapes, can be expressed an acid liquor, verjuice, or verjuyce, which is highly astringent, being used as such for both cul...
-The Crabapple
The Crabapple has already been referred to as furnishing verjuice - a powerful astringent - of particular use when applied externally for old sprains. Tannin in another form, or gallo-tannic acid, ...
-Cranberry
(See Whortleberry, and Bilberry Fruits). The Cranberry order of plants, found growing abundantly in England about heaths, and mountainous districts, affords several berried shrubs, the fruits of wh...
-Cream
The fat of new milk, which rises to the surface after standing, is Cream. It contains proteid, and sugar (lactose), in fully as high proportion as milk itself. A good sample of Cream should afford 41 ...
-Cresses
Comprised among Cresses for the table, either in salads, or as vegetable condiments, yet withal salutary to the health as containing sulphur, and mineral salts, are the Water Cress, the Garden Cress, ...
-Cucumber
Belonging to the Melon tribe of plants, our Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) has been known and cultivated in North Western India for more than three thousand years. This is the only fruit we eat while stil...
-Currants
(For Garden Currants - Black, Bed and White - See Fruits). The dried Currants which are put into mince pies, cakes, and puddings are small grapes grown originally at Zante, near Corinth, and hence ...
-Curry
By Curry we understand a condimentary compound made of such spices (powdered) as Capsicum, Coriander, Ginger, Caraway, Cardamom seeds, Cassia, Chillies, Cloves, Cubebs, Cumin-fruit lobes, Fennel, Garl...
-Cygnet
By the Romans the Swan, first deprived of its sight, was fattened for the table. In Chaucer's time the meat of a plump Swan was evidently in favour for giving a good ruddy complexion to the men of tha...
-Date
The fruit of the Date Palm (Phcenix dactylifera), or Tree of Life, is the most nourishing of all our imported tree products, by reason of its abundant, and luscious sweetness. The name Phoenix has bee...
-The Devonshire Delicacy, Junket
The Devonshire Delicacy, Junket, is made thus: Put three quarts of new milk into a china bowl, add three teaspoonfuls of rennet, and place it on the hob to set. When the curd is thick enough to bear, ...
-Diet
'Tis the art of eating which makes for years, says a sage proverb, and nothing can better promote this art for personal benefit than a sufficiently accurate knowledge of food elements, and their res...
-Diet. Continued
In Moxon's Life of Edmund Kean, the famous actor, we are told that Mossop, another stage celebrity, chose his dish to suit the character he was about to assume: Broth, said he, for tone; roast pork...
-Drinks
(See Ale, Beer, Coffee, Mineral Waters, Tea, Water, and Wines). A Spring beverage which in former days went by the name of May-drink in England, and several parts of Europe, was flavoured with the ...
-Duck
The Duck (Anas), which has become included among our domesticated poultry for the table, is scarcely suited for persons of delicate stomach, because of its fat contained in large amount; otherwise it ...
-Eel
Belonging to the Anguillidae, or Snake tribe, the Eel shares in some respects the characteristics of the Anguis, (or Choker), named thus on the same foundation as the Boa Constrictor. It is the hero o...
-Eggs
The only complete food afforded by the animal kingdom is the egg: containing, as it does, all the alimentary substances required for the support, and maintenance of animal life. For their plentiful st...
-Eggs. Part 2
A sagacious maxim teaches that eggs (should be) of an hour, fish of ten, bread of a day, wine of a year, a woman of fifteen, and a friend of thirty. In an egg laid only a few hours before, the wh...
-Eggs. Part 3
On the assumption that ten milligrammes of iron are required daily by the average human body, then seven and a half eggs would suffice for supplying this quantity, therefore egg yolk is to be regarded...
-Eggs. Part 4
Writing to you so lately I have no more to say now, but that I will pray for your good helth, and remayne, your ever loueing wife, Eleanor Watson. Rock-ingham, November 23. I have given bearer only Is...
-Elderberry
From the well-known purplish-black berries of the Elder (Sambucus nigra) is made Elderberry wine, which when combined as to its composition with raisins, sugar, and spices, may well pass for Frontigna...
-Elecampane
From the times of the, Middle Ages, a candied sweetmeat has been employed in Great Britain, as made from our English familiar plant, Elecampane (Helenium inula), growing tall, stout, and downy, of the...
-Electric Physical Effects
Know, saith John Swan, (Speculum Mundi 1643), that the horn of a Unicome hath many sovereigne virtues, and with an admirable dexteritie expelleth poyson, insomuch that being put upon a table furnis...
-The Esquimaux
The Esquimaux bury the flesh of animals killed for food until it is putrid (so it is said, but would not the earth deodorise, and keep it sweet?); and the Zulus, whose synonym for heaven is, according...
-Fats
Solid neutral fats, such as suet, lard, and spermaceti, also liquid non-volatile oils, such as olive oil, and sperm oil, are classed together as chemical fats. They are composed of carbon, oxygen, and...
-Fats. Continued
At the same time a considerable amount of bodily exercise, chiefly out of doors, must indispensably accompany this dietary, unless it is prohibited by a previous wasting of the muscles during some acu...
-Fennel
The herb Fennel (Fceniculum) of our kitchen gardens is best known to cooks as supplying a tasty, fragrant, spicy material for sauce to be eaten with boiled mackerel. But furthermore: - Above the l...
-Fig (Ficus)
Only one kind of Fig comes to ripeness with us in England, so as to be supplied as fresh fruit: the great blue Fig, as large as a Catherine Pear. It should be grown, said Gerarde, under a hot wall,...
-Fish Foods
As to the animal characteristics and endowments of Fish, both generally, and particularly, a reference may be made to former writings, whilst we have now to consider specially the therapeutic principl...
