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Human Vitality And Efficiency Under Prolonged Restricted Diet | by Francis G. Benedict, Walter R. Miles, Paul Roth, H. Monmouth Smith



For many years the Nutrition Laboratory has been studying the possibility of variations in nutritional levels, searching more especially for individuals or classes of individuals with a noticeably low metabolism. To this end evidence has been sought in experiments with a man having but one lung; with individuals claiming to subsist upon considerably less food than an ordinary individual; with vegetarians; with a man fasting for a period of 31 days; and with diabetic patients undergoing the Allen fasting treatment and subsequent low diet. None of these researches, however, gave definite evidence of a low metabolism except those carried out under the somewhat abnormal conditions of a complete fast and severe diabetes.

TitleHuman Vitality And Efficiency Under Prolonged Restricted Diet
AuthorFrancis G.BENEDICT, Walter R. Miles, Paul Roth, And H. Monmouth Smith
PublisherCarnegie Institution Of Washington
Year1919
Copyright1919, Carnegie Institution Of Washington
AmazonHuman Vitality and Efficiency Under Prolonged Restricted Diet
Human Vitality And Efficiency Under Prolonged Rest 2
-Introduction
For many years the Nutrition Laboratory has been studying the possibility of variations in nutritional levels, searching more especially for individuals or classes of individuals with a noticeably low...
-Search For Subnormal Metabolism
The initial experiments in the study of variations in basal metabolism were carried out at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, with several subjects who seemed to show potentialities for low...
-Search For Subnormal Metabolism. Part 2
Zuntz and Schirokich2 report a series of observations made with Mr. Fletcher about three months previous to the experiment at the Nutrition Laboratory, i. e., in February and March, 1912. The Zuntz-Ge...
-Search For Subnormal Metabolism. Part 3
The nitrogen output has a special interest in this connection when considered as an index of the level of the protein katabolism. The data for the nitrogen output for most of these subjects with presu...
-Study Of Factors Tending To Lower Metabolism
In our study of variations in basal metabolism, special consideration has been given to the question of those factors which tend to lower the metabolism, and it was early recognized that prolonged fas...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition
Many of the researches on undernutrition in the earlier literature were made with animals, and some were carried out under pathological conditions. In collecting data regarding the previous investigat...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 2
Russian Research On Undernutrition: V. V. Pashutin, Albitsky, And I. A. Pashutin, 1887-1902 While prolonged fasting and complete starvation have received experimental attention in a great many phys...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 3
While it should be borne in mind that Albitsky's observations on realimentation and metabolism during undernutrition were incidental to the major study, continuing only 3 or 4 days, and the deductions...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 4
With a third dog the food was reduced to 50 per cent of normal, the reduction being made at the rate of 1 per cent of the food quantity per day. After the reduction reached 80, 70, 60, and 50 per cent...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 5
Von Noorden, 1906 Von Noorden's1 very interesting and suggestive discussion of underfeeding collects the literature on the subject up to the time of publication and shows the singularly deficient e...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 6
Calculating the calories per hour on the basis of the calorific value of oxygen for these days and using the average respiratory quotients for the minimum periods, we find that on the first day of the...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 7
Grafe And Graham, 1911 The lengthy observation of Grafe and Graham1 on excess feeding of a 20-kilogram dog has provoked an unusual amount of discussion among physiologists, in spite of the fact tha...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 8
We believe, however, that Grafe has made a fundamental error in assuming that the heat output of his dog outside the respiration chamber was the same as in the respiration chamber, since his own repor...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 9
A. Muller, 1911 Five years later A. Muller2 from the same clinic reported two researches, likewise with the Zuntz-Geppert apparatus, one with a subject who was perfectly healthy and the other with ...
-Previous Investigations On Metabolism With Undernutrition. Part 10
Loewy And Zuntz, 1916 When the research reported by us in this monograph was more than half completed, we were fortunately able to secure a copy of the interesting article by Loewy and Zuntz3 on th...
-Summary Of Previous Literature
In studying the results of previous investigations on undernutrition, it is of the greatest importance to note that there is a marked difference between complete fasting and chronic or partial inaniti...
-Purpose And Plan Of Present Research
Since one or two classes of individuals, even though abnormal, show a lowered basal metabolism mainly as the result of a considerable degree of emaciation, it is a legitimate question as to whether or...
-History Of Inception Of Research
In the spring of 1917 it was the good fortune of one of us to have a long conference in Philadelphia with Professor Alonzo E. Taylor, who had but recently returned from Germany. Professor Taylor was t...
-General Plan Of Research
To have such a study of direct practical value, these men must be living normal lives and carrying out their regular activities in the community. Furthermore, they should be of normal weight, rather t...
-Reduction Of Body-Weight Of Subjects
In our research on the effect on the metabolism of reducing the body-weight by alterations in diet, several plans for reducing the weight of the subjects suggested themselves. The total weight reducti...
-Selection Of Subjects
For the study of so important a problem as the influence of undernutrition upon basal metabolism and vital processes in general, it was essential that the subjects of the research should be men rather...
-Essentials For Selection
In the selection of these men there were several essentials to be observed. These may be outlined as follows: (1) They Should Be In Good Health It has been our custom to consider subjects presu...
-Final Selection Of Men
The finding of men who should have all of these qualifications required careful consideration of various possibilities. After a period of several months, it was finally decided that a group of student...
-College Status Of Men In Squad A
At the time the call was made for volunteer subjects, it was clearly explained that no college credit would be given for service in the experiment and it was emphasized that the work would require con...
-Evidence Of Dietetic Control
Before taking part in the research, each member of both squads was requested to sign the following affidavit: The undersigned, being acquainted with the requirements imposed upon all who volunteer...
-Personal Histories
The brief personal history for the individual subjects which follows includes the full name, date of birth, home address, age at the beginning of the experiment, height, initial nude weight, and the r...
-Personal Histories. Part 2
Gar Greyson C. Gardner; born Aug. 16, 1895; home Cottage Grove, Indiana; age 22 years; height 171 cm.; nude weight 71.25 kilos. Medical examination: Oct. 2, 1917, negative. Family history: Resemble...
-Personal Histories. Part 3
Before race (after breakfast): Lay down on bed, 9h30m a. m. Body temperature 98.6 F. Pulse-rate 49.0 per minute. Average respiration rate (for 12 minutes) 18.3 per minute. Alveolar carbon-dioxide...
-Personal Histories. Part 4
Vea Ronald T. Veal; born Sept. 6, 1895; home Michigan City, Indiana; age 22 years; height 175 cm.; nude weight 65.75 kilos. Medical examination: Oct. 2, 1917, negative. Family history: Most of moth...
-Program Of Research
The research began with the fundamental question of the selection of subjects, the various requirements and degree of personal integrity demanded of the men limiting our field of selection greatly. Pe...
-Program Of Research. Continued
16. Respiration Tests Subjects will be numbered from 1 to 12. Nine subjects will be examined daily according to a schedule to be made later. These tests will be made before breakfast every day exce...
-Chronological History Of Low-Diet Research
To give a general idea of the research and the sequence of events, a chronological history, for both Squads A and B, is included here for the period from September 22, 1917, to May 22, 1918, inclusive...
-Chronological History Of Low-Diet Research. Part 2
In Boston; at Laboratory part of morning. First rectal temperature measurements, with subject lying in group respiration chamber after night experiment. Regular morning program psychological measureme...
