The TONGUE is pale, in anaemic persons; red in scarlet fever, inflamed mouth, and sometimes when the stomach is inflamed (gastritis); furred, in indigestion, and very often in fever; brown, or black, cracked and fissured, in low fevers, as typhoid or typhus. It is pushed out with difficulty in low fevers, and after an apoplectic attack; going to one side, in paralysis affecting one side only.

The teeth are covered with thick brown stuff called " sordes " in low febrile states. They are loosened, sometimes, by severe salivation, from large doses of mercury (not now given by regular physicians).

The GUMS are swollen, soft, and spongy, and disposed to bleed easily in scurvy. A blue line along the gums is observed in lead-poisoning; a red line, occasionally, in advancing consumption. Swelling and soreness of the gums, with tenderness of the teeth and a "coppery " taste in the mouth, are signs of mercurial salivation.

Increase of saliva gives the name to this affection, once not uncommon in medical practice. Iodide of potassium, taken medicinally, will sometimes salivate. Large doses of jaborandi, or its active principle, pilocarpin, generally does so.

The taste is morbid bitter in disorder of the liver; sour, often, in dyspepsia, saltish, with spitting of blood; putrid in gangrene of the lungs.