-Fish Foods. Part 2
The fat of fish comprises a smaller proportion of the compounds of solid fatty acids than does the fat of land animals. It is mainly composed of the glycerides of various unsaturated acids. The fish-l...
-Fish Foods. Part 3
Take a Whiting, half a pint of milk, half an ounce of fresh butter, and one quarter of an ounce of flour, with salt to taste. Place the fish in a small pie-dish, and pour over it the milk; cover close...
-Fish Foods. Part 4
According to Seneca, in past times the most fastidious among them would not eat fish unless it were cooked on the same day as that of its being taken, so that, as they expressed it, there should be s...
-Fish Foods. Part 5
Cockles And Winkles Cockles And Winkles, are popular shell-fish in the poorer parts of London, and other cities. As a street scene in a squalid South London district on a dismal winter's Saturday n...
-Foods
With respect to foods of divers sorts, which embody curative virtues whilst served at table by way of customary meals, certain desultory matters will not be out of place here. The only cure for a host...
-Fowl
The Capon (a cock-chicken fed for the table), being fat, and not old, is generally for all bodies, and in all respects for whole-someness of meat, the best of all fowls, for it is easily digested, an...
-Fowl. Continued
One might as well expect a spoon to be of nutritive value because it conveys food from the plate to the mouth. Two French experimenters found that fresh blood when administered to dogs, even in the l...
-Frog
As is well known, Frogs are esteemed for the table in France, their thighs being chiefly eaten there, though in Germany the other muscular parts are similarly used. Even amongst ourselves, an edible F...
-Fruits
No part of the diet in any season is so healthful, so natural, and so agreeable to the stomach as good and well-ripened fruits. Thus Sir Wm. Temple taught (About Beautiful Gardens, 1685). I can ...
-Fruits. Part 2
Speaking broadly, we eat fruits more for the sake of their flavours, and sweetness, than for the actual nourishment which they afford. Of the various sorts, apples, apricots, bananas, dates, figs, gra...
-Fruits. Part 3
Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, when leaving Baden Baden, after a sojourn there in 1876, brought with her a noted Apple-cake, and the recipe for making it, AEpfel kuchen mit Rahm Guss. 'The kitchen...
-Fruits. Part 4
The Black Currant, by its viscid, sweet, aromatic juice (thickened over the fire), makes a robb of capital use for relieving a sore throat, or quinsy. This old-fashioned robb, or rob, is an insp...
-Fruits. Part 5
The bargains are struck by gestures, in that wonderfully expressive language of signs which can replace speech altogether, and which invariably accompanies it, in rapid pantomime, hands, head, eyes, a...
-Game
Speaking collectively, Game signifies creatures taken in the chase; with us it includes Venison (of the Deer), Grouse, Hare, Partridge, Pheasant, Snipe, and Woodcock. The flesh of such game is fin...
-Game. Continued
Our English Partridge Our English Partridge was pronounced in the new London Dispensatory, Excellent food for a weak stomach: its liver dried and drunk helps the epilepsie; its marrow and brain cu...
-Garden Parsley
Garden Parsley was not cultivated in England until during Edward the Sixth's reign (1548). We use it rather as a garnish, and for stuffing, together with other herbs, than for any medicinal purposes. ...
-Garden Thyme
Garden Thyme, a cultivated form of Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum, or creeping), is a familiar denizen of our kitchen herb-bed, being put into seasonings, stuffing, and sauces. It has a very fragrant ...
-Garlic
Allium sativum, or garlic, a bulb of strong oniony odour, and pungent taste, consists in fact of numerous bulblets known technically as cloves, and grouped together within one whitish integument, o...
-Gelatin
Jellies for the convalescent give benefit chiefly by the gelatin which is their basis. It is a leading constituent of young animal flesh, veal, calf's foot, trotter, etc., in its connective tissue. Li...
-Gin
(And See Spirits). As an ardent spirit Gin is obtained by fermenting a mash of malt and rye. this product being distilled, and re-distilled, whilst some juniper berries, with a little salt (and som...
-Ginger And Gingerbread
Except for its popular essence as a stomachic, Ginger is better known to the cook, and confectioner, than as a medicament. Nevertheless, this condimentary root-stock, crushed, or in powder, will serve...
-Goat
Charles Lamb, in his Elia's Essay, Grace before Meat, has said: During the early times of the world, and the hunter state of man, when dinners were precarious things, and a full meal was something mo...
-Goose
The flesh of Goose (Anser), declared The London Pharmacopoeia (1696), is exceedingly hard of digestion, but being digested nourishes well; the liver is of great nutriment; the grease is exceeding h...
-Grapes
The principal virtue of grapes is contained in their sugar, which differs chemically from cane sugar, and passes more quickly into the bodily system, with speedy combustion as a food. The amount of th...
-Grapes. Part 2
Some of the credit, says Dr. Hutchison. of the results attained must be put down to the circumstances under which the grape cure is carried out; seeing that the patient is expected to gather the gr...
-Grapes. Part 3
Grapes are sometimes employed systematically as a means of cure for continued diarrhoea: the grape sugar is partly absorbed into the system unchanged, and whilst rich in silicates, phosphates, tartrat...
-Grated Horse Radish
Grated Horse Radish, if eaten at frequent intervals during the day, and likewise at meals, is found remarkably efficacious for getting rid of the persistent distressing cough which lingers after influ...
-Grouse (Lagopus Scoticus)
Grouse (Lagopus Scoticus), from the Scotch moors, have flesh of a grey colour, with an excellent aromatic flavour; but they require to be drawn as soon as killed, or they would soon become tainted; th...