-Chronological History Of Low-Diet Research. Part 3
January 8, Squad A Bro returned and at training table. January 8. Squad B First urine collections by How and Lon. First day of controlled, reduced diet. January 9, Squad B Affidavit sig...
-Methods And Apparatus Used In The Research
While much of this research followed established usage with regard to techniques, particularly in analysis, many of the procedures employed were either so fundamentally novel or important modification...
-Miscellaneous Methods And Minor Apparatus
Food Control Since the fundamental prerequisite of the research was an accurately controlled and definite knowledge both of the character and the amount of the food intake, Squad A was given a spec...
-Collection And Separation Of Feces
Although, with normal young men having presumably normal digestion, standard factors for digestibility of our common food materials may be used to compute the probable fecal output of nitrogen and ene...
-Collection Of Urine
The importance of noting the nitrogen output during this period of undernutrition led us to emphasize especially to the squad the necessity for the complete collection of the urine for the entire peri...
-Preparation Of Samples Of Food And Feces For Analysis
The samples of foods and feces received from Springfield at the Nutrition Laboratory in the quart glass jars were first carefully weighed and checked, then transferred to previously weighed white enam...
-Foods And Feces
The dried samples of foods and feces were analyzed for total nitrogen by the Kjeldahl process. Here again the nitrogen content of samples a and b supplied a check upon each other. Heat Of Combustio...
-Body-Weight Measurements
Since it was impossible to establish the complete measure of the income and outgo of each of these men in a respiration calorimeter of sufficient size to enable them to carry on physical activity comp...
-Body-Surface Measurements
Measurements of body-surface were made in all cases. It is greatly to the credit of D. and E. F. Du Bois that their methods for body-surface measurements have been so carefully outlined that relativel...
-Anatomical Photographs
The Du Bois surface measurements were also useful in noting whether there was uniform agreement between the surface measurements as thus made and anatomical photographs of the subject, in accordance w...
-Activity Records
Although the pronounced influence of various forms of muscular activity upon the total metabolism and hence upon the total demands for food is so great, it was admitted at the outset that exact record...
-Body Temperature
The temperature was taken in the mouth every morning while the men were lying on the couch preparatory to respiration observations at Springfield. These temperatures will not be reported, as they are ...
-Alveolar Air
The determination of the alveolar air tension was made with a modified form of the Haldane apparatus on samples of alveolar air obtained by a method previously described.1 In this method of collection...
-Technique For Determining Gaseous Metabolism During Rest
The considerable amount of experimental attention given to the technique for determining the gaseous metabolism led, as would be expected, to an unusual extension of the gaseous metabolism measurement...
-General Principle Of Apparatus
In the portable respiration apparatus, the subject breathes into and out of a confined volume of air that circulates through a series of purifiers which remove the carbon dioxide as fast as formed. As...
-General Principle Of Apparatus. Part 2
Test For Rate Of Ventilation The spirometer, when filled, holds about 7 liters. The rate of ventilation may be approximately determined by opening the system at the coupling, S (fig. 3), and pinchi...
-General Principle Of Apparatus. Part 3
Air-Moistener Since with any type of breathing appliance the purified air passing along the tube is too dry to be breathed comfortably by the subject, a small moistening device, consisting of...
-Modified Method For Determining The Oxygen Consumption
In testing several of these apparatus, Mr. Louis E. Emmes, of the Laboratory staff, has had excellent success in determining the oxygen consumption by using a modification of the method outlined in th...
-Method Of Calculating Oxygen Consumption
The method of calculating the amount of oxygen consumed in one period of an actual experiment may be illustrated by period 1 of the experiment with Bro on January 8,1918. (See table 3.) In the two ear...
-Method Of Calculating Oxygen Consumption. Part 2
Group Respiration Apparatus While the universal respiration apparatus in its various forms permits the measurement of the metabolism of an individual, even when he is working to the limit of human ...
-Method Of Calculating Oxygen Consumption. Part 3
The Nutrition Laboratory has already carried out an extensive research with one of the ingenious gas-analysis apparatus of Sonden.5 This apparatus, which is designed primarily for studying the composi...
-General Principle Of Group Respiration Apparatus
The respiration chamber is of air-tight construction and supplied with a current of outdoor air by means of a rotary air-impeller. At a diametrically opposite corner of the chamber from this air-impel...
-Ventilation Of Respiration Chamber
As may be noted in figure 6, air is taken from outdoors and delivered by means of a rotary air-impeller, k, through an opening, 6, near the top of the chamber. Since on many days in winter the outdoor...
-General Principle Of Method For Aliquoting And Analysis
The apparatus as finally developed is based upon the following principle: First, the air leaving the chamber is delivered into a copper box or wind chest, provided with three circular openings. Two of...
-Collection Chambers And Absorption Apparatus
The collection chambers and absorption apparatus, as shown in figure 8, are mounted upon a substantial oak table which is provided with a lower shelf. At the extreme right on the shelf is the rotary a...
-Duplication Of Samples
With nearly all types of respiration apparatus, even those connected with chambers, the kind of experiment ordinarily employed is such that a repetition is usually easily made and with relatively slig...
-Collection Of Air Sample
The collection of the sample of air from the aliquoting device delivered against atmospheric pressure is not unlike an earlier experience in the development of the respiration calorimeter at Wesleyan ...
-Removal Of Air From Sampling Cans
The mechanism for removal of air from the sampling cans must provide not only for absolute uniformity and regulation of removal, i. e., the removal of a volume of air equivalent to the amount discharg...
-Quantitative Absorption Of Carbon Dioxide
The complete removal of the carbon dioxide from the air sample and the provision for its quantitative measurement are accomplished by the standard soda-lime bottles and Williams bottles employed in th...
-Test Of Aliquoting Device
While the calculation of the several areas of the three discharge openings from the wind chest gives an approximate estimate of the relative amount of air that will be discharged, on the fundamental a...
-Residual Analysis
In observations on domestic animals, or with a group of men, extending over a considerable period of time, small changes in the actual amount of carbon-dioxide residual in the chamber at any given tim...
-Measurement Of Gaseous Metabolism During Work
Measurements of the gaseous metabolism of man while engaged in muscular work have been made by different investigators and include such varied forms of work as riding a bicycle ergometer, lifting weig...
-The Treadmill Chamber
The treadmill chamber was, for convenience in handling, constructed in three parts; the base A, the skirt B, and the cover C. These parts were made of Nos. 24 and 28 galvanized sheet iron. The shee...
-Air-Drier And Psychrometer
From the right side of the skirt near the front a 6 cm. pipe extended along the side of the skirt to a drier (H) 40 cm. high and 30 cm. in diameter, filled with 15 kg. of fused calcium chloride. The c...
-Gas-Analysis Apparatus
The carbon dioxide in the chamber was determined in duplicate by means of two small Haldane gas-analysis apparatus.1 These instruments permitted determinations of carbon dioxide up to a concentration ...
-Measurement Of Work Performed During Walking
In the experiments in which the subject walked upon the treadmill, the distance walked and the rate of walking were recorded, also the number of steps taken. The body-weight and other characteristics ...
-Measurement Of Work Performed During Walking. Continued
It was desirable, then, to maintain a rate of walking within this optimum limit and a rate of 70 meters per minute was selected. This is a fair rate of walking and does not in 20 to 25 minutes introdu...
