A canker, (French); called also ca-roli. The ancients called such ulcers on these parts caries pudendorum.

The small irritable pustules which have obtained this appellation do not appear at any certain period after the application of the virus; sometimes they form in less than twenty-four hours; at others not before six weeks; but most frequently from four to ten days, and are at first seldom larger than a millet seed. They occasionally make their appearance over all the parts of generation, and, in some instances, even on the contiguous parts, as on the scrotum, all over the penis, and on the lowest region of the abdomen. They may indeed form on all the soft parts of the body; but they are most frequently seated on the glans penis, and on the prepuce, near to its connection with the glands; often about the fraenum, and in some instances on the very point of the glans, and even within the verge of the urethra; here, as well us near the fraenum, they prove always very troublesome, and more difficult to cure than in other parts of the penis. The colour, quantity, and consistence of the matter, are exceedingly variable. It is usually of a dirty yellow green colour, often tinged with red. Sores of this kind are sometimes of a simple innocent nature, and they usually heal in the course of a short time, merely by being kept clean; whilst they will gradually become worse, if they are venereal, should mercury not be employed, or if they are not treated with es-charotic or astringent applications. A real venereal chancre is seldom so large at the first as the base of a split pea, and the edges of the sore are elevated, somewhat hard and painful: still, in some few instances, v,e observe a slight superficial ulceration, not attended with either pain or hardness, and which, by the consequences alone, we find to be venereal. In general, however, such sores are not venereal, and the want of hardness and of painful irritability are the chief distinctions.

There are other chancres, which become suddenly elevated into extensive vesications, containing a clear lymph, but more frequently tinged with blood; from this livid appearance, these chancres are judged of a more dangerous nature than others; but the colour depends entirely on the blood being mixed with the serum; and on their contents being discharged, the parts beneath appear clean, the surface is only excoriated, without being affected in any other manner. In women, chancres exactly resemble those in men, and occur chiefly on the internal parts of the labia pudendi, nymphae, clitoris, and the entrance of the vagina and urethra; but seldom or never within either of these passages.

If a chancre is seated in the urethra, it may be mistaken for a gonorrhoea, but may be distinguished by the smallness of the discharge, the pain during erection being in the extremity of the penis, or a particular spot in the urethra, but principally by examining with the touch of a probe or bougie whether it is callous or not. In almost every instance, however, a chancre never occurs in the urethra, except it be within the reach of the sight, often of the touch.

When a venereal chancre, distinguished by its appearance, its hardness, and its painful irritability, occurs, it is seemingly the first object to crush the disease in its bud. It has been indeed doubted whether in that state absorption takes place; but we need not discuss the question, since no prudent practitioner would agree to omit internal remedies; and in the inquiry into the previous symptoms, the appearance of a chancre leads most decisively to the use of internal mercurials.

If, indeed, after exposure to infection, an ulceration appear, it is most probably only a local affection; and a cure might be effected by a very superficial dressing; yet as we have no means of being certainly safe, the cure of even the slightest chancre should never be trusted to external remedies. In every case of ulcerated chancre not attended with much inflammation, after wiping the sores as clean as possible, let them be sprinkled well with the hydrargyrus nilratus ruber, finely powdered, and pledgets of any common ointment applied over it; and after two or three dressings, the ulcer will be generally clean, and nearly healed. Finely powdered calomel will be equally effectual, and the application is said to give a pleasing glowing warmth.

The free use of the lunar caustic is recommended highly in the cure of this complaint, and particularly in its incipient state: it effectually cures, by destroying the diseased parts, which soon become clean, and heal as quickly as sores proceeding from any other cause, and of the same magnitude. In general they are seldom troublesome but from the pain, and the great doubt is whether they should be suffered to remain as an index of the effects of mercury internally, or destroyed as local disease by a caustic. We have no doubt of advising the latter, since in a part where the circulation is languid, they may not be readily affected by internal mercurials, and we have equally certain guides of the necessary extent of a mercurial course. See Astruc on the Venereal Disease, or Chapman's Abridgment of Astruc,heister's Surgery, Lond. Med. Trans. p. 337; and particularly Hunter and Bell on the Venereal Disease.