Faenum vel stramen came-lorum, schaenanthus, holoschaenos, squinanthum, juncus aromaticus, pa/ea de mecha, gramen dactylon aromati-cum; sweet rush, or camel's hay; a dried grass brought from Turkey and Arabia, resembling barley straw, and full of a fungous pith; andropogon schaenanthus Lin. Sp. Pl. 1481: the genus is the same with that which furnishes the spica nardi.

When in perfection its smell is agreeable, warm, bitterish, and not unpleasant to the state. An extract possesses its chief virtues; but other more valuable articles supersede its use. It has been employed as a cordial and an emmenagogue.

- Juniperus, (from juvenis, young, and pario, to bring forth; because it produces its young berries while the old ones are ripening). Juniper; juniperus communis Lin. Sp. Pl. 1470; also called arceuthos, and its berry acatalis. With us it is a bush, but in Norway a large evergreen tree, the wood of which is called cedri-num lignum; lignum juniperinum. Its leaves are slender, narrow, stiff, and sharp pointed; the flowers catkins; the berries have each three oblong irregular seeds; its young fungi are called calieta, or caliette.

The berries are chiefly brought to us from Holland or from Italy. They should be chosen fresh, not much shrivelled, and free from mouldiness. They have a moderately strong, but not disagreeable, smell; a warm pungent sweetish taste, which, if previously bruised, is followed by a considerable bitterness. The sweetness seems to reside in the juice, or pulpy part of the berry; the pungency in the bark; the bitterness in the seeds; and the aromatic flavour in the oily vesicles spread throughout the pulp and the seeds. In the dried berries this oil is hardened into a resinous substance, visible on breaking the seeds, which are called ebel. They give out nearly all their virtue both to water and to spirit. Distilled with water they yield a yellowish essential oil, alchitron, resembling, in its medical virtues, that of turpentine, and are carminative, stomachic, detergent, and diuretic.

The London college orders the spiritus juniperi comp. compound spirit of juniper, formerly called aq. juniperi composita, to be made by adding to a gallon of proof spirit, with as much water as is sufficient to prevent empyreuma, one pound of juniper berries, bruised; caraway and fennel seeds, bruised, of each one ounce and a half; from this a gallon is to be distilled. Pharm. Lond. 1788.

The coriander seeds answer the purpose of the other aromatics; but half a pound is required to a pound of the berries. The common spirit, called gin, is flavoured by these berries, though often with turpentine. The name is derived from the Italian giunipero.

The rob of juniper berries is prepared by boiling juniper berries well bruised in water, and inspissating this, or the decoction after distilling the oil, to the consistence of thick honey. This is so greatly esteemed as to have obtained the name of theriaca Germanorum. It may be used in catarrhs, weakness of the stomach and intestines, and difficulty in making water, to which old people are subject. Hoffmann highly recommends it; though generally considered as an inactive preparation. The following formula was prescribed by Van Swie-ten: Juncus Odoratus 4610 Rob bacc. juniperi ij. dilue in aq. juniperi simplicis lb ij. spiritus juniperi ij. et ad sitim sedan-dam, sps. aetheris nitrosi ss.: m. dosis cochl. ij vel iv. tertia hora. The infusion of the berries, either alone, or mixed with a little gin, is in dropsies a very useful drink. In uterine obstructions, scorbutic affections, and cutaneous diseases, the juniper is said to have been useful; but in the two last complaints the wood and tops have been preferred. The essential oil is an active stimulant, a warm carminative, an useful diuretic, and a deobstruent. Doses from ten drops to thirty.

The wood of the juniper tree is sudorific, and of similar qualities with that of guaiacum and sassafras, but inferior to either.

Juniperi gummi. The resin obtained in warmer climes, particularly in Africa, is semipellucid, and of a pale yellowish colour; it is in small masses, resembling mastich, but larger; the sandaracha of the Arabians and the gum juniper of the shops. From its use it has been called vernix, and the powder is employed to prevent ink running on paper, under the name of pounce. This resin hath a light agreeable smell, and not much taste. It dissolves in rectified spirits, if violently shaken in them; and in oils both expressed and distilled, but is insoluble in water. See Lewis's and Cullen's Materia Medica.

Juniperus. A name of several species of cedar. See Cedrus folio Cypri, and Cedrus Phoenicia. Juniperus Lycia. See Olibanum. Juniperus Sabina. See Sabina. Jupicanga. See China occidentalis. Jupiter. See Stamum.