(Indian). Called also battata Virgi-niana, solatium tuberosum esculentum, kippa kelengu, papas vel pappus Americanus, and convolvulus Indicus. The common or Virginian potatoe.

They were first brought into Europe by Sir Francis Drake in 1486, when he returned with the famous mathematician Mr. Thomas Herriot, who was sent to Virginia by Sir Walter Raleigh to explore the productions of the country. Herriot gave them to Gerard the botanist; who first planted them in London, and sent them to Clusius in Holland, who also planted them in Burgundy; and he sent them to Italy, as appears from the works of these and several other authors. It was from this introduction into Europe that so many writers say they were natives of Virginia; but it is said that they will not grow there without skilful culture.

Other authors have given a different account, and relate that the first cargo was shipped at Carolina for Ireland, but the vessel was lost near Liverpool. The potatoes that were saved were first planted there. Each may be true; and the former may refer to the first knowledge we acquired of them, the latter to the first importation.

They are of the natural order of solanaceae, and the roots of the convolvulus batatas Lin. Sp. Pi. 220. This is not the only instance where acrimony is inviscated by farina, or prevented from being evolved by keeping from the air. Those which grow near the surface are said to be poisonous. These roots are natives of both parts of the continent of America and of India.

The light mealy ones are the best, and, by proper management, a wholesome nourishing bread is made of them, called by the Peruvians chunno. Their use, as at present, is both profitable and salutary. More brandy may be obtained from an acre of potatoes, than from an acre of barley. They also afford much starch. They contain more than half their proportion of water, which renders them of easy solution and digestion in the stomach, and they are less liable to become ascescent and give the heartburn than the fermented cerealia. A cataplasm is made of potatoes, called cataplasma so-lani tuberosi. See Ambusta and Aliment.

The varieties of potatoes are numerous, and may yet be increased from the seed contained in the apples. But the usual method of increase is from the tuberose roots. These are cut into pieces, each containing an eye similar to a bud on a branch, with so much of the medullary substance connected with it as will nourish the young plant till it can draw by the roots.

Potatoes produced from sets, after a number of years. are found to decrease in bearing; for which reason they should be brought back every fourteen years to their original. It is after this period that those produced from the seeds themselves decline.

In Sweden, the leaves of the potatoe plants are manufactured for smoking instead of tobacco.

See on this article many remarks, both curious and profitable, in Hunter's Georgical Essays, Cullen's Mat. Medica.

Battatas Canadensis, also called flos solis parami-dalis, heliotropium Indicum, adenes Canadensis, corona salts parvo flore, etc. helenium Indicum tuberosum,chrysanthemum latifolium Brasil, Americanum tuberosum, aster Peruanus tuberosus, Farnesianus solis Flos. helianthus Tuberosus Lin. Sp. Pi. 1277. Jerusalem artichokes. See Aliment.

Battatas Peregrina, called also cacamotic flano-quiloni. The cathartic potatoe; perhaps a species of ipomaea, nearly allied to convolvulus: ' cacamotic' is certainly quamoclit, one of the species of ipomaea. Many worse blunders occur in the synonyms of the former editions. They grow spontaneously in the warmer parts of America. Their taste is very agreeable; and if about two ounces of them are eaten at bed time, they gently move the belly the next morning. As all the species are in a certain degree cathartic in some of their parts, this quality is less surprising.