-Routine Of Walking Experiment
The general routine of the treadmill experiments was as follows: On the completion of the measurements of the standing metabolism, which were conducted in an adjoining room on the portable respirat...
-Method Of Calculating Results Of The Metabolism Experiments During Walking
The calculation of the carbon dioxide produced was a relatively simple matter. The apparent volume of the chamber was corrected for any change in the level of the spirometer, this correction being 21....
-Psychological Program And Technique
The measurements of the neuro-muscular processes and the general mental condition of the men in Squads A and B were made at the Nutrition Laboratory when the men were in Boston, Saturday evenings and ...
-Measurements By The Group Method
The group method was useful in this research, not only because it made possible a material saving in the time of the subjects, but it required all of the men to be on time; it provided a suitable occa...
-(1) Accuracy In Tracing Between Irregular Parallel Lines
In such a test, in which the subject has but a narrow space within which he must mark to avoid contact with printed lines, the pencil with which the record is made is naturally of importance. It shoul...
-(5) Memory Span for 4-Letter English Words
In planning for this memory test, it could not be known how little or how much practice the men might have had in such procedures, or whether any of them were familiar with the device of fitting words...
-(4) Addition Of One-Place Numbers
The blank for this test was specially prepared, as no printed form with which we were familiar entirely met our needs. In many of the printed forms available the print was not so legible as desirable....
-(3) Discrimination For Specified Number Groups On A Printed Page
The addition blank served as the material for this test also. Each column of 10 digits was regarded as a unit, as if it were the only material on the page. Each and every combination of two successive...
-(2) Discrimination For The Pitch Of Tones
Pitch discrimination is a measurement which can be easily given by the group method. A well-recognized standard form of procedure has been worked out by Seashore, and was used in the present case.1 Su...
-Measurements By The Individual Method
The pitch-discrimination test was the last test in the group series. At its conclusion, and after the measurement of the skin temperature (see p. 249), four of the men were sent downstairs for individ...
-(6) Strength Of Grip
The instrument commonly known as improved form of Smedley's dynamometer was used in this test.1 The handles of the instrument were adjusted to a span of 5.5 cm. and were kept constant at this distan...
-(7) Changes In Pulse-Rate Occasioned By Short Pehiods Of Exertion
This was one of the morning measurements. A brief review of literature pertaining to pulse records of this sort and a description of technique previously used has been given in another publication by ...
-Changes In Pulse-Rate Occasioned By Short Pehiods Of Exertion. Continued
In order to have an added indication for placing the moment when exertion began and ended, a key was arranged at one end of the bar and was operated by the subject's weight. When this key was closed b...
-(8) Patellar-Reflex Latency, Amplitude, And Refractory Period
The patellar-reflex records were made from muscle thickening. The technique was the same as that used and described by Dodge and Benedict1 in their investigations of the effect of alcohol. The apparat...
-(9) Reaction Time For Turning The Eye To A New Point Of Regard
This measurement was always made in the morning. The turning of the eye to a new point of regard in response to the sudden appearance or movement of some object which is removed from the line of clear...
-Reaction Time For Turning The Eye To A New Point Of Regard. Part 2
Explanation of Figure 30. F, focusmg hood of camera; G, ground class focusing screen; B, by-pass oil cylinders; P, photographic plate in frame which moves downward with the flow of oil; S, shutter to ...
-Reaction Time For Turning The Eye To A New Point Of Regard. Part 3
The circuit of the solenoid, S (figures 34 and 35) was completed by the sliding contact C (figures 30 and 34), as explained in connection with the modifications made in the falling-plate camera. From ...
-(10) Reaction Time for Speaking 4-Letter Words
The apparatus for the word-reaction measurement comprised a kymograph with a circuit breaker (fig. 27, C, the movable contact), a Deprez signal magnet, an exposure apparatus, and voice key. The genera...
-(11) Continuous Discrimination And Reaction In Finding Serial Numbers.1
On a sheet 8 inches by 10 inches the numbers 1 to 50 are arranged in an irregular order, as indicated in figure 37. The task assigned the subject was to point to these numbers in order, beginning with...
-(12) Sensory Threshold For Visual Efficiency
The general arrangement of the apparatus for the measurement of visual acuity is indicated by the schematic diagram in figure 39. The subject occupied a position at the left end of the apparatus whi...
-Sensory Threshold For Visual Efficiency. Part 2
The principle upon which this type of test object is built, which allows a continuous gradation in the width of the line without changing the total light flux of the field, has been described in detai...
-Sensory Threshold For Visual Efficiency. Part 3
For the purpose of our investigation and other investigations at the Nutrition Laboratory, it seemed highly desirable to eliminate this criterion for judgment. The iris diaphragm (D, fig. 39) successf...
-(13) Sensory Threshold for Electric Shock
In a series of articles, Martin has described a method for using induced current (faradic stimulation) to determine thresholds for muscle and sensory processes. He and his co-workers have used this in...
-Sensory Threshold for Electric Shock. Part 2
In any such arrangement of apparatus the device used to make and break the circuit and to determine the length of the shock is of critical importance. The particular device constructed at the Nutritio...
-Sensory Threshold for Electric Shock. Part 3
To avoid extraneous induction effects and disturbances from other electrical conductors and from the capacity of the earth, the electrical circuit shown in the diagram in figure 43 should be as compac...
-Sensory Threshold for Electric Shock. Part 4
When a subject came the first time for this measurement he was instructed in the following words: Our task now is to discover how small an electrical shock you can feel. Understand, the shocks wil...
-(14) Speed Of The Eye Movements
The subject's task in this measurement was to look from one to the other of two marks successively and as rapidly as possible throughout a period of 5 seconds. The two fixation marks were definite and...
-(15) Speed Of The Finger Movements
Finger-movement records were taken both evening and morning. This test is a rather simple one to arrange and to perform, and it has proved itself useful in earlier investigations at the Nutrition Labo...
-(16) Efficiency In Traversing A Right-Angle Maze
In connection with another research, a complete description of which is not likely to be published, it was desired to provide a motor test in which the subject, while looking at something which corres...
-(17) Efficiency In Performing Certain Clerical Tasks
Dr. F. Lyman Wells suggested to one of us the possibility of using clerical tests as a measure of the individual's condition and general efficiency in the present research. He had developed but had no...
-State Of Nutrition
With adults the demand for food is of two kinds. First, there is the temporary demand which is determined in large part by idiosyncrasy, by appetite, the season, the variety of the supply, and the env...
-Popular Beliefs Regarding The State Of Nutrition
Two decades ago people who were highly colored and plump, even to excess, were popularly regarded as looking healthy and vigorous. More recently, the general trend of popular opinion has been somewhat...
-Body-Weight As Index Of Food Requirement
The body-weight is dependent upon the food intake on the one hand and the oxidation of food or body-material on the other. The majority of adults retain their body-weight almost without change for yea...
-Transitory Variations In Body-Weight
In judging of the adequacy or inadequacy of a diet, transitory variations in body-weight should not be emphasized unduly. The body contains a large proportion of water, which may be very rapidly lost ...
-Basal Metabolism
The minimum demand for energy is the amount which is required for the basal metabolism. The chief factors known to increase the vital activity or metabolism of the body are muscular activity and ing...
-Constancy In Basal Metabolism
The possibility of the basal metabolism being a physiological constant has been much discussed. From the earliest measurements of the metabolism of man and animals, investigators have attempted to fin...