-Gruel
In primitive Britain the cereal, and leguminous foods were originally eaten unshelled, and uncooked, as testified by the extremely ground-down state of our early ancestors' teeth, and those of the pre...
-The Hare (Lepus)
The Hare (Lepus), as to its medicinal uses in whole, or parts, has been considered somewhat fully in Kitchen Physic. Here we may sum up its character generally on a consensus of evidence as melanchol...
-The Hazel Nut
The Hazel Nut is wild, and the Filbert is got from the same tree when cultivated. Formerly the Hazel was a very abundant, indigenous tree throughout England. Filberts are superior nuts for dessert, be...
-Hedgehog
Familiar in country districts throughout England is the Hedgehog, Hedgepig, or Urchin, a small animal armed with prickly spines, being of nocturnal habits, feeding by night on insects, and such prey, ...
-Herbs
Besides those edible Herbs which come under notice here seriatim, there are several others which may be considered collectively, with a more brief, though sufficient, description. These are commonly u...
-Herbs. Part 2
It is useful, and pleasant, to know that for sound physical reasons a moderate supper of bread and butter, with crisp, fresh lettuces (perhaps also a spring onion or two), and light, homebrewed ale ma...
-Herbs. Part 3
Charles Lamb pronounced, It might sweeten a man's temper at any time to read the Compleal Angler. Conserves of Lavender were served at table in Gerarde's day. This fragrant herb is hostile by its po...
-Herbs. Part 4
She that hath hap a husband had to burie, And is therefore in heart no sad but merrie: Yet if in shew good manners she would keep, Onypns and mustard seed will make her weep. Flamingoes, and Mus...
-Herbs. Part 5
For Nettle-beer any adequate amount of young, green Stinging Nettles are to be boiled up in a gallon of water, with the juice of two lemons for giving a sharp flavour, and a teaspoonful of crushed gin...
-Herbs. Part 6
The Sorrel Dock The Sorrel Dock with us bears also the names Sour Sabs, Sour Garbs, Sour Suds, Sour Sauce, Cuckoo Sorrow, and Green Sauce. Country people beat the herb to a mash, and take it mixed ...
-Herbs. Part 7
This Rhubarb contains 1 per cent of vegetable albumin, and 2 per cent of sugar (glucose). It may be moulded into a shape by passing it through a sieve, when cooked with sugar, and raspberry jam, of wh...
-Herbs. Part 8
The epithet Henricus, which some persons suppose to be associated with Harry the Eighth, and his varicose legs, is more likely derived from heinrich, an elf, or goblin, as indicating certain reput...
-The Herb Rue (Ruta Graveolens)
The Herb Rue (Ruta Graveolens), which is cultivated in our kitchen gardens, deserves passing mention as a useful medicament, though it scarcely comes into our culinary service with food. This shrub ha...
-Hominy
Amongst various preparations of maize, or Indian corn, Hominy takes a useful place as a medicinal nutriment. It is the maize broken or split into a preparation of high nutritive value, containing eigh...
-Honey
The name Honey has been derived from the Hebrew word ghoneg, which means literally delight. In the Book of Genesis it stands stated that the pleasant Land of Canaan, where Abraham dwelt, was flowin...
-Honey. Continued
Yet where these hops and honey fall We'll lick the syruped leaves, And tell the bees that their's is gall, To this upon the greaves. Drayton (Boughs and Branches). Our ancestors concocted from...
-The Hop (Humulus Lupulus)
The Hop (Humulus Lupulus) grows wild in our hedges, and copses, with only male flowers; but when cultivated in the Hop garden it produces also the female catkins, or strobiles, which are commonly know...
-Horse-Flesh
At the Langham Hotel, London, in February, 1868, a banquet of Horseflesh was given, with the view of testing the culinary merits thereof, and its nutritive capabilities. The verdict on a roasted horse...
-Ice
Enormous quantities of frozen meat are now brought over to this country from America, New Zealand, and Australia. A chamber on board ship is specially kept cool throughout the voyage by means of Ice. ...
-Insects
Several Insects which are edible (themselves, or their products), whilst exercising certain curative virtues, may be briefly considered here. A more detailed attention has been already devoted to them...
-Jams And Jellies - Mutton
Jams And Jellies (See Fruit). Not without sentimental uses are jams and jellies. When Mr. Weller, senior (in Pickwick) became a widower, at the snug Marquis of Granby, Dorking, which was his pri...
-Kidneys
As food, writes Dr. Yeo, animal kidneys are of close, firm texture, and when much cooked become very hard, and difficult of digestion. Steep's kidneys contain about seventeen per cent of albuminat...
-Koumiss
(And See Milk). The Kumys of the Kergese, who inhabit the Asiatic steppes - a fermented drink made from mare's milk, - was described by the father of history, Herodotus, and remains a typical Kerge...
-Lemon
The special dietetic value of Lemons (Citrus limonum) consists in their potash salts, citrate, malate, and tartrate, which are severally antiscorbutic, and of service in promoting biliary digestion. E...
-Lemon. Continued
During intermittent fevers, fresh lemon-juice is helpful and refreshing, being-mixed with strong, hot, black tea, or coffee, without sugar. Throughout Italy, and at Rome, a decoction of fresh lemons i...
-Lentils (The Lens Esculenta)
Lentils (The Lens Esculenta), which are a leguminous pulse of allied nature with beans, contain but little sulphur, and therefore do not provoke flatulence as beans and peas are apt to do. The plant (...
-Lettuce
Our garden Lettuce is a cultivated variety of the wild, or strongly scented Lettuce (Lactuca virosa) which grows with prickly leaves on banks and waysides in chalky districts throughout England and Wa...
