(Ab aureo colore, from its golden colour). Enascentia, and Immatura. See Aurantia curassaventia.
Aurantia hispalensis, called also mala aurantia fructu acido, major arantia malus, aurangia, mala aurea, chrysomelea, nerantia, martianum pomum; poma anarantia; Seville orange. It is the citrus aurantium Lin. Sp. Pi. 1100.
The China and Seville orange are both only varieties of the same species: the latter is only found in our Pharmacopoeias; and the flowers, leaves, yellow rind, and juice, are made use of for different medical purposes.
The flowers of this tree are highly odoriferous, and are used as a perfume; they are bitter to the taste; they give their taste and smell both to water and to spirit, but most perfectly to rectified spirit of wine. The water which is distilled from these flowers is called ol. naphae. In distillation they yield a small quantity of essential oil, which is called oleum vel essentia neroli; they are brought from Italy and France.
The leaves have a bitterish taste, and yield by distillation an essential oil; indeed by rubbing them between the fingers and thumb they manifest considerable fragrance. Westaerhoef, De Haen, and several German physicians, have spoken highly in favour both of the flowers and leaves, but particularly of the latter, and held them in great estimation as a remedy for epilepsy and other convulsive disorders; but from later experience they have sunk greatly in their reputation. The dose of the leaves in powder was from 3 ss. to 3 i-two or three times a day, and in decoction propor-tionably strong. They resemble the laurel and the bitter almond, and may owe their taste also to the prussic acid.
The yellow rind of the fruit, freed from the white fungous part, is warmer than the peal of lemons, of a more durable flavour, and abounds more with a light fragrant essential oil, which exudes upon wounding it. Infused in boiling water it gives out nearly all its smell and taste; cold water extracts the bitter, but very little of the flavour. In distillation all the oil rises without the bitter. The yellow rind gives an agreeable flavour to the other medicines, and has deservedly gained the character of a pleasant warm aromatic bitter. Its expressed oil is essence of bergamot.
The orange peel is commonly employed as a stomachic, promotes appetite, and is particularlyuseful in restoring tone to the stomach when it has been impaired by excess. It has been also much celebrated in cure of intermittents, and in those of a most obstinate kind; and as a powerful remedy in menorrhagia, and immoderate uterine evacuations. It is, however, little more than a light bitter, not very powerful in any of these diseases. The London college direct a syrup and tincture. In the former, eight ounces of the peel are steeped in five pints of water; and in the latter, three ounces of the peel are digested in a quart of proof spirit.
The juice of Seville oranges is a grateful acid, which, by allaying heat, quenching thirst, promoting various excretions, and diminishing the action of the vascular sanguiferous system, proves extremely useful in both ardent and putrid fevers, though the China orange juice, as impregnated with a larger proportion of sugar, becomes more agreeable, and may be taken in larger quantity. The Seville orange juice is particularly serviceable as an antiscorbutic, and alone will prevent or cure scurvy in the most apparently desperate circumstances. In dyspepsia, putrid bile in the stomach, both lemon and orange juice are highly useful. The acid of the Seville orange differs in some of its pharmaceutical properties, both from the fermented acid of vinegar, and from the native acid salts of the leaves or plants: from the former in its not being volatile, or not exhaling upon inspissating the juice, nor rising in distillation with the heat of boiling water; from the latter, in its being soluble in spirit of wine: the inspissated juice liquifies in air, water, or spirit of wine; whence it is easily preserved during many years, either in the form of an extract, or in a spirituous solution.
Aurantia curassaventia. Aurentium curas-savense. Curassoa, or curassao, apples, or oranges. They seem to be the immature oranges that by some accident have been checked in their growth. They are a grateful aromatic bitter, of a flavour very different from that of the peel from the ripe fruit, and without any acid; what little tartness they have when fresh is lost in drying. Spirit of wine extracts perfectly all their virtue; water imperfectly: infused in wine or brandy they afford a good bitter for the stomach. They are used to promote the discharge in issues, whence their name of issue peas, and to give the flavour of hops to beer.
Aurantia Sinensis, called also aurantia dulcis, .Sinensia, mala aurantia Chinensia, China or Sweet Oranges.
The rind hath a faint smell, with but little bitterness, and is never used in medicine; the juice hath a grateful subacid sweetness, in general of the same qualities as our summer fruits.