-Variations In Nutritional Level
An analysis of the factors affecting metabolism shows that the influence of food and muscular work is always in the same direction, t. e., to increase metabolism. Are there any conditions in which met...
-Discussion Of Results
Body-Weight According to our general plan of research, observations were to be made upon these men, first, during a period of insufficient food, and second, during a period of maintenance diet at a...
-Discussion Of Results. Continued
The body-weight values for Squad B are collected in table 10, these including the normal weights for age and height (column o) from the Medico-Actuarial Mortality Investigation table, the actual weigh...
-Normality Of Minimum Body-Weights
Finally, it is of interest to compare the body-weight of the men at the end of the reduction periods with the normal standards to find what proportion of the men after a prolonged reduction in diet wo...
-Individual Body-Weight Curves
The actual body-weights for these men under our standard conditions were obtained on numerous dates. It seems desirable to plot them in the form of curves to show several important things, first, the ...
-Individual Body-Weight Curves. Part 2
The first break in the descending line is at November 15, i. e., after the unrestricted meal on Sunday, November 11. This rise after a Sunday meal was also noted in the curves for Bro and Can. The irr...
-Individual Body-Weight Curves. Part 3
Body-Weight Curve Of Mot (Fig. 63) From an initial weight of 63.5 kg., the weight of Moy fell rather slowly in comparison with the other curves. It was found that the diet was somewhat too large fo...
-Effect Of Unrestricted Meals
One of the most perplexing factors in the whole research was the unrestricted meals allowed Squad A, i. e., those taken Sunday noon after the biweekly experiment in Boston, and the diet during the Tha...
-Special Factors Influencing Changes In Body-Weight
Following the initial period of loss in weight resulting from the material curtailment of diet, there was with all of the men in Squad A more or less variation above or below the lower weight-level. T...
-Losses In Body-Weight Due To Restriction In Diet
The losses in body-weight of Squads A and B are recorded in table 11. In interpreting this table it should be recalled that Squad B was subsisting upon a uniform diet of approximately 1,400 net calori...
-Body-Weights Compared To Mortality Standards
A further analysis may be made of the body-weights of these men to find if they represent optimum weights or not. For this purpose we may compare them with the normal averages given in the Medico-Actu...
-Anthropometric Data
With a degree of emaciation amounting to a loss in body-weight of 10 or more per cent, one would normally expect a visualization of this loss not only in the face, which is undoubtedly one of the most...
-General Body Condition
The Du Bois measurements were made for both squads prior to and at the end of the dietetic restriction. With Squad A another series was made at the time of the minimum level. The individual data obtai...
-General Body Condition. Continued
The period of loss in weight for Squad B was approximately 21 days. The losses in weight and in the five major girths during this period with these subjects are also given in table 17, together with t...
-Body-Surface
The body-surface of the men in Squads A and B has been computed both from the photographs and from the Du Bois measurements. Finally, for further comparison we have drawn off the predicted surface are...
-Body-Surface. Continued
1 Reference to the original description of the photographic method (Benedict, Am. Journ. Physiol., 1916, 41, p. 275) should be made for the technique of taking these photographs and other details of t...
-Rectal Temperature Measurements
In contrast to the temperature measurements taken in the mouth, the temperature measurements made in the rectum were of true physiological significance. These were obtained at the end of the night exp...
-Skin Temperature Measurements
The feeling of cold experienced by nearly every member of the squad, causing discomfort in many instances, led us to believe that there might possibly be a very considerable difference in skin tempera...
-Skin Temperature Measurements. Continued
The forehead temperature ranged from a minimum of 31.53 C. with Pea to a maximum of 33.28 C. with Gar - a very small range. The average, however, for the entire squad, namely, 32.58 C, ...
-Relation Of Body Temperature To Muscular Activity
Although considerable emphasis in this research was laid upon the reaction of the pulse-rate to muscular activity, which was studied both in the Nutrition Laboratory and by Professor Johnson in Spring...
-Conclusions Regarding Effect Of Diet On Body Temperature
Practically all that can be said regarding these records of body temperature is that the reduced diet did not, save in the case of Squad B, produce any noticeable alteration from the ordinary temperat...
-Difficulties In Temperature Regulation As Indicated By Clothing
A noticeable feature of the experiment, which became evident about the middle of November and was more pronounced in the latter part of the research, was the extreme sensitivity of the subjects to col...
-Difficulties In Temperature Regulation As Indicated By Clothing. Continued
Kon reported that he suffered from cold. He usually wore light weight underwear, but about the middle of November began to wear heavy union suits, with long sleeves and legs of ankle length, about two...
-Diets
In any plan to provide a pronounced reduction in diet it is important to emphasize the character of the foods eaten as well as the amount of reduction. It should be stated at the outset that we hold n...
-Diets. Continued
Similarly on Sunday morning, at the conclusion of the all-night respiration experiments, and just prior to the psychological observations, a standard breakfast was provided at the Nutrition Laboratory...
-Extra Foods
In the case of the 12 normal men studied in the experiment of November 20 to 24, inclusive, extra foods were eaten away from the table (see table 32), but with Squads A and B no foods were consumed aw...
-Uncontrolled Meals
Ideally, an experiment such as this should be carried out with every meal controlled. Practically, although we enjoyed the fullest cooperation of the subjects, it became psychologically impossible to ...
-Caloric Allotment
The caloric allotment with Squad A was determined primarily with a view to lowering the body-weight to approximately 10 per cent below the initial weight and subsequently providing sufficient calories...
-Introspection Regarding Diet
The data regarding the diets recorded in the previous portion of this chapter are based upon the quantitative measurements. It seems important also to record such of the introspection as is relevant t...
-Introspection Regarding Diet. Part 2
Leslie J. Tompkins (Tom) November 10,1917 Regular routine of experiment does not trouble him at all. Does not have material discomfort from absence of food, but ready for meal whenever it comes....
-Introspection Regarding Diet. Part 3
Henry A. Moyer (Mot) November 10, 1917 No complaints regarding diet. Notices hunger at 8 or 9 o'clock at night and 11 or 12 o'clock in morning; otherwise not particularly hungry. Has had hunger ...
-Introspection Regarding Diet. Part 4
Everett R. Kontner (Kon) November 10, 1917 Feels hungry at times, especially just before noon. Misses bread most; likes milk best in present diet list; craves candy. November 16,1917 Does ...
-Introspection Regarding Diet. Part 5
George A. Brown (Bro) November 10, 1917 1,402 net calories on this date. At times I feel a little weak, but as compared with last year, when eating all I wanted, I now feel much better and have...
-Introspection Regarding Diet. Part 6
Edward M. Fisher (Fis) January 18,1918 I feel empty since being on the diet. February 8, 1918 I did not overeat after the experiment, although it was a great temptation to keep filling ...
-Caloric Intake Needed For Weight Maintenance
One of the fundamentally important features of this research was to find the caloric intake requirement at the lower weight-level, with a view to determining whether, when the body-weight is reduced, ...
-Caloric Intake Needed For Weight Maintenance. Part 2
The body-weight chart of Can (see fig. 58, p. 212) likewise shows that during December there was an approximate period of maintenance and another similar period in January. From table 35 and from the ...