-Linseed
A demulcent drink made from Linseed, the seeds of flax, is most helpful against catarrhal soreness of the chest, with irritating hard cough. These seeds are very rich in oil, containing nearly four ou...
-Liqueurs
During the middle ages liqueurs were supposed to be medicinal remedies for universal use, but their modern employment is almost wholly for pleasing the palate. As such they follow substantial meals of...
-Liquorice, Or Licorice
Liquorice, Or Licorice, as formerly called, is a plant-product familiar to us all, whether by the succus hardened into the well-known black stick of Spanish juice, or as made into lozenges, or Pontefr...
-Liver
The advanced scientific treatment of disordered, and diseased liver in the human subject, by administering fresh animal extracts procured from the prepared healthy livers of sheep, the ox, and other s...
-Lobster, And Crab
In general physical composition the Lobster (Homaris vulgaris), and the sea shore Crab (Cancer pagurus), are practically identical, being crustacean, with a skeleton formed mainly of chitin, a pecul...
-Lozenges
Originally the Lozenge was a square, flat slab of gravestone, on which losangc or flattery was inscribed; but this grim and deceitful recorder has given place to our modern little oval tablet of har...
-Macaroni
There is prepared (originally in Italy) a kind of paste from the glutinous granular flour of hard varieties of wheat, this being pressed into the shape of long tubes, or pipes, through the perforated ...
-Mallows
All the Mallows (Malvacece), to the number of a thousand, agree in containing demulcent mucilage abundantly. French druggists, and English sweetmeat-makers, prepare from the Marsh Mallow (Althaea hibi...
-Malt
Starch, such as that contained in the grain of cereals, Barley to wit, if subjected to moist heat begins to undergo fermentation, and is presently converted into sugar - maltose - at which stage furth...
-Marmalade
Originally Marmelada, so named from the Spanish Mar-melas, or Quince, was a confection of that fruit. But the appellation has become extended to those of the Orange, the Lemon, and other fruits, a...
-Marrow From Animal Bones
Within the interior of bones from a newly-slaughtered animal, there is found a soft tissue possessing salutary virtues, whether this is obtained from the cylindrical hollow of long bone shafts, or fro...
-Meals
That diseases can be treated medicinally throughout their course from first to last by food constituents taken at meals, which food principles identically represent drugs as given heretofore in mixtur...
-Meals. Part 2
At the Restoration period dinner never began with soup, and the fish was usually served together with the meats. Nearly every man dined wearing his hat, as the draughts in the dwellings were ghastly. ...
-Meals. Part 3
Now folks begin with sweet things, and turn their dinners topsy turvy. In the familiar nursery rhyme of Froggy would a-wooing go, the same practice is clearly alluded to with regard to the little din...
-Meats
Animal food in the form of meat, or the flesh of ox, calf, sheep, lamb, pig, and other animals, consists mainly of muscular substance, proteid, meat juices, and fat, being the highest kind of sustaini...
-Meats. Part 2
But one may fairly ask, Are the artificial peptones of as much dietetic value as the proteid meat at first hand? Are they equally well assimilated, and as capable of recruiting the invalid? We may con...
-Meats. Part 3
This, indeed, is their true role, both in health, and in disease: they are flavouring agents, and their proper place is in the kitchen, not by the bedside. But as regards nourishing an invalid, these ...
-Milk
There are ruminant, human, asinine, and equine varieties of Milk, all available for our sustenance, and curative uses. The essential difference between human milk, and that of ruminant animals (cow, g...
-Milk. Part 2
When milk is allowed to remain exposed to the air in a cool place, the bonny clobber, or sour milk, is produced in this wise. Some clot or cream collects on the top, and a mycelium, or membrane of d...
-Milk. Part 3
Dr. King Chambers has reminded us that, as to taking new milk for sedative effects, our senses tell us of a peculiar aroma given off by such new milk, though this quickly exhales, whilst appearances ...
-Milk. Part 4
When a patient's digestion is very weak, if living in the country, or keeping a cow, he should make a dietetic trial of strippings, that is, the milk obtained by re-milking the cow soon after it has...
-Milk. Part 5
These chemicals are preferred because they do not withdraw water, as salt does, whilst, furthermore, they retain the natural colour of the food-substances. But it has been repeatedly shown that the ...
-Moss, Iceland, And Irish, (Carrageen)
The Lichen (Cetraria Islandica), Or Iceland Moss The Lichen (Cetraria Islandica), Or Iceland Moss, is now of British growth, being found especially in Wales, and Scotland, though most probably the ...
-Mushrooms
The numerous kinds of Mushroom (Agarics, Boleti, etc.) which spring up around us, (and of which more than a hundred edible sorts are to be found), do not possess any special medicinal virtues except a...
-Mustard
(See Herbs). A Mustard poultice made with the farina of black Mustard seed, and water, (with, or without some wheaten flour added) into a paste, constitutes one of the most effectual external stimu...
-Mutton Fat
Mutton Fat has a strong characteristic odour, and turns rancid more readily than beef fat. In South Africa the tail of the native Cape sheep, (which tail is composed entirely of fat, and often weighs ...
-Nuts
Pine Cones (Pignolia) Pine Cones (Pignolia), gathered from huge trees in Italy, (and of which each petal contains two kernels, enclosed in hard shells respectively, these being very oily, with a di...
-Nutmeg
The tree (Myristica fragrans) from which our Nutmeg comes, occurs in the Molucca Islands, and the part of the nut which constitutes this spice is the kernel. Nux Moschata is given as a name to the N...
-Oatmeal
For culinary medicine the Oat furnishes porridge, and gruel, as its most useful products. In its cultivated state this Avena sativa forms the principal grain food of Northern Europe. It needs less sun...
