Ligatio, ligatura, alligatura. A bandage, fillet, roller, or ligature. Of bandages, in general, we have spoken in the article Deligatio; and it now only remains to consider the different forms of bandages applied to particular purposes. The first of these is,
The sling, echarpe. This appellation is given to several sorts of bandages.
The sling with four heads should be four feet in length: the breadth that of six or eight fingers. Its use is to retain the dressing on the wounded head. It must be divided longitudinally, from each end, into two heads, so as to leave about two hands' breadth entire in the middle, and the four ends must be rolled up to where the division ends. Apply the middle of the undivided part upon the dressings; then tying the two posterior heads forward, and having secured their ends, the two anterior ends must be carried backward, and secured behind the head. This is sometimes called Galen's bandage.
The sling with six heads, periscepastrum, is about three feet in length, its breadth about twelve or fourteen inches. It must be divided from each end to within a hand's breadth of the middle, into three parts. Apply the middle undivided part to the vertex, and tie the two anterior tails behind the head, the two middle under the chin, and the two posterior upon the forehead. The sling for the nose hath four heads, is eight feet long, and two or three inches broad. In the middle it is left entire, but from thence, each way, it is slit to the ends. In the middle, where it is entire, an opening is made for the apex of the nose, that the bandage may be firm. The middle is applied upon the nose, the two upper heads to the neck, and then to the forehead; the lower ones behind the neck, but a little higher than the first, and to the forehead also.
The sling for the breasts is four feet long, six inches broad, and slit like the sling with four heads; about a foot in the middle being left entire. The middle is to be applied upon the dressings on the affected breast; then the two upper heads must be carried over the opposite shoulder, and the two lower under the arm of the affected side, towards the scapula of the other side: they must there be fastened to the upper ends which are over the shoulder.
The single bridle, capistry, is a single headed roller, fourteen or sixteen feet long, and two or three fingers broad, for securing the jaw when fractured or luxated. It is applied under the chin, and over the head; called by Galen geneias.
The double bridle is the same as the single, but rolled up with two heads: the single may, however, always be used instead of it. See Chevastre.
Bandages for the lips, of a proper length and breadth, are formed as the sling with four heads.
Bandages for the eyes or eye lids. See Monoculus. The divider for the neck is twenty-four feet long, two or three fingers' breadth broad, and is rolled into two heads. Its middle is placed on the forehead, and thence passes round the head two or three times. When secured with pins, the rollers are carried under each armpit, and brought back over the shoulders, and cross the neck in the form of an X. It is then passed on to the forehead, etc. until the whole is taken up.
The retentive bandage for the neck. Two distinct ones are usually directed, but one circular roller answers every useful purpose. When two bandages are employed, one is a fillet about two feet in length, laid across the head so as to hang down on the shoulders. Over these ends another fillet, five or six feet in length, and nearly three fingers broad, is rolled circularly round the neck. The ends of the first fillet are then doubled bad-, and secured to the circular turns by pins.
Divtsive bandage, to support the head, consists of a fillet laid over the head, so as to fall on the forehead and low on the neck. Another fillet, eighteen feet long, and about the breadth of three fingers, is rolled on two heads. The middle part or this bandage is applied over the fillet on the forehead, carried over the cars, round the head to the back of the neck. Its heads are then crossed, brought under both axillae, carried backward over the shoulders; crossed again, and carried trader the axillae over the breast. The heads are again shifted, and the remainder rolled with circular turns. The hanging ends of the first small fillet are then turned back over the head, and fastened by pins to the turns of the bandage.
The uniting neck bandage consists of a napkin under the axillae, to which fillets, fastened to the nightcap, are pinned, to keep the head steady, when placed in the proper position. It is used in wounds of the neck or trachea.
The inguinal bandage, for luxations of the thigh, is only the common roller, eight or nine yards in length, and about four fingers broad.
The napkin and scapulary are used when a bandage is required on the breast, belly, or back. It consists of a napkin pinned round the body, where the disorder renders it necessary; and, to prevent its falling, the scapu-lary is applied, viz. a piece of linen, four or six inches broad, with a slit in the middle for the head to pass through; its length sufficient for one end to be pinned to the napkin behind, and the other end to the napkin before. The scapulary is sometimes fastened behind, and the other end slit far enough to bring each part over the shoulders to be fastened before. Fascia. See Aponeurosis.
Fascia lata is a large, membranous, tendinous, or ligamentary covering. Winslow describes it as a muscular ligament, fixed about the edge of the crista of the os ilium, from the large tuberosity, to the anterior superior spine, to the ligamentum Fallopii, and to the aponeurosis of the oblique external muscle of the belly. It is also fixed to the lateral inferior part of the os sacrum, and to the neighbouring part of the ligaments by which that bone is connected to the bones of the ilium and ischium. From thence it advances over the glutaei and thigh, between the membrana adiposa and muscles, to the interior and outer part of the knee; over the external anterior part of the tibia, and is strongly inserted into the head of the tibia and of the fibula. It is inserted also firmly into the linea aspera femoris, between the vastus externus and biceps, forming a sort of septum between these muscles. See Aponeurosis.
Fasciae latae musculus rises from the outside of the ilium, runs downwards and outwards; and, below the trochanter major, joins with the tendons of the glutaeus maximus, and runs down laterally to the leg. This muscle stretches the fascia lata above described, and on this account Albinos calls it tersor fasciae fefascia lata lumborum is a strong tendon fixed to the lateral part of the os sacrum, from the spines of the sacrum, from the spine of the ilium, and the spines of the lumbar vertebrae.