-Caloric Intake Needed For Weight Maintenance. Part 3
We have presented in table 36 the probable caloric requirements of these men for maintenance at the lower weight-levels. These values, given in round numbers, range from a minimum of 1,600 calories wi...
-Digestion Experiments
Normal, healthy man, subsisting upon modern well-prepared and well-cooked food materials, exhibits a uniformity of digestive processes that is, in a sense, rather remarkable. The so-called digestibil...
-Digestion Experiments With Squad A On Reduced Diet
The results of our observations for Squad A are recorded in table 37 in grams of nitrogen per day in food and feces and in calories of energy per day in food, feces, and urine. The total and percentag...
-Digestion Experiment With Squad B On Greatly Reduced Diet
Examining the data in table 37, we find that the energy of the food per day with Squad A averaged not far from 2,000 calories after the first week. With Squad B, it will be recalled, the energy of the...
-Urine Analysis
The collection of the entire 24-hour amount of urine from 12 or more subjects for a period of several months was for the most part very successfully carried out for Squad A, with the kind cooperation ...
-Nitrogen Intake And Output Of Squad A
While the statistics for Gul show no consistently lower output of nitrogen, save perhaps subsequent to November 22, nevertheless even this change was not profound, and it seems advisable to consider h...
-Nitrogen Intake And Output Of Squad A. Continued
The average nitrogen intake in the food from October 1 to 10 inclusive (table 40) was 12.71 grams, although on 3 days high values were observed. The average of the first 3 days is 15.47 grams; the ave...
-Normal Urinary Nitrogen Of A Croup Of College Students
Although the first 5 values for the urinary nitrogen in table 44, which are also shown in table 41, may be taken to indicate the normal nitrogen output for the group of 12 men when they were on unrest...
-The Nitrogen Balance
It was hoped that in this study both the nitrogen intake and the nitrogen output could be sufficiently controlled throughout the entire time so that a complete nitrogen balance could be obtained and a...
-Nitrogen Balance And Energy Available To Body. Squad A
Table 46. - Nitrogen Balance And Energy Available To Body - George A. Brown Date. Nitrogen per 24 hours in - Nitrogen balance. Energy per 24 hours of - ...
-Nitrogen Balance And Energy Available To Body. Squad B
Table 59. - Nitrogen Balance And Energy Available To Body During Period Of Reduced Diet - Edward M. Fisher Date. Nitrogen per 24 hours in - Nitrogen balance. ...
-Correction Of Preliminary Statements
It is necessary at this time to point out an error made recently by us in a preliminary report of this research before the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D. C. In this report it was state...
-Nitrogen Output Of Medical Students
Subsidiary evidence regarding the normal nitrogen excretion is supplied by the average excretion of nitrogen found with the class in physiology in the Harvard Medical School for a number of years past...
-Nitrogen Output Of Squad A At Low Weight-Level
The average nitrogen excretion of Squad A from December 3 to the end of the experiment was 10.5 grams. (See table 73.) This probably represents on the whole the most constant period of lower weight du...
-Clinical Examination
A preliminary medical examination of all but one of the men in Squad A was made by Dr. Walter H. Chapin, of Springfield, in October, 1917. The results of these examinations are given in the personal h...
-Illness
With a group of 25 college students under observation for 3 to 4 months it would be expected that a certain number of minor illnesses, colds, slight infections, etc., would occur. These appeared in bo...
-Blood Examination
Although the morphological changes in blood observed for the fasting man previously studied in this Laboratory1 were relatively slight, it seemed desirable to secure certain evidence as to the blood w...
-Blood Pressure
As the blood pressure is an important factor such determinations were made a part of the regular clinical examinations by Dr. H. W. Goodall when the men came to Boston for the experiments in the group...
-Blood Pressure. Continued
Systolic And Diastolic Blood Pressure, Squad B Since we have no basal data for the men in Squad A, i. e., measurements prior to dietetic restriction, the values found for Squad B have a special int...
-Pulse Pressure, Squads A And B
The average normal pulse pressure (i. e., the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures) of college students of this age and environment is shown in table 77 by the values found on January 5...
-Moderate Muscular Work And Blood Pressure, Squad A
It is especially important to note the influence of moderate activity upon the heart, particularly upon the blood pressure, as shown by careful measurements of blood pressure prior to a walking period...
-Moderate Muscular Work And Blood Pressure, Squad A. Part 2
For comparison with the values cited here, we have systolic blood pressures following walking which were obtained with a normal subject in the standing position in the course of another research some ...
-General Conclusions Regarding Blood Pressure
The decreases in blood pressure for all of the men in both Squads A and B, which were found for both systolic and diastolic pressures, as well as for the pulse pressure, indicate that one of the most ...
-Pulse-Rate
The intimate relationship between the mechanism of the circulatory system and the total metabolism has been frequently pointed out in publications from the Nutrition Laboratory. The heart rate is, wit...
-Pulse-Rate. Part 2
Daily Basal Pulse-Rate With Lying Position. Squad A The pulse-rates secured with the subject lying in the post-absorptive condition - i. e., the conditions obtaining during the measurement of basal...
-Pulse-Rate. Part 3
The maximum and minimum pulse-rates, with differences, are shown at the bottom of table 80. Usually the maximum occurred during the first week, when the subject was on a normal diet. Certain exception...
-Pulse-Rate. Part 4
Basal Pulse-Rate With Lying Position, Squad B Basal pulse-rates were also obtained for Squad B in the group respiration chamber in Boston, both for the normal period and during restriction in diet....
-Standard Electrocardiograms
The pulse-rate data, which have been presented and discussed in preceding pages, were in all cases recorded from counts at the wrist. During the collection of these data, no subject or observer ever n...
-Pulse-Rate With Lying Position, Prior To Work Of Bicycle Riding
The pulse-rates thus far considered were all obtained with the subject lying in the morning before breakfast and represent the minimum basal values.1 In connection with the study of the return of the ...
-Pulse-Rate With Lying Position, Prior To Work Of Bicycle Riding. Part 2
While, therefore, strict uniformity could not be maintained in taking the pulse records in table 84 under the conditions previously noted, especially the prior activity and the food in the stomach, ne...
-Pulse-Rate With Sitting Position. Pulse-Rate With Sitting Position, Psychological Tests
All of the pulse data given in the previous section, save those taken by Professor Johnson and certain of the electrocardiograms, were obtained with the subject in the lying position in the post-absor...
-Pulse Records At Meal Times
Through the kindness of Mr. Charles Wesley Davis, of the Y. M. C. A. College, we are permitted to use some pulse-rate data obtained under his direction at the noon and evening meals with Squad A and w...
-Pulse Records At Meal Times. Continued
Pulse Records At Meal Times, Squad B The pulse data taken at meal times for Squad B in this series have a significance not found with those for Squad A, as with the second squad the counts were mad...
-Pulse-Rate With Standing Position
Standing Pulse Records In Experiments With Portable Respiration Apparatus Any records of pulse-rate taken under uniform conditions in a given position are of value as evidence of the influence of r...
-Standing Pulse Records Previous To Treadmill Experiments
A still further record of pulse-rate for the standing position was obtained just prior to the walking experiments, when the subject was standing outside the chamber or on the treadmill prior to the ac...
-Changes In Pulse-Rate Occasioned By Short Periods Of Exertion
The ability for adaptive increase in heart rate following exercise is of prime importance to the organism. In normal persons the circulation adjusts itself very rapidly to the muscular demand. The car...
