(From ligo, to tie). Colligamen, copala, syndesmos, a ligament. The ligaments are tendinous, inelastic, glistening bodies. Every articulated bone is furnished with a capsular ligament, which is composed of two layers: the external layer is the stronger, formed by the periosteum; the inner is thin and uniform.
This part of anatomy, though so important in many respects, has been, however, greatly neglected, if we look at those aids which are not derived from actual dissection. The representations of the ligaments have, in general, been mean, incorrect, and inelegant. While each bone is delineated so as to display every little prominence and furrow by Albinus and Le Sue; while each unimportant muscle is represented in all its varieties by Bidloo; the ligaments have been little noticed. The minute accuracy of Soemmering cannot find, in the fasciculi of Haller, the discriminating genius of Albinus. De Corp. Fabrica, v. xxxi.
In Vesalius we perceive the ligaments of the lower limbs delineated, and in Winslow they are described. Walter has figured and described the ligaments of the lower extremities (Disput. Anatom. Hal-leri, vol. iv.); Schwencke, in his Haematologia, those of the acetabulum: but the first professed work in which all the ligaments were described and delineated, was that of Weitbrecht, published at Petersburgh, 1742, in quarto. His dissections were numerous; and he not only collected the observations of former anatomists, but compared them with what his scalpel had shown. His engravings, however, imperfectly represent the objects; and some ligaments are omitted, particularly of the os sacrum. Yet till lately Weitbrecht was our only assistant, and his plates have been professedly copied in an elegant work on the bones by Losche, concluded at Erlang, 1796; and in another by Schenke, published at Leipsic in 1795. In these, however, the objects are diminished, and the representations are consequently still more distant from nature.
Somewhat before these copies of Weitbrecht, Loder published his anatomical tables at Weimar, viz. in 1794; and, perceiving that this part of anatomy had received less attention than some others, introduced new plates of the fresh joints, from his own preparations. The abilities of the engraver were not equal, however, to the diligence and ability of the anatomist; yet Loder greatly excelled his predecessor. The order of time, rather than the improvement, leads us to speak of Mr. J. Bell's plates of the joints, subjoined to those of the bones. The errors of the osteology are, however, continued in the ligaments; and the plates are so miserably executed, that without the explanation no anatomist could guess at the object before him. Anatomical plates are, however, often miserably executed; and, in a Dictionary now publishing, we showed a view of the basis of the brain to several anatomists, who supposed it a herniary sac; and,indeed, every thing but what it was.
Morgagni long since observed, that many of the ligaments remain to be more accurately examined than in Weitbrecht's work; and that to which we have been indebted for our plates is, undoubtedly, the most perfect which has yet been published. We mean the Syndes-mology of Caldani, published at Venice, in imperial folio, 1803. The elegance, the accuracy, and the minute precision of the descriptions have led us to copy from it freely; and we have engaged in this short account of what was before done, to show the importance of what we have added to the stock of the English anatomist.
Ligamentum annulare. The appellation of annular ligament, or fraenum, is given to that on each ankle and each wrist, rather on account of their use than their figure; they confine the tendons of the muscles which pass through them.
Ligamentum ciliare. White, striated, ligamentous fibres arise out of the choroid membrane, from the ciliary circle, which are covered with a black pigment, and are attached to the membrane of the vitreous humour, where it joins the crystalline lens. The fluctuating extremities of these striae are spread on the edge of the lens, but not united with it. The whole is generally described under this term.
Ligamentum coli dextrum. The mesentery having reached the end of the ileum joining the colon, the lamina which is turned to the right side forms a small transverse fold, distinguished by this appellation.
Ligamentum coli sinistrum. The mesentery, here called mesocolon, having passed below the left kidney, contracts and forms a transverse fold thus named.
Ligamentum colli vel nuchae. See Cuculla-ris.
Ligamentum cutaneum ossis coccvgis. It passes anteriorly from the extremity of the os coccygis; is very slender, and divides into two portions at the orifice of the anus, which run in the membrana adiposa, and, when expanded, are inserted in the skin on each side of the anus: they continue to divaricate, and are lost on the two sides of the perinaeum.
Ligamentum denticulatum. Between the anterior and posterior bundles of fibres which form the spinal nerves, a ligament is connected by a number of threads, to each side of the pia matral covering of the spinal marrow, through its whole length, for its support. As this ligament is fixed by a number of teeth to the inner side of the sheath formed by the dura mater, it has been called denticulalum. The greater number of these teeth run transversely; some ascend, others descend; all split into fibres, which are incorporated with the fibres of the inner layer of the dura mater. From the conical lower end of the spinal marrow, a cord is produced, which reaches to the os coccygis, and there splits into threads, which may be considered as the termination of the last teeth of this ligament.
Ligamentum Fallopii. See Ligamentum Pou-partii.
Ligamentum hepatis suspensorium, the remains of the umbilical vein.
Ligamentum intermaxillare. A ligament on each side of the face, which connects the two jaws, and receives the posterior fibres of the buccinator muscle. (Winslow.) It is strong and broad, fixed to the outside of the upper jaw, above the last dens molaris, and at the side of the apophysis pterygoidseus internus. By the lower end it is fixed on the outside of the lower jaw, below the last dens molaris.
Ligamentum latum, or suspensorium hepatis, is made up of the double membrane of the peritonaeum, which covers the liver on each side, and meets to be joined by the sternum.
Ligamentum pubis interosseum, is a strong triangular ligament, fixed by two of its edges in the inferior branches of those bones, all the way up to their common symphysis; the third edge, which is lowest, is loose; and this whole membrane, the middle of which is perforated by a particular hole, is stretched very tight between the two bones, and under their cartilaginous arch, to which it adheres very closely.
Ligamentum rotundum. The round ligament. One of these is found on each side of the uterus; and each is composed of a plexus of blood vessels upon the fore part of the ligamenta lata, running in the duplica-ture of these ligaments. From the corners of the fundus uteri, they pass through the annular aperture of the obliquus externus, and are lost in the middle and upper part of the fat in the groin.
Ligamentum suspensorium. See Corpora cavernosa penis.