Respiration, Secretions, Ossification, Generation, Irritability, and sensibility. Every body in which one or several of these functions are observed must be regarded as an ' organized or living body.

I. Digestion. Which have one or many stomachs distinct from the oesophagus and intestinal canal: man, quadrupeds, cetacea, birds, and Crustacea.

Whose stomachs are distinguished from the oesophagus and intestinal canal only by some enlargement: oviparous animals, serpents, cartilaginous and proper fish.

Who have only an alimentary tube: insects, worms, zoophytes.

Who have neither stomach nor intestinal canal: plants.

II. Nutrition. Whose nutritious juices are absorbed by the vessels opening into the external cavities; animals of every Kind Whose nutritious juices are absorbed by vessels opening externally : plants.


Circulation. Having blood, blood vessels, and a heart with two ventricles and two auricles; man, quadrupeds, cetacea, and birds.

A single ventricle, internally divided into several cavities and two auricles: oviparous quadrupeds and serpents.

A single ventricle, and auricle: cartilaginous and other fish.

Whose heart is formed by a long convoluted contractile vessel containing a white fluid: Crustacea, insects, and worms. In some Crustacea there are traces of a heart.

Who have no heart, but vessels filled with fluids of different kinds: zoophytes and plants.

IV. Respiration. Who breathe by froe unconnected spongy lungs : man, Quadrupeds, Cetacea

Who breathe by free cellular muscular lungs: oviparous quadrupeds and Serpents

By lungs adhering to the ribs provided with appendices : birds. By gills of different forms: fish and Crustacea

By holes placed on different rings : insects and Earth Worms. By a trachea and external fringes: Aquatic Worms By tracheae : plants. In which neither holes nor tracheae are discernible : polypi.

V. Secretion. This takes place in different forms or degrees in every living body.

VI. Ossification. Which have an internal bony skeleton: Man, Quadrupeds, Cetacea, Birds, Oviparous . Quadrupeds, and fish.

An internal cartilaginous one: cartilaginous fish.

An external horny: perfect insects and Lithophytes.

Calcareous: Crustacea, shell fish, the greater number of madrepores, zoophytes.

Woody : plants.

Which have no skeleton: insects in their larva state, worms, polypi.


Generation. Viviparous: man, quadrupeds, cetacea.

Oviparous, whether hatched internally or without the body : birds, oviparous quadrupeds, cartilaginous and other fish, serpents, insects, Crustacea, worms, plants.


Irritability. Wholly muscular or contractile: the greater number of the larvae of insects, worms, polypi.

Whose muscles cover their skeleton:

Man, Quadrupeds, Birds, Cetacea, Oviparous Quadrupeds, Fish, Serpents Whose muscles are covered by their skeleton: perfect insects and Crustacea.'

Who have some contractile parts, but no spontaneous motions: plants.

IX. Sensibility. Who have nerves, and a brain distinct from their spinal marrow; all animals, except those in the following sections.

Who have nerves and a brain scarcely distinct from their spinal marrow: Insects, Crustacea, Worms.

Without discovered nerves, brain.

Or spinal marrow: zoophyies plants.

living bodies, living bodies,

See Animal