-Changes In Pulse-Rate Occasioned By Short Periods Of Exertion. Part 2
The portion of the curves to the left of the heavy vertical line represents the pulse cycles during quiet. Between the heavy vertical line and the short lines through the curves is the period of exert...
-Changes In Pulse-Rate Occasioned By Short Periods Of Exertion. Part 3
For Squad B records were taken on two normal dates, November 18 and December 16, and on two of the low-diet dates, January 14 and January 20. (See table 95.) The averages at the right-hand of the tabl...
-Transition Pulse
At the time of the treadmill experiments of January 28 and February 3, described on page 440, continuous electrocardiograms were taken on each subject during 15 seconds of standing and the immediately...
-Transition Pulse. Part 2
The curves show the changes in the duration of the pulse cycles at the transition from standing to walking and also from walking to standing. X. transition point, standing-walking; Y. transition point...
-Transition Pulse. Part 3
While recognizing the difficulty of selecting a value that would represent the normal pulse-cycle duration for the period of standing preceding walking, due to the psychical disturbance and the shortn...
-Transition Pulse. Part 4
The curve shown for Mon (figure 99) is an exception to the others in that no marked depressions appear, the pulse cycles tending to shorten continuously during the first whole minute of walking. A sli...
-Transition Pulse. Part 5
Transition Pulse Of A Group Of Normal Men As was stated at the beginning of this discussion, no transition pulse records were taken while the subjects were living on a normal diet, so that to secur...
-Transition Pulse. Part 6
From the standing transition curves it is found that the average pulse-cycle duration for walking immediately preceding standing is as follows: T.M.C., 0.68; E.L.F., 0.65; H.W.F., 0.67; H.M.S.,0.72; H...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Walking On A Treadmill
In connection with the walking experiments of January 6 and 28 and February 3, it was planned to secure the pulse records photographically with the subject sitting and standing preliminary to walking,...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Walking On A Treadmill. Part 2
The figures given for the sixth, twelfth, and twenty-fourth minutes were counted from the photographs, while the other pulse-rates were counted visually from the deflections of the galvanometer string...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Walking On A Treadmill. Part 3
After 1 minute of walking, we find that, except for Can, the pulse-rates all increased as compared to the rate while standing outside the chamber. This would seem to indicate that Can's high pulse-rat...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Walking On A Treadmill. Part 4
By referring to the normal transition curves shown in figure 101,1 the average pulse-rate for the first 60 seconds of walking may be very closely determined; these averages are as follows: T.M.C, 98; ...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Work On Bicycle Ergometer, With Special Reference To Return To Normal
One of the best indices of general physical condition is supposed to be the rapidity with which the pulse returns to normal after exercise. In connection with the extensive series of observations carr...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Work On Bicycle Ergometer. Part 2
A second important point is the pronounced increase in pulse-rate prior to riding on days with full diet in February which is likewise reflected in the increase noted after the first minute. Coinciden...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Work On Bicycle Ergometer. Part 3
Pembrey comments further on the reaction to a definite amount of work, which makes of interest an examination of the percentage increase in the pulse of our subjects after the work of riding. It will ...
-Influence Upon Pulse-Rate Of Work On Bicycle Ergometer. Part 4
As pointed out in discussing the results for Squad A (see page 461, footnote 1), this increase in the percentage increment following work is in considerable part due to the lower basal value, although...
-Conclusions Regarding Pulse-Rate
In this section we have endeavored to present as complete a picture as possible of the changes in pulse-rate level occasioned by the low diet with the accompanying change to a lower nutritional plane....
-Respiration Rate
Throughout the entire series of experiments with both the portable respiration apparatus and the respiratory-valve apparatus, the respiration rate was obtained graphically by means of a pneumograph pl...
-Course Of Respiration Rate With Reduced Diet
Making due allowance for the novelty of the experiment and the necessity for getting used to the breathing-appliance attachment in the first few days, namely, during the normal diet, no striking diffe...
-Character Of The Respiration
It is somewhat unfortunate that graphic tracings of the exact respiratory ventilation could not have been obtained, such as are usually secured with the universal respiration apparatus in this Laborat...
-Respiration Rate During Walking
Finally, we have rates obtained immediately prior to, during, and after walking. Inasmuch as the subjects during the walking experiments were confined inside an air-tight metal box, it was impracticab...
-Respiration Rate During Walking. Continued
Squad B was at this time on normal diet; hence the only conclusion that can be drawn is that the respiratory rate of the subjects inside the respiration chamber is practically unaltered by walking dur...
-Mechanics Of Respiration
In addition to the records of the respiration rate obtained in the experiments with the respiratory-valve apparatus, data regarding the total ventilation of the lungs per minute were also secured. Fro...
-Volume Per Respiration
As stated in the preceding section, the respiration rate per minute showed a tendency to decrease; the volume per respiration has therefore an interest. These volumes are recorded in the last column o...
-Time Relations Of Maximum And Minimum Respiration Volumes
To indicate if there is any regularity in the incidence of the maximum volume per respiration and the time of the experiment and for similar indications as to the appearance of the minimum, we present...
-Alveolar Carbon Dioxide
The physiological significance of the alveolar carbon dioxide has been emphasized in practically all studies of the respiration in recent years. The delicacy of the regulation of the mechanism for res...
-Gaseous Metabolism During Rest. (Indirect Calorimetry.)
Although the body-weight over considerable periods of time may properly be taken as an index of nutritional level, or at least of varia-tions in nutritional level, it of itself gives no idea as to the...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction
The basal metabolism was measured individually in Springfield by two forms of respiration apparatus: First, a respiratory-valve apparatus employing a mask, Tissot valves, and a carefully calibrated sp...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 2
A more careful consideration of this case seems desirable. It should be stated, however, at the outset that the value of 1,858 calories was based upon measurements made on one day only, although in tw...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 3
The gaseous-metabolism measurements of both Squads A and B in the large group respiration chamber are confined exclusively to the carbon-dioxide production. To compute the heat output from these value...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 4
In our effort to secure basal metabolism we have selected and reported in table 114 the values representing the minimum carbon-dioxide production per hour throughout the night. Most of the periods of ...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 5
Basal Metabolism During Diet Restriction For an index of the influence of diet restriction upon the caloric needs we have taken the basal metabolism, i. e., the values obtained with the subject lyi...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 6
Table 126. - Basal Metabolism Of Leslie J. Tompkins - Squad A Date. Oxygen per minute. Respiratory quotient. Heat (computed) per 24 hours. ...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 7
Heat Output Per Square Meter Or Body-Surface With Low Diet, Squad A A second popular method for comparing different individuals and the same individual under different conditions is on the basis of...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 8
Comparison Of Individual And Group Measurements Of Basal Metabolism With Low Diet, Squad A Although the total heat production computed from the individual measurements of the gaseous metabolism in ...
-Basal Metabolism Prior To Diet Restriction. Part 9
Practically all of the men in Squad A show much greater differences between the predicted and found values at the period of minimum weight than at the beginning of the experiment when they were on nor...
-General Consideration Of The Effect Of Reduced Diet On Basal Metabolism
From the net calories required for maintenance at the lower weight level, we inferred that the caloric requirement had been reduced very considerably, i. e., from a net intake of not far from 3,100 or...