-Oatmeal. Continued
When the husk has been entirely removed from Oats, then the result goes by the name of groats; or, if the grain has been crushed, Emden groats are thus obtained. Oatmeal will often make the bladder ...
-Odours, And Perfumes
Sydney Smith declared: God has given us wit, and flavour, and brightness, and laughter, and perfumes, to enliven the days of man's pilgrimage, and to charm his pained steps over the burning marle. T...
-Odours, And Perfumes. Continued
The famed perfumes of the East were first brought into Western Europe by the Crusaders; and no treasures were more valued by the mediaeval lady than these, for it was thought that the atmosphere of fr...
-Oils
For medicinal effects several oils are used in a culinary form, whether animal, or vegetable, fixed, or volatile. Likewise certain animal oils can be beneficially rubbed into the skin of persons waste...
-Oils. Part 2
Of vegetable Oils, that supplied by the Olive is a capital substitute when butter disagrees; it is slightly laxative, and being mixed in a salad it obviates flatulency. Castor Oil is a favourite adjun...
-Oils. Part 3
An English citizen was being conducted round the galleries of the White House, New York, by an American gentleman, to whom he remarked, What a large number of portraits you have here! Yes, said th...
-Onion
(See Garlic). The chemical constituents of an Onion-bulb are an acrid volatile oil, sulphur, phosphorus, alkaline earthy salts, phosphoric and acetic acids, phosphate, and citrate of lime, starch, ...
-Onion. Continued
The juice of a sliced raw Onion, being alkaline, will quickly antidote by its application over any part, the acid venom from the sting of a wasp, or bee, and will afford speedy relief. The Onion has a...
-Open Air Treatment, Of Pulmonary Consumption
(See Oils - Cod-Liver). But, as says an old adage, You may lead a horse to the water, yet you cannot make him drink. A clergyman who is in the habit of taking dwellers in London slums down into t...
-Orange
There are three principal varieties of the Orange (Aurantium), - the sweet, or China Orange (Citrus aurantium); the bitter, or Seville Orange, (or Bigarade), used because of its bitter rind for making...
-Orange. Continued
In America Orange tea is taken frequently as a substitute for the China tea, being made by pressing out the Orange juice, and adding it when strained through muslin, to an equal quantity of boiling wa...
-Our Garden Herb, Thyme (The Thyme Of Candy, Musk Thyme)
Our Garden Herb, Thyme (The Thyme Of Candy, Musk Thyme), which is used by the cook as a flavouring, or for seasoning purposes, is an excellent cordial. Its proper name, Thymus serpyllum, denotes a pro...
-Oyster
(Ostrcea edulis). The well-known Oyster is a mollusc, possessing a mouth, a stomach, and intestines, but no head, nor eyes; it has a heart, a digestive gland, kidneys and a nervous system; its subs...
-Oyster. Part 2
A mistrust of Oysters, as so frequently and undeniably conveying typhoid fever during the last few years, because of crude sewage gaming unrestricted access to their beds, has possessed, and still pos...
-Oyster. Part 3
An old fable runs to the effect that Oysters rise to the surface of the water at the time of full moon, and open their shells to receive the falling dew-drops, which presently harden into pearls. For ...
-Parsley - Wines
Parsley (See Herbs). Partridge (See Game). Gervase Markham (seventeenth century) commended Partridges done on the broiling iron (now obsolete), which was open to the air on all sides, and ...
-Parsnip
The cultivated Parsnip has been produced as a vegetable for eating since early Roman times. The roots, which are the edible part, afford starch abundantly, containing also as chemical constituents alb...
-Pastry
The Latin term for bread is panis, and its diminutive is pastillus, a small baked loaf, or roll; and hence has come our word Pastry; else through Pastus, something eaten. From a very early period th...
-Peas
(See Beans). The pulses, which include Peas, Beans, and Lentils, have been well described as the poor man's beef, because of their richness in nitrogenous proteids. They specially acquire this prope...
-Peach
The Apple of Persia is our Peach (Amygdalus Persica), which grows on a tree whereof the young branches, leaves, and flowers possess more medicinal properties than the fruit. After being macerated in w...
-The Peanut (Arachis Hypogcea)
The Peanut (Arachis Hypogcea), although botanically one of the pulses, really resembles more closely one of the true nuts, being like these, rich in proteids, and fat, (so that it may be well used as ...
-Peppermint (Mentha Piperita)
Peppermint (Mentha Piperita), or Brandy Mint, is of universal acquaintance among all classes through its sweeties, drops, lozenges, and comforting, fragrant water, being familiar in our mouths ...
-Peppers. Capsicum
As to the Latin word Piper for Pepper, its derivation is said to be from the Greek Peperi, quod apricatum,- because baked, and dried by the sun. There is 3 maner of Peper, alle upo' o' tree, - lo...
-Peppers. Capsicum. Continued
John Leech, the talented Punch artist, when he died, left behind him forty pairs of trousers, and forty-six pots of Cayenne Pepper! A much esteemed West Indian dish is Pepperpot, the chief ingredient ...
-The Pie
The Pie, both in its name, and in its nature, is peculiarly national to England, and interwoven with the history of our country's culture. No soil upon earth is so dear to our eyes, As the mud ...
-Pigeon
(Columba). The early Romans set a high value on Pigeons, which were known long since, even three thousand years before Christ. Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, forbids them as food. Though th...
-Pine Apple
(And see Fruit). From the Ananas sativa, a native tropical tree in South America, the Pine-apple has been obtained. It is cultivated in England as a hot-house plant (formerly by few growers only, b...
