For the expression of musical feeling and conception in past generations, the Negroes have not been dependent upon theatrical audiences and technical equipment. When music welled up in their souls, they opened their mouths and sang. In the cotton fields of the slave plantation they could hear the tunes of Gabriel's harp, and they responded with vibrant, tuneful voices. In the forests about these fields they could detect the "brush of angels' wings." They burst forth in notes commanding the heavenly chariots to "swing low" and carry them home from a humdrum life of harsh toil and harsher treatment.

When opportunity for training in technical skill has been offered and the appreciation of a supporting public has furnished favorable conditions, this well-spring of musical feeling has poured forth a finished work on a plane to compare favorably with that of the musicians of any race. Samuel Coleridge-Taylor,1 born of an Af ri-can father in England, was fortunate in finding a benefactor who opened the doors of the Royal College of Music and other opportunities for him, until the British public began to know and appreciate. His music to Longfellow's "Hiawatha" is a notable contribution. While this composition deals with a story of Indian life, many a strain of African melody, crystallized in the vocal and orchestral score, is a delight to the musical world. Among his compositions are his great "Tale of Old Japan" and bis musical settings for Stephen Phillips' "Herod," "Ulysses," and "Nero." What a loss there might have been, had he lived under the restrictions of America!

Some American Negroes in recent years have been sounding forth melody of song and string of a high quality. Harry T. Burleigh, for many years a soloist at St. George's Episcopal Church in New York, has arranged the tunes of many of the old Negro plantation songs, "the spirituals," to the enjoyment of all who have heard them. His arrangement of "Deep River," "I stood on de Ribber of Jordan," and "Bye-and-bye Goin' to Lay Down my Heavy Load" have their places now in many a. musical repertoire. Besides work in this direction, Mr. Burleigh has a number of original art compositions which display a wide range of emotion and a thorough grasp of musical knowledge and technical skill. He is now editor for Ricordi, the music publisher.

1Haynes, Elizabeth Ross, Unsung Heroes, pp. 127-149.

Rosamond Johnson, who published a number of compositions in the Ladies' Home Journal in years past, was not generally known to its readers as a man of color. He was born in Florida and trained in a missionary school in Atlanta, Georgia. Later he enjoyed the freedom of art in New York. His brother, mentioned below, wrote the words of many of his songs. R. Nathaniel Dett in recent years has been developing themes and melodies from the Negro folk songs. One of his compositions, "Listen to the Lambs," has put into imperishable score the plantation melody which recites the story of Christ's testing of Peter. His "Juba Dance," woven out of the rhythm of a Negro dance, has been played and enjoyed in almost every land. His "Chariot Jubilee" has enlarged the simple melody of "Swing low, Sweet Chariot" into a motet for voices and orchestra. With the larger opportunities growing out of his position as Musical Director of Hampton Institute, later years will doubtless see more and greater expression of the music singing in the soul of his people.

During the past ten years Roland Hayes, a black boy from Tennessee, has given evidence by his tenor voice of the "flowers of purest ray serene" which lie hidden in the "dark, unfathomed caves" of Negro life. Hayes was "discovered" by a friend who sent him to a missionary college at Nashville, Tenn., established and supported by one of the Northern missionary associations. Some friends found further openings with one of the best music teachers of Boston. Hayes has a tenor voice which musical critics declare has possibilities for grand opera. His face is black, and therefore no American manager has dared to take him. Two years ago he went to England There he has been received by leading musical artists and critics. Recently he was invited by His Majesty to sing at Buckingham Palace. Not only did he sing the Negro "spirituals," to the delight of the royal family, but his rendition of some of the great classical works called forth praise from the King, who, as a token of appreciation, presented him with a diamond pin bear-ing the royal insignia.

Space does not permit a description of the work of other singers such as Mrs. Florence Cole Talbert, a soprano praised by the best judges, Madam Azalea Hack-ley, who delighted many American audiences, and Albert Greenlaw, whose bass voice a vocal expert called the most nearly perfect voice he had ever heard. Raymond Augustus Lawson, Helen Hagan, and Hazel Harrison as pianists; Clarence Cameron White, Joseph Douglass, a grandson of Frederick Douglass, and Kemper Harrold as violinists; Will Marion Cook and James Reese Europe as orchestral leaders, are examples chosen from a number of promising persons of color who have made commendable records, even under the tremendous color handicaps in America. No claim is here made that Negroes outstrip other people in music. We recall, however, that many leading musical authorities have declared that the Negro has produced in his folk-songs the only original American music. We may surmise what a musical contribution many members of this race will make to America and to the world when full-fledged opportunity is given them.

This music of the Negro soul has a rhythm which pulsates in his muscular movement even when he walks and works. Any one who wishes may observe a gang of Negro laborers keeping time at their work while a strawboss or "caller" sings some rhythmic, syncopated tune. A similar rhythm may be observed among Negro stevedores trotting in and out of a vessel they are loading, or among freight handlers in large warehouses. Khrebiel, the noted critic, says that this rhythm with a pristine, plaintive melody is the dominant characteristic of native African music. McMaster, in describing the slaves of the early eighteenth century, says: "Of music and the dance they were passionately fond. With fragments of a sheep's rib, with a cow's jaw or a piece of iron, with an old kettle or a bit of wood, with a hollow gourd and a few horse hairs, they would fabricate instruments of music and play the most plaintive airs." The "cake walk" which Negroes perform for the amusement of white patrons at pleasure resorts is a rhythmical expression of harmony between supple muscles and musical minds. The "rocking" and "shouting" of popular church gatherings among Negroes are responses through motion to the waves of rhythmic emotion sweeping through brain and nerve.1 Many of the "spirituals" are improvised at such meetings as vocal expressions by means of which the members of the congregation keep time in their movements.