-Effect Of Excess Diet On Basal Gaseous Metabolism
On several of the uncontrolled Sundays the subjects admittedly ate very large amounts of food.1 Furthermore, as was shown in the discussion of the body-weight measurements (see p. 210), all of the sub...
-Gaseous Metabolism With Standing Position
In obtaining the basal values for a series of treadmill experiments at the Nutrition Laboratory, individual measurements were made with the men in both squads standing prior to walking, i. e., on the ...
-Gaseous Metabolism With Standing Position. Continued
Gaseous Metabolism With Standing Position, Squad A With Squad A no standing experiments were made with the portable respiration apparatus prior to the restriction in diet, the only experiment being...
-Conclusions Regarding Standing Experiments
The standing experiments therefore show conclusively that with the reduced diet there was a decrease in the metabolism per kilogram of body-weight, even when the subjects were standing quietly, which ...
-Respiratory Quotient
With such changes in the dietetic intake as were made in these experiments, changes not only in the total katabolism but likewise in the character of the katabolism would reasonably be expected; hence...
-Gaseous Metabolism During Walking
The experimental procedures have made it possible to analyze the basal metabolism under different conditions of nutritional level with the normal and with the low diet. Furthermore, as was seen in a p...
-Gaseous Metabolism During Walking. Part 2
Walking Experiments With Normal Diet, Squad B The series of experiments on January 6 was made specially to serve as a base-line for subsequent experiments after diet restriction. Unfortunately, on ...
-Gaseous Metabolism During Walking. Part 3
From these values it is seen that Sne was able to move 1 kg. of body-weight 1 meter with the least output of energy (0.479 gram-calorie), while Kim expended the most at 0.745 gram-calorie. This extrem...
-Comparison Of The Gaseous Metabolism Of Squad B On Restricted Diet With That On Normal Diet
Having considered the details of the metabolism experiments as recorded at the end of the 20 days of restricted diet, we are in a position to compare all the physiological activities and metabolic con...
-Walking Experiments With Squad A
Since only one series of experiments was made with Squad A and that on the last day of diet restriction, the basal values for this group of subjects prior to diet restriction are lacking. We must acco...
-Comparison Of Results Of Walking Experiments With Squads A And B
The average values found with Squad A and the average normal for Squad B can best be summarized in connection with a review of the comparisons with Squad B before and after reduced diet. These compari...
-Number And Length Of Steps In Walking Experiments
In connection with the walking experiments the uniformity in the number of steps and in length of step while walking a given distance was studied by means of photographic records. (See p. 129). These ...
-Results Of Neuro-Muscular And Psychological Measurements
The laboratory measurements used in the psychological phase of this research on the effects of short rations have been described in an earlier chapter. (See p. 137.) It will suffice here to note that ...
-Results Of Neuro-Muscular And Psychological Measurements. Part 2
Since at the most the normal data with Squad A are limited to those obtained in one session, and therefore it will be necessary to refer to other data in discussing the results with these men, it will...
-Results Of Neuro-Muscular And Psychological Measurements. Part 3
Except for one session, December 19, Squad A served on Saturdays, usually at intervals of two weeks. December 19 (Wednesday) was just before the Christmas vacation and the men left for their homes on ...
-Group Psychological Measurements
In discussing the results, those measurements given by the group method will be first considered. They are treated in their approximate order of complexity, as numbered and tabulated on page 139. (...
-(2) Discrimination For The Pitch Of Tones #2
Seashore and his collaborators1 have concluded as a result of a great deal of experimentation that the ability to discriminate the pitch of tones is elemental and the sensitiveness of the ear to pitch...
-Discrimination For The Pitch Of Tones #2. Continued
The data in table 150 for Squad B show no marked peculiarities which differentiate them from those for Squad A. There was considerable improvement between the first and second dates, October 6 and Nov...
-(3) Discrimination For Specified Number Groups
As described on page 145, the subject was required to mark in each line of 10 numbers every combination of 2 successive digits which added together equaled 11. In correcting the records, three things ...
-Discrimination For Specified Number Groups. Continued
Table 153. - Squad A - Efficiency Scores For Cancellation Of Number Groups Date. Bro. Can. Kon. Gar. Gul. Mon. ...
-(4) Addition Of One-Place Numbers #2
In an adding experiment when a time limit is used and the units in the task are as large as those employed here, that is, columns of 10 digits each, in which each column is added and the sum recorded ...
-Addition Of One-Place Numbers #2. Continued
1This comparison is among the 10 regular subjects of each squad. The results are compared directly in figure 105. The performance of each squad is represented by three curves: (1) total number of c...
-(5) Memory Span For 4-Letter English Words
When the subjects tried to recall and record as many as possible of the 25 monosyllable English words which were read for the memory-span test, nothing was said about what would be done in the case of...
-The Individual Psychological Measurements. (6) Strength Of Grip
It was the original plan in this investigation that strength and endurance tests should be given to the members of the squads from time to time in the gymnasium at Springfield. Circumstances over whic...
-The Individual Psychological Measurements. (6) Strength Of Grip. Part 2
The data for the two squads may be most conveniently compared if plotted as curves. Figures 107 and 108 give the averages for the evening and morning tests, respectively. In figure 107 both curves for...
-The Individual Psychological Measurements. (6) Strength Of Grip. Part 3
The variability in the strength of grip is shown in figures 109 and 110 for the evening and morning performance, respectively. Separate curves are given for the right and left hands. There appear no c...
-(8) Latency, Amplitude. And Refractory Period Of Patellar Reflex
Of all the human reflexes that may be elicited by appropriate stimuli, that of the patellar lends itself most conveniently to measurement. No doubt the method of recording the latency, amplitude, and ...
-Latency, Amplitude. And Refractory Period Of Patellar Reflex. Part 2
In attempting to use the patellar reflex in this low-diet investigation we recognize these elements of difficulty in making the measurements uniform and in interpreting the data. However, in conformit...
-(9) Reaction Time For Turning The Eye To A New Point Of Regard #2
The time required for the eye to change the direction of the line of regard to an object appearing suddenly somewhere in the field of vision usually ranges from 150 to 250 , depending somewhat u...
-Reaction Time For Turning The Eye To A New Point Of Regard #2. Continued
For the individual men of Squad A, the average reaction times for the whole series, from October 28 to January 27, range from 186 (Gul) to 249 (Bro). Spe shows an average, 266 , wh...
-(10) Reaction Time For Speaking 4-Letter Words
When a list of 25 familiar 4-letter words is presented in chance order, the reaction time for responding to such stimuli is approximately twice that of the eye-reaction time.1 In tables 171 and 172 fo...
-(11) Continuous Discrimination And Reaction In Finding Serial Numbers
The total time required to find and point out the numbers 1 to 50 in proper order and without skipping any is shown for both squads in tables 173 and 174. Each squad began this test at their second ex...
-(12) Sensory Threshold For Visual Efficiency #2
Extended series of observations with this apparatus and with trained subjects have shown that this measure of visual efficiency is remarkably constant from day to day and shows a standard deviation of...
-(13) Sensory Threshold For Electric Shock
This measurement taken in the same way and employing the same apparatus, with the exception of the electrodes,1 was used in the normal series of 1917. The threshold range shown by the 63 normal men wa...
-(14) Speed Of The Eye Movements #2
Of the measurements at present available, the motor coordination for successive horizontal eye movements is one of the best indicators of the neuro-muscular condition.1 The finger movements, as a moto...