-Plums
The Sloe The Sloe, or wild Plum, borne by our Blackthorn of the hedgerows, is well known as an oval, blue-black, small fruit, of autumn produce, harsh, and sour until mellowed by the early frosts. ...
-Pork
(See Bacon). Pork #1 Pork the flesh of the hog, has already received some particular consideration here as Bacon, which is this flesh when cured for keeping. Corned Pork was an abbreviation of...
-Potato
Our invaluable Potato, which enters so largely into the dietary of all classes, claims consideration here chiefly as regards its curative uses, and medicinal capabilities. It belongs to the natural or...
-Potato. Continued
For making Stovies, or Stove Potatoes, called in Scotland Stove-tarties: Peel a dozen Potatoes, and cut them up, not too small, but as near as may be into equal pieces; in a flat stewpan put two tabl...
-Preface
It is told that Sir Walter Scott, having occasion to seek medical aid unexpectedly in a small country town, found a doctor there, one John Lundie, a grave, sagacious-looking man, attired in black, wit...
-Preservatives
Respecting Milk when turning sour, and its treatment by unscrupulous persons to arrest the sourness artificially, an explicit mention has been already made here. The preservatives employed for such a ...
-Puddings
(See Pastry). It is to be always remembered that solid Puddings are filling at the price, needing a good power of digestion, and only to be partaken of in moderation, especially when coming after...
-Quails (Coturnix)
Quails (Coturnix), though for the most part imported into this country, yet find their way commonly into game-sellers shops, and afford for the invalid as delicate, succulent, easily digested a little...
-Rabbit
(See Game). In Kitchen Physic a curious notion about a rabbit-product is recorded which will bear repeating, because it certainly courts further investigation. Dr. Burnett has given the case of an ...
-The Rabbit, Lepus Cuniculus
The Rabbit, Lepus Cuniculus, which we know so well in its wild state as a most prolific little animal, and of much popularity as a food for the working classes, thrives best, says Fuller, on barren...
-Raspberry
(See Fruits). Several varieties of the Rubus Idaeus produce raspberries, a fruit much used for making jellies, jams, and a sweet vinegar, likewise for flavouring summer drinks, and fever potions. T...
-Rice
The Oryza sativa produces as a native cereal of India pur familiar grain, Ryze, or Rice, which is composed almost entirely of starch, being poor in proteid (nitrogen), and phosphoric acid. It is there...
-Roe Of Fish
(See Caviare). In common with the Sturgeon's Roe, as Caviare, already considered, other fish Roes comprise thirty per cent of proteids, and nineteen per cent of fats, also about four per cent of mi...
-Roots
Like the grain of cereals, roots are to be regarded as storehouses of nutriment for the support of the young plant when produced in its first growth. The reserve nutriment thus laid up in the roots, a...
-Roses
Certain curative properties, which may be rendered in culinary forms, are possessed by both the wild Dog Rose of our country hedges, and by the cultivated varieties of this queen of flowers in our Ros...
-Roses. Continued
Red Rose leaves, if over-dried (for Pot pourri, and other uses), become resinous, and then acquire an unpleasant smell. The French perfumers manage to dry the Rose petals so that they will remain swee...
-Rosemary
(See Herbs). It has been already stated that an infusion of the dried Rosemary plant, (leaves, and flowers), being used when cold, makes one of the best hair-washes known; its volatile oil speciall...
-Rosemary (2)
A good old custom of former times was to burn Rosemary (which is still cultivated in our kitchen gardens as a sweet-scented, fragrant herb) in the chambers of the sick, because of its supposed preserv...
-Saffron
The dried stigmata of our cultivated Crocus sativus furnish what is known as Saffron, this being put by the cook to various culinary uses. It should consist of the loose stigmata (uncaked), being thus...
-Sago
Growing naturally in Japan, and the East Indian Islands, whilst also cultivated in English hot-houses, is the Sagus Palm, which yields by its gummy pith our very serviceable Sago. Both it, and the ...
-Salads
It is an essential requirement for the body's health that chemical changes shall take place in the blood as to its salts of potash, and soda, for setting free the carbonic acid gas with which these ea...
-Salads. Part 2
Melt one ounce of butter in a stewpan, put in the Endive, and heat it without browning it; dredge a small quantity of flour over it, and stir in one teaspoonful of thick, raw cream; season with a quar...
-Salads. Part 3
'Charles Lamb, by contrast, gave the preference to more solid, and substantial meals. My appetites, said he, are too high for the Salads which (according to Evelyn) Eve dressed for the Angel: my gu...
-Salt
Not only is Salt a condiment at table for giving a zest, and relish to foods, but it is essential in moderate allowance for such, neutralizing the abundant potash salts which are contained in foods, p...
-Sandwich
Suetonius, who lived in the times of the Caesars, tells of the Sandwich as known among the Romans under the name Offula; 'though our English term is given after John Montagu, fourth Earl of Sandwich...
-Sauces
Penn's advice to children was this, as regards appetizing condiments, and spices: Let your chiefest Sauce be a good stomach, which temperance will help to get you. The question of Sauces in general ...
-Sausage
A receipt for stewing Sauce-sedges is given in the True Gentlewoman's Delight (1653), as used at the Bridge Fair, Peterborough, according to a Charter granted to the Abbot of that Golden city in t...
-Seaweeds
Half-a-dozen, or more, of the common Seaweeds produced about our English coasts are edible, and at the same time curative for various bodily ailments by reason of their potential marine properties; so...
-Sheep
(See Meats: Mutton). The flesh of Sheep is less stimulating, and less nutritious than beef, and in general not so easily digested. Mutton fat often provokes indigestion because of its hircic acid. ...
