(From the Arabic term kina-men). Also called cinnamum, canella, canella Zeylani-ca, cassia cinnamomea, cassiafistula, canella cuurdo, ku-rudu; cinnamon. The best sort of which the Arabians distinguish by the term karfe, and the ordinary, by dar-sini; the choicest sort by many is called mosyllon; the wood of the tree xylocinnumomum.

It is the bark of a tree of the laurel kind, growing in the island of Ceylon, freed from the outer green or greyish part, and cut into long slices, which curl up in drying into quills or canes, the form in which it is brought to us. Cinnamon is very thin, light, and of a reddish yellow, or pale rusty iron colour, somewhat tough in breaking, and of a fibrous texture. It is the bark of the laurus cinnamomum Lin. Sp. Pi. 520. The Cinnamon Tree.

It is often mixed with the cassia bark; but the cassia hath a close smooth fracture; when chewed, is slimy; and is of a dark brown colour: the cinnamon is rougher to the sight and taste, having an astringency and brittleness in chewing, is of a paler brown colour, and breaks in splinters.

It is one of the most grateful aromatics, both to the palate and stomach, of a fragrant smell, moderately pungent but not fiery, sweetish to the taste, and somewhat astringent, but not in so considerable a degree as to be trusted alone. It proves of service in several kinds of alvine fluxes, and immoderate uterine discharges. The fine flavour is said to reside in the thin pellicle which lines the interior surface of the bark, and which abounds with vesicles of essential oil; the rest of the bark, while fresh, being merely astringent, receiving its flavour from the inner pellicle; accordingly the thinnest pieces are most cordial, and the thicker most astringent. Its stimulus and astringency are said to be occasionally inconvenient; but neither quality is in so great a degree as to be dangerous.

Infused in boiling water in a close vessel it yields the greatest part of its virtue. The watery decoction, after distillation, retains only the astringency, without the flavour of the cinnamon. The watery extract is similar.

Rectified and proof spirits extract its virtues better than water, even without heat; but, in distillation, they carry over very little of the flavour.

An extract made with rectified spirit of wine has all the virtue of the spice: cinnamon affords about 1-16th of its weight of extract.

The cinnamon water of the London college is prepared by adding to a pound of cinnamon as much water as is sufficient to prevent burning; after maceration for twenty-four hours, a gallon is distilled off. As the oil of cinnamon is very heavy, in time it falls to the bottom; and the water loses, with its milky appearance, its aromatic and cordial quality: sugar keeps the oil divided and suspended.

The spirituous cinnamon water, now called spiritus cinnamomi, spirit of cinnamon, is directed to be prepared by adding of cinnamon a pound, of proof spirit a gallon, and as much water as is sufficient to prevent burning. A gallon is distilled. In distilling with proof spirit, that which arises first is almost flavourless; for the water, which arises after, brings the oil with it; and as the oil is dissolved by the spirit, it is limpid. As the oil of cinnamon is very heavy when cinnamon water is distilled, a low flattish still and a quick equal fire are proper. As very little of the oil rises with the spirit, the best method is first to distil the cinnamon with water only, and then to add a proper quantity of rectified spirit of wine.

The aromatic principle in cinnamon resides in the essential oil, which rises, when distilled with water, slow and with difficulty, rendering the liquor milky. When a large quantity is distilled at once, a small portion of the oil is found at the bottom of the receiver. To obtain this oil more easily and plentifully, let the water, after it is distilled, stand in a cold place. A pound of good cinnamon affords a drachm, or a drachm and a half of oil; which, if exposed to the air, loses its virtue, without any sensible loss of its weight; so that it is not the oil which is efficacious, but the spirit in the oil. The oil of cassia bark is substituted for the oil of cinnamon; but as they are the same in their medicinal virtues, no objections can be reasonably made. The oleum canellae albae and the oleum caryophillorum are mixed with the oleum cinnamomi.

Oil of cinnamon is one of the most immediate and most powerful cordials in languor, hiccoughs, and debility of every kind; it is so extremely pungent, that, on being applied to the skin, it produces an eschar; though a drop or two may be given in a draught, mixed up with a little sugar or mucilage of gum arabic.

Cinnamon, when fresh, affords a larger proportion of oil; but the Dutch extract great part of it in India, so that the oil may be most advantageously bought of them. In proportion as the oil is separated, the cinnamon loses its pungency. It is said that the Dutch obtain above an ounce of essential oil from every pound. If this oil be genuine, the point of a penknife dipped into it will smoke only when it approaches a candle. Should it soon flame, it contains rectified spirit of wine. The use of the cinnamon tree is not confined to the bark; for the leaves, root, and fruit, all yield oils of different qualities, and of considerable value. That produced from the leaves is called oil of cloves, and oleum malabathri; from the bark of the root, an aromatic essential oil, or what has been called oil of camphor, and of great estimation as a medicine, is extracted, with a species of camphor which is much purer and whiter than the common kind: from the fruit is obtained a white sebaceous matter extremely fragrant, resembling the oleum nucis moschatae per express. of a thick consistence, which in Ceylon is made into candles for the sole use of the king. It is white, and is called cera cinnamomi.

The tincture of cinnamon is thus prepared: Take of cinnamon an ounce and a half; of proof spirit a pint. Digest without heat for ten days, and strain. It contains all the cordial and restringent qualities of the cinnamon itself: if it is continued for some time daily, it warms and strengthens the stomach; but this daily use is often the parent of the most pernicious custom, dram drinking. Hae nugae seria ducunt, in mela.

Neumann, in his Praelectiones Chemicae, says, that a pound of cinnamon contains near three-fourths of its quantity of an indissoluble earth, two ounces of resin, an ounce and a half of gum, and about two scruples and a half of essential oil. See Neumann's Chem. Works, Lewis's Mat. Med. and Cullen's Mat. Med.

The compound tincture of cinnamon, formerly the tinctura aromatica, is prepared by adding, cinnamon bruised six drachms; lesser cardamom seeds, freed from their husks, three drachms; long pepper and ginger, reduced to powder, of each two drachms; to two pints of proof spirit: after digesting for eight days it is strained. Ph. Lond. 1788.

Cinnamomum album, Cinnamomum Malabaricum. See Canella alba.

Cinnamomum crassiore cortice vulg. i. e. Ma-t.abathrum. See Folium. vol. I.

ClNnamomum Magellanicum, Vel Cortex Magel.

lanicus. See Cort. winteranus.

Cinnamomum Malab. See Cassia lignea.

Cinnamomum spurium, i. e. cort. Caryophilloi' des.