-Speed Of The Eye Movements #2. Continued
On the average for the 3 days, November 4, 18, and December 16, the men of Squad B have average eye movement time which, in the case of movements left, ranges from 88.0 to 117.5 , Sne and Fis. T...
-(15) Speed Of The Finger Movements #2
In this muscle coordination test the number of complete oscillations of the finger which the average individual can perform in 10 seconds ranges between 55 and 75. In the normal series of 1917 finger-...
-Speed Of The Finger Movements #2. Continued
The individual averages in tables 184 and 185 call for no special comment. The group results are plotted in figure 120. Squad A shows a continual decrease from October 28 to December 9. In the evening...
-(16) Efficiency In Traversing A Right-Angle Maze #2
Two groups of individuals may conceivably show the same initial results in a test or measurement and later, upon repetition of the same task, may demonstrate different degrees of learning ability and ...
-(17) Efficiency In Performing Certain Clerical Tasks #2
The Wells Clerical Test C which we employed is divided into 6 parts (see fig. 56). A total score of 100 points was allowed for a perfect completion of all 6 tasks which composed the test. Each task ...
-Efficiency In Performing Certain Clerical Tasks #2. Continued
Considerable improvement may be expected in successive performances of this kind of task. A comparison of the low-diet averages shown at the bottom of table 189 with the figures for September 29, whic...
-Summary Of Psychological Results
The previous discussions of neuro-muscular measurements have not depended upon introspective accounts. We have in each instance made the measurements as objective as possible, and have given the essen...
-Reduced Diet And Sex Expression
Prolonged reduced diet with resulting change to a lower nutritional level might conceivably have some important sociological bearings. It might be asked, for example, if there were under these circums...
-Physical Activity And Endurance
The important relationship between muscular work and total metabolism made it incumbent upon us to obtain all possible information with regard to the relative physical activities of these groups of me...
-Variations In Activity As Recorded By The Pedometer From Week To Week
Although table 191 show,s clearly that Vea varied considerably in his activity from day to day, especially in the uncontrolled-diet periods, it is more important for general conclusions to secure aver...
-Factors Influencing The Pedometer Records
No great significance should be attached to the pedometer readings without due consideration of the factors influencing them, as otherwise they might lead to false conclusions. As pointed out earlier,...
-Pedometer Control With Squad B On Normal Diet
To secure important evidence of the probable activity as recorded by the pedometer of a homogeneous group of college men not on diet, arrangements were made for observations on Squad B during the peri...
-Estimates Of Various Forms Of Physical Activity
In addition to the pedometer readings, which were objective, we have a number of records which were made by the men in connection with their regular college work and for special purposes. Unusual atte...
-Exercise Records For Squad A
The records for Squad A are given in table 194. They were kept for most of the time from January 11 until February 2 or 3, inclusive. Although the men endeavored as far as possible to classify their a...
-Exercise Records For Squad B
Squad B, having been put upon restricted diet on January 8, kept records of their activity similar to those of Squad A in the period from January 10 to 29, inclusive. An examination of the detailed fi...
-Exercise Records For Normal Subjects
Since both Squads A and B were upon reduced diet, A at maintenance level, and B in a transitional stage, the primary object of this record of activity was to find the influence, if any, of the reduced...
-Comparison Of The Activities Of Squads A And B, And The Normal Group
We have collected in table 197 the average values found with the various subjects in Squads A and B, and for the group of normal subjects, for the hours of walking and for the activity greater than wa...
-Subjective Impressions As To Fitness For Muscular Work
In the preceding paragraphs the records of general physical activity, as indicated by pedometer readings and other data, made as objective as conditions would permit, have been presented and analyzed....
-Subjective Impressions As To Fitness For Muscular Work. Part 2
Pea October 27: Not tired from the 5-mile run this morning. November 10: Legs somewhat weak in the cross-country race this morning. At times, does not feel able to do cross-country work. Muscles of...
-Subjective Impressions As To Fitness For Muscular Work. Part 3
Certain members of the faculty were especially competent to pass judgment upon the physical fitness and performance of the men. They were continually observing them in their gymnasium and other athlet...
-Subjective Impressions As To Fitness For Muscular Work. Part 4
Professor Louis C. Schroeder had immediate charge of the gymnasium work of the men. On the occasion when he came to interview one of the authors, he stated that he had some definite ideas about the me...
-Physical Condition And Endurance Tests
A permanent record of the physical condition of Squad A was made on February 1 by a series of motion pictures. After a few weeks or months the personal impression of the appearance or action of a grou...
-Physical Condition And Endurance Tests. Continued
On February 1, 11 members of Squad A were assembled in the gymnasium; pitted against them were 11 men selected from the college body. None of these latter were taken from Squad B, as Squad B had been ...
-Mental Attitude And Scholastic Work
The food reduction used for Squad A in this investigation may be regarded as a major change in the diet of these men. This reduction was continued for a relatively long time; the men lost approximatel...
-Mental Attitude And Scholastic Work. Part 2
Gul November 10: Believe I am mentally keener than when on full diet. I can study for an examination to better advantage now. February 2: Have noticed no difficulty or detriment to my mental wor...
-Mental Attitude And Scholastic Work. Part 3
Spe I feel definitely that my fall term of school would have been better had it not been for the experiment. The condition can not be wholly laid to the diet. The interruptions caused by the trips...
-Conclusions Regarding Psychological Environment
From the foregoing notes and comments it must be concluded that although the psychological conditions were probably as favorable at the International Y. M. C. A. College at Springfield for an experime...
-Effect On Mental Attitude
No reader will doubt the fact that members of Squad A, during the experiment, sometimes found it more difficult to concentrate their attention upon their studies and to sit quietly at work. Who has no...
-Effect On Scholastic Standing
To verify the personal impressions regarding the scholastic work of the men who served as subjects in the experiment, we have the more or less objective data of the term grades in the several college ...
-General Post-Experimental History
An important part of our records of this research is the post-experimental history of the men undergoing this experience. Questions which may fairly be asked are: What condition were these men in at t...
-General Post-Experimental History. Continued
Mon Left college and went to France in May to enter military Y.M.C.A. work as physical director. Was married before he went. In January 1919 was still in France. Moy Passed local district med...
-Summary Of Results And General Considerations
From the large mass of data that we have attempted to analyze in this report, certain very striking factors stand out above all others. While on the reduced diet these men underwent profound metabolic...
-Summary Of Results And General Considerations. Part 2
Although the net caloric intake has been shown on the individual body-weight curves, the average values for these 9 men are here given in blocks closely associated with the average body-weight curve. ...
-Summary Of Results And General Considerations. Part 3
As an index of the reaction of the heart to a definite amount of work, the percentage increase in the pulse-rate 1 minute after work ceases is of interest, this representing in a sense the increment o...
-Summary Of Results And General Considerations. Part 4
In interpreting this loss, we must give consideration to the figures obtained for Tow, although he was not included in the chart. Tom's nitrogen loss was but 45.74 grams for the entire period, while t...
-Summary Of Results And General Considerations. Part 5
Emphasis throughout this entire monograph has been laid upon the basal metabolism. We have not infrequently been taken to task by thoughtless critics of previous reports, who have maintained that the ...
-Practical Considerations
As a result of the extensive scientific findings recorded in the several chapters of this discussion, this research as a whole, we hope, makes some important contributions not only to abstract science...







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