Animal, (from anima, life). All bodies endowed with life, and with a power of spontaneous motion necessary to support life, are called animals. Animals are thus distinguished in general from vegetables. But perhaps a more correct and scientific definition is the * following: - An animal is an organized body, sensible, capable of voluntary motion, provided with a central organ of digestion. They are all capable of reproducing their like: some, by the union of the two sexes, produce small living creatures, and are called vivipa-rous; others lay eggs, which require a due temperature to produce young, styled oviparous; some multiply without conjunction of sexes, hermaphrodites; and others are reproduced when cut in pieces, like the roots of plants, animal plants.
After man, all other animals have been divided into eight classes, in the following manner:
Division and Characters of the Eight Classes of Animals.
Having a head.
The most part having no head.
Two ventricles in the heart.
One ventricle in the heart.
The heart variously formed, or unknown.
Blood nearly cold.
A whitish fluid instead of blood.
Inspiring and expiring air frequently.
Inspiring and expiring air at long intervals by lungs.
Admitting the air by gills.
Admitting the air by spiracula.
No apparent entrance or aperture to admit air.
1st Ord. Quadrupeds.
2d Ord. Cetaceous Animals.
3d Ord. Birds.
4th Ord. Oviparous Quadrupds.
5th Ord. Serpents.
7th Ord. Insects.
Four feet and hairy skin.
Fins and no hair.
Four feet and no hair.
Scaly without feet or fins.
Scaly with fins.
Having neither feet nor scales.
We shall add the Arrangement of Cuvier, which is in general preferred:
Animals with vertebrae.
Blood hot: heart with two ventricles.
Viviparous with mammae.
Oviparous without mammae.
Blood cold: heart with one ventricle.
Lungs sometimes with gills.
Gills without lungs.
Animals without vertebra; .
A simple spinal marrow without articulated limbs.
With blood vessels.
A knotty spinal marrow without articulated limbs.
---------------------------------with articulated limbs.
Without blood vessels.
A knotty spinal marrow with articulated limbs.
No spinal marrow; no articulated limbs.
We may subjoin for its curiosity, perhaps from its scientific accuracy, that of M. Virey; premising only, that he understands, by the great sympathic or intercostal, a nervous system, not immediately and directly issuing from a brain, but, like the intercostal in the human body, composed of nerves from different sources.
With two nervous systems, the cerebral and sympathic:
With hot blood
With cold blood
With a nervous system surround- ing the oesophagus, the sym- pathic:
With a heart
Without a heart
"With nervous molecules; zoophytes.
Hydri and infusory animals.
Corals and ceratophytcs.
Madrepores and sponges.
Animal substances differ from vegetable in their chemical nature and changes they spontaneously undergo. Though not peculiar to the animal system, yet azote and phosphoric acid are their most distinguishing ingredients. The acid gives the distinguishing appearances to the earth which forms their basis, and the azote is the chief principle of the volatile alkali, formed during their spontaneous decomposition by putrefaction. Volatile alkali is contained in animal substances when entire, particularly in the blood, where it exists in an am-moniacal salt; but its proximate principles, azote and hydrogen, are more frequently found, and the alkali is formed during the decomposition. The same principles are found, also, in the gluten of farinaceous seeds, in mushrooms, and many other vegetable substances, particularly in the whole family of the cruciferae; and a volatile alkali is separated from vegetables in various chemical processes. Hydrogen, its other principle, is more generally diffused through the vegetable and mineral kingdoms, and can scarcely be considered as an animal substance. Carbone, oxygen, and lime, the other animal radicals, are found in almost every substance.
There seems to be no peculiar animal acid. The Zoonic and sebacic are probably the acetous: the acid of ants and of silk, the formic and bombic, are acetous. The Prussic acid is still little known; and if any merit the appellation of animal acids, they are the phosphoric and the uric: of which the latter is only peculiar to the animal kingdom, and perhaps may at last appear to be the oxalic disguised by azote, as Proust supposes the bombic acid to be. The other animal productions are fibrin, albumen, gelatine, mucilage, oils, sugar, resins, sulphur, and iron occasionally, perhaps accidentally, occurring. Gelatine and mucilage connect animal with vegetable substances, as they admit of the acetous fermentation. With oxygen, mucilages form resins, of which there are few examples in the animal system, and the proportions are small. If we recollect rightly, the bile, the cerumen of the ear, and the urine, are the only instances in the human body.
The oils and fats of animals, like the gross oil of vegetables, are soluble either in water or in spirit of wine, by the intervention of a third body only, as mucilage or gum. The oils of animals differ from those of vegetables. - 1. The finer animal oils are not, like the vegetable, procured by a moist, but almost always by a dry distillation, that is, by combustion; and hence all animal oils have an empyreumatic .smell. 2. Though an acid is found in the fat of animals, yet in the distilled oils of animal matter a volatile alkaline property is found; but in those of vegetables there is always an acid. The volatile alkaline salts, therefore, contained in the oils of animals, render them more penetrating and stimulating than the distilled oils of vegetables. One drop of the ol. c. c. intimately mixed with the sp. vini. rectif; 3ij-is powerfully stimulant and sudorific. Independent of the oil collected in the cells of the adipose membrane, or that obtained by distillation, the decomposition of animal substances, by means of the nitrous acid, procures it in considerable purity.
The odorous matter of some animal substances, as musk, castor, etc. is, like the essential oils or resins of vegetables, soluble in sp. vini rectificati, and volatile in the heat of boiling water.
The gelatinous principle of animals, like the gum of vegetables, dissolves in water, but not in spirit or in oil. Like the gums, also, it renders oils and fats mis-cible with water. However, many animal juices differ greatly even in these general properties from the corresponding ones of vegetables. Thus animal serum, which appears similar to vegetable gummy juices, and mingles.with cold or warm water, concretes by heat into a solid mass: the heat necessary is about one hundred and fifty of Fahrenheit.
Animal substances become putrid much sooner than vegetable ones, and when corrupted are much more offensive. See Putredo.
Animal matter, burnt in the open air, is resolved, like vegetables, into soot and ashes, but with this difference, that no fixed alkaline salt can be obtained from the ashes, and no acid vapour accompanies the smoke. Exposed to the fire in close vessels, after the watery moisture, a volatile alkaline.salt is obtained, together with an empyreumatic oil that is more fetid than that from vegetables.
Animal bezoardicum occidentale. The lesser American deer.
Animal bezoardicum orientale. The bezoar goat.