-Sheep (2)
Sheep thrive best in Scotland, and Mutton is such a constant' dietetic resource there, that Scotch broth always means Scotch Mutton-broth. This Mutton is naturally accompanied therein with Scotch barl...
-Shell-Fish
Among edible molluscs (having soft skeletons) which possess certain curative properties, the Cuttle (Sepia officinalis) deserves notice. It is found in some of our European seas, being known to Cornis...
-Sleep-Inducing Foods, And Drinks
(Dietetic). It may be said broadly that sleeplessness is either because of an offended stomach (through food wrong, or in excess), or because of a brain insufficiently sustained, and therefore unqu...
-Snails
In Pliny's day the Snail (Limax) was given, when beaten up in warm water, for coughs. It has been used in medicine from very old times. The Romans were very partial to (Apple) Snails, which they fatte...
-Snails. Continued
For to keep, putt it on the fire, lett it just boyl, scum it very clean, take it off, and keep it till the next day, then bottle it. Dr. Yeo tells that the edible Snail has been called ' the poor ma...
-Soups
(See Broths). The title Restaurant, which is now applied to a high-class eating-house, was originally the name of a soup, as invented by a Frenchman, M. Palissy, in 1557. This soup consisted of f...
-Soups. Continued
The softer parts of the shields, and fins, are cut into squares when cold, or into oblong pieces, these constituting the favourite morsels in Turtle Soup, and being often erroneously mistaken for the ...
-Sparrow
The House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus) The House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus) differs from the Hedge Sparrow (Accentor modularis), the former being a grain-eater, but the latter an insect-eater. The ...
-Spear Mint (Mentha Viridis), Or Garden Mint
Spear Mint (Mentha Viridis), Or Garden Mint, is an allied herb which is of popular use for making Mint sauce, to be eaten with roast lamb. It likewise possesses a fragrant aromatic odour, and a warm, ...
-Spices
(See Capsicum, Caraway, Cinnamon, Cloves, Ginger, Nutmeg, Pepper and Saffron.). Spices have been highly esteemed from remote antiquity, and were in very early times a principal article of merchandi...
-Spinach
The Lapathum hortense, or Spinach, (of the Goosefoot tribe), as grown in our kitchen gardens, is actually a Persian plant which was brought to England during the sixteenth century; its spiny leaves ha...
-Spirits
(See Alcohol). The several Spirits - Brandy, Gin, Rum, and Whisky, - (which see) are obtained by the fermentation of various saccharine substances, their alcohol, and other volatile bodies thus pro...
-Starches
It has been taught until recently by all dietists that Starches as food elements exclusively supply bodily warmth, and fat; but now the discovery equally of force-production from assimilated Starches,...
-Strawberry
(See Fruits). All the former herbalists have agreed in pronouncing Strawberries (Fragaria) wholesome, and beneficial beyond every other English fruit; their smell is refreshing to the spirits; they...
-Sugar And Syrups
There are several sorts of Sugar, all belonging chemically to carbohydrate constituents of food, and which include Cane Sugar, Grape Sugar (or Starch Sugar, which is glucose), Sugar of Milk (or lactos...
-Sugar And Syrups. Part 2
Other fruits poor in carbohydrates are strawberries, gooseberries, apricots, and melons. Modern medical scientists doubt the necessity, or propriety, of excluding all starches, and forms of Sugar from...
-Sugar And Syrups. Part 3
Most remarkably, the flesh-eating animals who do not consume any starches, or carbohydrates in their natural food, nevertheless exhibit Sugar in their muscular structures; and this they must engender ...
-Sugar And Syrups. Part 4
For young children who dislike the fat of meat, and cannot take cod-liver oil, this Toffee is an admirable substitute; if given only at the end of meals it is not likely to disagree. Sir Walter Scott ...
-Sweetbreads
The throat gland (Thymus) of the calf is the true Sweetbread; but what is known anatomically as the Pancreas, or Stomach-bread, passes likewise commonly under the name of Sweetbread as supplied by the...
-Tamarinds
The Tamar Hindee, Indian date, comes to us only as a sweet, sub-acid, juicy fruit-pulp intermixed with fibrous strings, and containing smooth, glistening, hard, auburn-coloured stones. This pulp ful...
-Tar (Pix Liquida)
Tar (Pix Liquida) is extracted by heat from the Scotch fir; it has been long employed by doctors both externally, and internally. Tar-water was extolled in 1747 by Bishop Berkeley (Siris) almost as a ...
-Tea
The dietetic uses, and effects of Tea are fully discussed, and described in our Kitchen Physic, so that only a resume of the statements, and particulars there expounded, will be now adduced as relevan...
-Tea. Part 2
Tea, said he, to be useful, should first of all be black China Tea; the Indian Tea which is being cultivated has become so powerful in its effects upon the nervous system that a cup of it taken in t...
-Tea. Part 3
Dr. Haig, a modern authority on rheumatism, protests that the alkaloids of Tea, coffee, and cocoa prevent uric acid from being excreted, and thrown out of the body; insomuch that mischievous urates ac...
-Tea. Part 4
The Earliest Known Teapot The Earliest Known Teapot (belonging to the Earl of Bristol) dates from 1697. At first the new beverage was drunk out of silver bowls, and afterwards from earthen cu...
-Thrush
(See Birds, Small). The flesh of the Song Thrush, or Throstle, is excellent for a weak digestion. Roasted with myrtle berries it helps the dysentery, and other fluxes of the belly. Its notes, of ...
-Tinned Fruits
Canned, or tinned fruits, suffer if allowed to remain at all in the tin after it has been opened; their acids act on the metal, and poisonous products are formed. The canned fruits have always been al...
