(From Cinara 2196 to move,quia movet urinam).

Some write it cynara, and derive it from Cinara 2197canis, a dog; because the plant is sharp, like dog's teeth. The artichoke. Also called alcocalum, articocalus, arti-xchocus laevis, costus nigra, carduus sativus non spino-sus, cinara hortensis, scolymus sativus, carduus domes-ticus capite majore, carduus altilis. The species used in medicine is the cynara scolymus Lin. Sp. Pi. 1159.

Artichokes are so well known as not to require a description: they are natives of the southern parts of Europe, perennial, and cultivated in our kitchen gardens.

The bottoms of the heads, and the fleshy parts of the scales, are easily digested, though flatulent, and afford but little nourishment. They are preserved by drying them to a horny consistence, and are then so light, that forty scarcely weigh a pound. The leaves are bitter, and give out their bitterness with the juice, on being bruised and pressed. This juice is powerfully diuretic and useful in dropsies; it should be mixed with an equal quantity of white wine, and three or four table spoonfuls taken every night and morning. An infusion of the leaves is likewise diuretic, and may be employed with the same intention. The leaves themselves are astringent, and contain tanin. In France they have been employed instead of galls.

In England we only eat the heads, but the Germans and French eat the young stalks after boiling them.

Cinara spinosa, called also carduus esculentus, vel spinosissimus elatior, chardone, cactos. Cynara cardun-culus Lin. Sp. Pi. 1159. According to some authors it is a species of carduus. The chardon.

As a medicine it is similar to the artichoke. It is a culinary plant, which is blanched like celery, and, like that, eaten raw with pepper and salt in Italy.

Cinara sylvestris, also called scolymus sylvestris, agriocinara, wild artichoke, or cardonet. Carline acaulis Lin. Sp. Pi. 1160. They grow in Italy and France, but the flowers are only used. See Dale, Ray.

Cinara acaulis oummifera. See Carduus pinea.