(From ceres, corn). All sorts of corn of which bread is made. The Greeks use the word demetrias in the same sense. Not to enlarge too far the article of bread, we referred to this part of our work a short view of the comparative qualities of different corn employed as its basis. The cerealia, strictly speaking, are the barley (hordeum distichum-l.in.); the rye (secale sereale); millet (panicum miliaceum); the oat (avena sativa); wheat (triticum hybernum); rice (oryza saliva); and maize (zea mays). To these are sometimes added the buck wheat, from different species of fagopyrum; Guinea corn (holchus sorgum); flote fescue grass, or manna seeds (festuca fluitans); and the lotus, described by Mungo Park, (rhamnus lotus ).
These different cerealia are set down nearly in the order of their nutritious qualities, beginning with the least nourishing; and, as these perhaps depend on the proportion of oil, their ascescency, and the easy evolution of their saccharine principle, are not very different. The buck wheat, the Guinea corn, the manna seeds, and those of the lotus, are truly saccharine. See Aliment, and the different articles under their proper terms: Farinacea and Bread.
"Cerebellum, and Cerebrum, (a dim. of cerebrum,) as it were, the little brain; called also epencranis porencephalia encranion.
"The cerebrum and cerebellum together are often called cerebellum, when the brain is spoken of in small animals, as birds, pigs, etc.
"The cerebellum is flattened, and convex on its upper and lower part; its greatest extent is from side to side.
It is situated under the posterior lobes of the cerebrum, and divided into two lobes by a small process of the dura mater, which is a continuation of the falx running in its direction. It is covered by the pia mater like the cerebrum; but the lobuli of the cerebellum differ from those of the cerebrum, mostly lying horizontal. It hath no convolutions like the cerebrum, but it hath curved parallel lines described on its surface by the pia mater, and is of a darker colour than the cerebrum. It is composed of a cortical substance, and a medullary part like the cerebrum, but disposed in a more regular manner; and a perpendicular section of it hath a beautiful appearance, ramified like a tree, called -vitae arbor, the trunks of which form the pedunculi of the cerebellum. On the back part of the isthmus which joins the cerebrum and cerebellum we see four eminences; the two upper are called nates or glutiae, and the two lower testes or didymi. Before these the aqueduct runs down into the fourth ventricle, the medullary covering of which is called valvula magna Sylvii. The fourth ventricle is placed between the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata."
" Cerebrum, (quasi carabrum, caput). The brain, called encephalus: see also episphaeria. Metaphorically called emporium (a Latin term for a market town), because it is the seat of all rational and sensitive transactions. Its structure and use are not so fully known as some other parts of the body, and different authors consider it in various manners. However, according to the observations of those most famed for their accuracy in anatomical enquiries, its general structure is thus described.
"The whole mass of brain is divided into cerebrum and cerebellum. It consists of two substances, viz. one cortical or cineritious; the other medullary. The first is of an ash colour, the second is white, and of a firmer texture: they both are vascular,but the cortical is more so than the medullary, from whence the nerves proceed. When the two hemispheres of the cerebrum, each side of the falx being called an hemisphere, are removed, a white part, called corpus callosum, running from one hemisphere to the other, appears. The centrum ovale is the appearance of a particular section of it. The anterior ventricles are two oblong bodies placed one on each side the corpus callosum, with a partition between them, called the septum lucidum, which is a continuation of the medullary substance of the corpus callosum. There is commonly much water in these ventricles, in those who die of disorders in their heads, as in the epilepsy, hydrocephalus, etc. but naturally they only contain about two drachms. In watery heads the fluid is always found in the cerebrum only; the cerebellum never hath any share in it. Each ventricle at the posterior part throws back an appendage, which makes a cavity in the posterior lobe of the cerebrum. Below the septum lucidum appears the fornix, or lyra, with the corpora fimbriata, narrow at the anterior extremity, where it rises by a double basis called its crura, which follow the track of the ventricle; in each ventricle are eminences of a cineritious colour, called corpora striata. The plexus choroides, called also reticularis, or retiformis, is a plexus of vessels which follow the sweep of the ventricle: it is formed by the vessels of the pia mater; it is partly collected in two loose fasciculi, which lie one in each lateral ventricle, and partly expanded over the neighbouring parts, and covering in a particular manner the thalami nervorum opticorum, glandula pinealis, and other adjacent parts, both of the cerebrum and cerebellum, to all which it adheres. The parts of this plexus, which are in the ventricles, contain some very small glands, which are considerably increased in some diseases. After the fornix is removed, we see a large plexus of vessels, particularly Galen's great vein, which go to form the torcular Herophilli, or fourth sinus, called also lecheneon, and, by Herophillus, lenos. It is a sinus formed by the meeting of the sinuses of the dura mater. Under the plexus, before the united thalami nervorum opticorum, is a hole on each side called the anus and the vulva; the latter goes to the infundibulum, the former to the aqueduct and third ventricle. The thalami nervorum opticorum are white externally, and grey within, and are little eminences from whence the optic nerves arise. The third ventricle is very small; it runs back under the two thalami, between them and the medulla oblongata. The pinealis glandula, pineal gland, called also conarium, conoides et conoides corpus, from its cone like form; and turbinata, covered by the plexus choroides, and situated on the sella turcica of the os sphenoides, is a little greyish body, the size of a pea: it lies just a little before where the transverse and longitudinal processes meet, where the vessels go to form the torcular. It is covered by the pia mater, and is connected by a little bone to each thalamus nervi optici.