-Tobacco
In no sense can Tobacco be considered a medicinal food, yet as a most useful subsidiary agent it merits our passing notice in these pages. Detailed particulars regarding its qualities (good, and bad) ...
-Tomato
Lycopersicum (Wolf's Peach) is the significant name of the passion-rousing Tomato, a native of South America, bearing fruit of a peculiar subacid flavour, wihch is anti-scorbutic, whilst somewhat la...
-Tomato. Continued
Telling about a tomato-poultice we are incidentally reminded of another application for cleansing foul sores, which is still more curious, the fresh cow-dung poultice. This is yet of common rustic use...
-The Truffle (Tuber Cibarium)
The Truffle (Tuber Cibarium) is an edible tuber, of subterranean growth, found in the earth, especially beneath beech trees, and uprooted by dogs trained for the purpose; the tubers have a heavy, ran...
-Turnip
(See also Roots). Belonging to the Cabbage tribe of plants, the Turnip (Brassica rapa) is often found growing of itself in waste places, though not truly wild. As stated among Roots (page 595), it ...
-The Turnip (Brassica Rapa)
The Turnip (Brassica Rapa), belonging really to the cabbage order of plants, has become by cultivation from its wild state a most valuable food for cattle in the winter, and an excellent vegetable for...
-Turpentine
(See Artichoke). Pepys (in his Diary, July 17th, 1664) wrote: Dr. Burnett has showed me the manner of eating Turpentine, which pleases me well, for it is with great ease. Again, on December 31st:...
-Veal
(See Meats). Veal #1 Veal is the flesh of a young calf (Vitellus); of which the skin is made into vellum. It contains much less iron, and alkali salts, than beef, but is, on the other hand, rich...
-Vegetables
In ancient Borne (as Cato records) the principal citizens had their large vegetable gardens near the city, the same being cultivated by the owners themselves, some among whom derived their family name...
-Vegetables. Part 2
Anyhow, vegetables should be cooked only in their own juices, or at least in as little water as possible; most of the valuable salts will otherwise be assuredly washed out, and sacrificed. When deluge...
-Vegetables. Part 3
It is true that, given a judicious choice, and a proper preparation of vegetables, they will prove not only sufficient to maintain the bodily condition, but even to increase bodily weight. But the sub...
-Vegetables. Part 4
If it happens that a man or a woman possesses a specially energetic and powerful digestive system, it does not then matter much what system of feeding is followed, because whatever is eaten provokes n...
-The Vegetable Marrow
The Vegetable Marrow, a wholesome production of the kitchen garden in early autumn, came at first from Persia, and grows best in warm regions. It is eaten mostly when half-ripe, the inner pith, and th...
-Venison
The flesh of the deer, is particularly digestible by invalids because of its looseness of fibre, and texture, which permits a special ready access of the gastric juices. But it must not be hung long e...
-Vinegar (Vin-Aigre), Sour Wine
Vinegar (Vin-Aigre), Sour Wine, is commonly procured from an infusion of Malt which has previously undergone the vinous fermentation, or perhaps from apple cider. White vinegar is the best sort, then ...
-Violet Sweetmeats
(See Confections). By the Romans of old a favourite wine was made from Violet flowers. What is known familiarly as Violet powder, for nursery uses, and cosmetic purposes, is the pulverized rhizome,...
-Walnut
(See also Nuts). The Juglans regia, royal nut of Jupiter (see also page 503), and known to us as Walnut, is so named from the word Wal, as Teutonic for stranger. The tree was a native of Asia Min...
-Water
The general supposition is that when water is drunk, particularly whilst fasting from food, it is taken up quickly by the absorbents from the interior of the stomach into the blood. But, as Dr. R. Hut...
-Water. Part 2
This will by no means increase a tendency to dropsy, but will rather obviate it; in point of fact, the only safe and thoroughly reliable diuretic for the relief of albuminous dropsy is water, and it i...
-Water. Part 3
The Sun is the father, and great source of energy on the physical plane, whilst the Moon is the mother, or restorer of nervous force, having a more intimate connection with magnetic attraction. To wal...
-Whale, Balcena Mysticctus
(And see Fish). The old Romans made use of Whale flesh as food, cooking it in various ways. Throughout England it was at one time customary to get similar food from the fishermen of Normandy, but t...
-Wheat
(See Bread). Frumenty, a dish made of mulled wheat boiled in milk, and seasoned, has been known since very early days of English history. In the Fabyan Chronicles (1516), we read that In the Great...
-Whisky
(And see Alcohol). A distinction should be made, for any medicinal purposes, between malt whisky and grain whisky. Most of what is usually supplied is probably a blend of the two. Good Whisky for h...
-Willow-Pattern Plate
Few persons know what an instructive fiction, Familiar to our eyes from childhood's date, Is told us in dramatic dark-blue diction At meal-times on a, Willow-pattern plate. So, I propose to repres...
-The Woodcock (Scolopax Rusticola)
The Woodcock (Scolopax Rusticola), gets its food mainly by suction, and is clean for cooking in its entirety, except the gizzard, after being plucked of the feathers. The flesh is better as the winter...
-Wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium)
Wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium)-see also page 16 - has been grown in the herb garden for many years past because of its benefit, when judiciously used, as a nervine tonic, particularly helpful against...
-Yeast
(See Bread). The Barm (or Levurine) which has been told about when treating here of bread, merits some fuller notice as an admirably useful form of yeast against the staphylococcus pyogenes, or mis...
-Yellow Saffron and Chamomile
Yellow Saffron (from the stigmata of the Crocus vernalis) is much used by the cottagers of Cornwall and Devon in making their bread, and cakes; also by the professed cook for its rich colour, and its ...







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