(From quia emicat ut famma; or from flando, quia spiral odorem: some authors derive it from green). A flower is that part of a plant in which the parts of generation of either sex reside. In some flowers are the parts proper to one sex only; in others both sexes are included in the same flower. A flower, when complete, consists of a calyx, corolla, stamen, and pistil; but the essential parts are the anthera at the top of the stamen, and the stigma: these are sufficient to constitute a flower.
Tournefort's system, which alone could be the rival of the Linnaean, depended on the form of the flowers: as it is not yet wholly disused in France, though superseded rather by Jussieu's natural arrangement than the Linnaean system, we shall shortly give its outline.
The vegetable kingdom is divided into herbs and trees. Herbs are such as have flowers with petals or without them. The petalodes are simple or compound. The simple-leafed flowers are divided into monopetalous and polypetalous; the former into regular and irregular; the regular flowers into the campaniformes and infundi-buiiformes; the irregular into labiati and anomali. The polypetali regulares are the cruciformes, rosacei, umbe!-lati, caryophullaei and liliacei). The irregulares are the papilionacei and anomali. The compound petalodes are the flosculosi, the semiflosculosi, and the radiati. The apetali are either those without leaves and without a flower, or without flower or fruit.
The flowers of trees are similarly divided. The apetalous ones are the apetali and amentacei; the petalodes monopetali containonly the monopetali; the others are the rosacei and papilionacei. According to Linnaeus, the calyx is the expansion of the epidermis, the corolla or flower of the liber or inner bark.
Flos abortiens. Abortive flower,, producing no fruit.
Flos amentaceus. See Amentum.
Flos apetalus; is without a corolla; often called stamineous, incomplete, imperfect. The parts of generation are covered only by the calyx.
Flos campaniformis, shaped like a bell. Those whose edges spread wide, are termed open bell shaped flowers; those less spread, tubulous bell shaped flowers.
Flos caryophylleus, resembling a single carnation, having five regular petals, ending at the bottom in a long narrow claw.
Flos compositus; a species of aggregate flower, containing several florets, inclosed in a common perianth, and on a common receptacle, with the anthers connected in a cylinder.
Flos cruciformis, is composed of four equal petals, placed in the form of a cross. Of this sort are the cabbage, the wall flower, and mustard.
Flos foemineus. Female flower, which has pistils or stigmas, without stamens, or at least antherae.
Flos flosculosus. A flosculous flower. By Linnaeus called tubulosus, a tubulous compound flower, composed wholly of tubulous florets, exemplified in tansy, and the camomile flowers.
Flos infundibuliformis. A funnel shaped flower, as the primrose, etc.
Flos labiatus. Lip shaped flower. A mono-petalous corolla, with a narrow tubular basis, expanding at the top in one entire, or in two lips: Linnaeus uses the term ringens, including under it both labiated and personate flowers. This creates a confusion, which, according to Martin, would be removed, if we put labiate for an irregular monopetal-ous corolla with two lips, and appropriate the term ringens to such as have the lips gaping and open, personate to such as have them closed. Sometimes the upper lip is wanting, and then the style and chives supply its place, as in the ground pine, bugula, etc. This is sometimes called an unilabiated flower. In some species, the upper lip is turned upwards, as in the ground ivy; but most commonly the upper lip is convex above, or turns the hollow part down to the under, representing an helmet, whence they are called galeate, cucullate, and galericulate.
Flos liliaceus. A lily shaped flower, is generally composed of six petals, which resemble those of the lily, the tulip, and the asphodel: and is a natural order of Murray.
Flos monopetalus. A flower composed of one leaf; or whose leaves are joined at the bottom, so as to fall off entire.
Flos masculus. Male flower; bearing stamina only, without pistils; or at least wanting the stigma.
Flos monopetalus anomalus. An irregular flower, consisting of one leaf.
Flos papilionaceus, (from papilio, a butterfly J. The papilionaceous, or butter fly shaped fower, is irregular and usually four petalled. The lower petal is shaped like a boat, and is called carina or keel; the upper, which spreads and rises upwards, is called uexillum, standard or banner; the two side ones are separated by the keel, and are called alae, the wings; the keel is sometimes split, and then this corolla is properly five petalled. These flowers are called pea blossomed, because the pea is the most common example.
Flos personatus, a masked flower, is an irregular monopetalous flower, in which the pistil becomes a capsule entirely distinct from the calyx: it has a similar appearance with the labiate flower; but does not ill represent a mask, the snout of some animals, or the beaks of fowls.
Flos petalodes, a petalous flower, has organs of generation surrounded with petals.
Flos polypetalus, a polypetalous flower, is composed of several petals. When these agree in figure and position, it is called regular polypetalous; but when they do not agree, irregular polypetalous.
Flos pyramidalis farnesianus. See Battatas canadensis.
Flos radiatus, a radiated flower, consists of two parts, viz. the disk and the rays, which are several semiflorets set round the disk in the form of a star: these are called radiated discous flowers; but those which have no rays are called naked discous flowers.
Flos rosaceus, rose shaped flowers, consist of four or more regular petals inserted into the receptacle, by a short broad claw, as in the wild rose.
Flos rotatus, is a flower in the form of a wheel: wheel shaped corolla; monopetalous; spreading flat, without any tube; such as that of borrage.
Flos sanguineus monardi. See Nasturtium Indicum.
Flos scorpioides. Those flowers are ranged on one side of the pedicle, which twists at the top, in the form of a scorpion's tail. Of this sort is the heliotro-pium.
Flos semifloculosus, a semifloculous flower, is composed of several semiflorets, included in one common calyx.
Flos solis pyramidalis. See Battatas His-panica.
Flos spicatus, spiked flower, is one whose flowers are set thick on the pedicle, so as to form an acute cone.
Flos stamineus, a stamineous flower, is composed of many chives included in a calyx, having no petals, Of this sort is the bistort, etc.
Flos sterilis. Barren flowers. These have no embryo adhering to them, and are called male flowers.
Flos terrae. See Coeli flos.
Flos tubulosus. See Flos flosculosus.
Flos ventriculatus. Whorle shaped flower. These grow closely united, surrounding the stalk at the joints.
Flos umbellatus. An umbellated flower. When the extremity of the stalk or branch is divided into several pedicles, or rays, beginning from the same point, and opening in such a manner as to form a kind of inverted cone, like an umbrella, it has this appellation. When the pedicles, into which the stalk is divided, are subdivided into others of the same form upon which the flowers are disposed, the first order is called rays, the second pedicles. When it consists of pedicles only it is called a single, when composed both of rays and pedicles a compound umbel.
Flos urceolatus. Pitcher shaped flower, bellying out like a pitcher; applied to the calyx, corolla, and nectary. Of this sort are the arbutus and whortleberry flowers.