(horn auris, the ear). The external part of the ear; which is divided into the upper part called pinna, and the lower soft part called lobus, or lobulus. The pinna is divided into several eminences and cavities; the eminences are the helix, called also capreolus, anti-helix; tragus, called also anti-tobium; and anti-tragus.
The helix is the large border round the ear, or the exterior compass of the ear; so called because of its tortuosity.
The anti-helix is the large oblong eminence, surrounded by the helix.
The tragus is the like anterior protuberance, opposite to the lobe, below the fore part of the helix, which in the aged is often covered with hairs.
The anti-tragus is the posterior protuberance below the inferior extremity of the anti-helix. The name of a muscle which acts only upon the cartilage of the ear.
The cavities are the scapha, on the inside of the he-lix; the cavitas innominata or fossa navicularis, at the anterior upper part of the anti-helix; the concha, which is situated under the anti-helix, divided by a septum, which is a continuation of the helix; and the meatus auditorius externus.
The auricula is composed chiefly of cartilage, which gives and preserves its shape. It hath the advantage of being variable, for there are certain small muscles called helicalis major and minor, tragicus, and anti-rragicus, which are peculiar to the ear; they act only upon the cartilage, and contribute to direct it towards
Sound; or by giving a greater tension, to increase its intensity.
The external ear is fixed to the cranium, not only by the cartilaginous portion of the meatus, but also by the ligaments, viz. the anterior, which is fixed by one extremity to the root of the apophysis zygomatica of the os temporis, close to the corner of the glenoid cavity, and by the other extremity to the anterior and superior part of the cartilaginous meatus. The posterior ligament is fixed by one end to the root of the mastoid apophysis, and by the other to the posterior part of the convexity of the concha, so that it is opposite to the anterior ligament. There is also a kind of superior ligament which seems to be only a continuation of the aponeurosis of the frontal and occipital muscles.
The lobe seems to be a doubling of the teguments; it is only skin and cellular membrane. For a particular account of the vessels, etc. see Auris.
Auricula infima. The lobe of the ear. Besides. it is the specific name of several herbs, from their supposed resemblance to ears.
Auricula leporis. See Bupleurum.
Auricui.a muris. See Alsine.
Auricula ursi, called also sanicula Alpina lutea. yellow bear's ears, oricola, and French cowslips. It grows plentifully in Switzerland, Savoy, and many other places; bears thick, large, green leaves; and on the tops of the stalks there are flowers of different colours. In Utrecht this flower is called primula odorata. on account of its agreeable smell. The juice removes spots on the face.