(From corium, the skin, and tego, to cover; as covering the inner rind of the tree). The bark or outward rind of vegetables. It is the name of many drugs consisting of the barks of trees or roots, viz.

Cortex angelinae. The tree is unknown. It is found in the island of Grenada, and employed as an anthelmintic: an ounce of the bark is boiled in three pints of water to one, and two or three table spoonfuls are given every morning.

Cortex angusturae. See Angustura.

Cortex bella-aye. The bark of a tree found in the island of Madagascar. From its sensible qualities, it appears to be a powerful astringent; and it is employed in haemorrhages, in diarrhoea, and dysentery. From a scruple to half a drachm is given morning and evening. The plant has not yet found a place in the systems of the botanists.

Cortex jubabae. is brought to us from the East Indies; but the tree is unknown, and its powers, if we may judge from its sensible qualities, are weak. It is slightly bitter, and is recommended rather as a nervous than a tonic medicine.

Cortex lavola. The bark of the tree supposed to afford the Anisum stellatum; q. v.

Cortex cardinalis de lugo. See Cortex Peruvianus.

Cortex Caryophylloides. See Cassia caryophyllata.

Cortex crassior. See Cassia lignea.

Cortex culilawan, a hot aromatic bark, found in New Guinea, of similar virtues to the cortex massory; q. v. See also Cassia caryophyllata.

Cortex elaterii. See Thuris cortex.

Cortex Magellanicus. See Winteranus cortex.

Cortex Massory. It is a warm aromatic bark, found in New Guinea. It is stimulant, carminative, and stomachic. The inhabitants powder, and mix it with water, to anoint their bodies in cold wet weather. It is also used against pains and colic.

Cortex Peruvianus. The Peruvian bark; also called cinchona, china chine, kinkina, chinchina, quinquina, holquahuilt, cortex patrum, and cardinalis de Lugo; Jesuits' bark. The powder of this bark hath been sold under various names, as pulvis comitissae, patrum et Jesuitarum pulv. etc. Cinchona is its appellation in the new London Dispensatory.

It is the bark of a tree which grows in Peru; the cincona officinalis Lin. Sp. Pi. 244, the c. macrocarpa of the Supplementum Plantarum, and of Wildenow, vol. i. p. 958. There are four sorts of this bark, viz. the red, the yellow, the white, and the curling; the two first are the best, the curling is from young trees, but of the kinds we shall afterwards speak more particularly. Its virtues were probably discovered by the Indians about the year 1500. A lake near a town in Peru was surrounded by these trees, which Mere torn up by an earthquake, and falling into the adjacent water, they rendered it bitter. An Indian, urged by his thirst during a fever, drank of this water, and soon recovered: others were, by the same means, also cured. On enquiry, it was found that the water owed its virtue to the trees, and ultimately to the bark. A Spanish soldier was afterwards cured by it, and from him it was recommended to the wife of the count de Cinchon, then viceroy of Peru; hence the name Cinchona and Comitissa. The countess, on her recovery, distributed a large portion of this bark to the Jesuists, in whose hands its reputation was increased. After this, father de Lugo, at a great expense, brought a parcel of it to Rome, and distributed it among the religious and poor: from him it received the name of cortex cardina-lis de Lugo. From Rome it was spread into France and England, and at length became general. Such is the story gravely recorded, and industriously repeated; but there is little difficulty in proving that all the former part is apocryphal.

This bark is brought in pieces of different sizes, some rolled up in short thick quills, and others flat, the outside is brownish, and generally hath a whitish moss spread upon it; the inside is of a yellowish, reddish, or rusty iron colour. The best sort is bitter, aromatic, resinous, breaks close and smooth, is friable between the teeth, pulverises easily; when powdered, is of a cinnamon colour, but rather paler; and the surest test of its goodness, in the opinion of some authors, is a musty smell, with so much of the aromatic as not to be disagreeable. The inferior kinds, when broken, appear woody; and in chewing, separate into fibres. That which is called female bark is redder on the inside, thicker, and, on the outside, more white and smooth, weaker to the smell and taste than the former, and in medical virtue greatly inferior. In the choice of bark we must select that which is solid, heavy, and dry, not mouldy; or whose taste is simply bitter and astringent, without aroma. That whose taste is nauseous, mucilaginous, whose surface is polished, which is tough, spongy, or powdery, should be rejected.

The bark has been subjected to all the tortures of fire, to extort the secret of those virtues which it was supposed exclusively to possess. We need not add with little success; nor can we follow all the fancies which have, at different times, been raised to the rank of theories to account for its effects. The more rational and less violent processes of modern chemists have shown, that it consists of a bitter extractive matter, tanin, and gallic acid. With these are combined mucilage and resin; but the two last are apparently a portion of extractive, formed in the analysis: at least we know that the extractive contains mucilage, and that, by-long exposure to heat, almost, perhaps the whole, of the extractive may be converted into resin. M. Se-guin, a chemist of some credit, has strangely supposed that the bark owes its virtues to its gelatine; and some practitioners have gravely attempted to cure inter-mittents and continued fevers with glue. When a physician prescribes a remedy under the bias of a system, he is generally successful. Dr. Duncan, junior, in his Analysis of Bark, has shown that it does not contain gelatine: yet its mucilage assumes a particular appearance, which has induced him to give it the name of cinconin; and it has been suspected that the bark owes its virtue to this principle.